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עמוד בית
Sat, 22.06.24

Search results


August 2004
O. Shovman, M. Severin, T. Shalev and T. Jonas-Kimchi
July 2004
O. Yossepowitch and M. Dan
L. Lowenstein, I. Solt, D. Fischer and A. Drugan
M. Attia, S. Harnof, N. Knoller, I. Shacked, Z. Zibly, L. Bedrin and G. Regev-Yochay
June 2002
Gideon D. Charach, MD, Itamar Groskopf, MD, Dan Turner, MD, Michael Y. Barilan, MD, Chen Kugel, MD and Moshe S. Weintraub, MD
January 2002
Haim Bibi MD, Daniel Weiler-Ravell MD, David Shoseyov MD, Ilana Feigin MD, Yael Arbelli RN and Daniel Chemtob MD MPH DEA

Background: One of the measures adopted in Israel since 1959 as part of the tuberculosis control program was screening children aged 12–13 years old. The screening comprised single-step tuberculin skin testing using the Mantoux method.

Objective: To assess the efficacy of tuberculin skin screening for TB[1] in schoolchildren in southwestern Israel as well as the compliance to treatment for latent tuberculosis infection.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of children in the Ashkelon region who underwent a tuberculin skin test during the period 1995–99.

Results: Of the 28,016 eligible children, 27,232 were tested. In 923 children, mostly from the former USSR and Ethiopia, an induration of 10 mm or more was found. Only 52 Israeli-born children tested positive. Tuberculosis was found in seven children with a positive test, five of whom were from Ethiopia. All children who tested positive were referred to the local TB clinic; only 266 children (28.8%) presented. Only 151 completed the recommended treatment of isoniazid for 6 months. Thus, although screening included most of the targeted children aged 13, only a third of them presented to a TB clinic, of whom only about half completed treatment of latent infection.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the current policy of screening for latent TB in our region is ineffective in terms of implementation of the recommended treatment. We suggest that only high risk groups be screened, and that a concerted effort be made to implement treatment.

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[1] TB = tuberculosis

October 2001
Imad Kasis, MD, Lea Lak, MD, Jakov Adler, MD, Rinat Choni, MD, Gila Shazberg, MD, Tewade-Doron Fekede, MD, Ehud Shoshani, MD, Douglas Miller, MD and Samuel Heyman, MD

Background: Following the recent drought in Ethiopia, the Jewish Agency, aided by the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, launched a medical relief mission to a rural district in Ethiopia in May-August 2000.

Objectives: To present the current medical needs and deficiencies in this representative region of Central Africa, to describe the mission’s mode of operation, and to propose alternative operative modes.

Methods: We critically evaluate the current local needs and existing medical system, retrospectively analyze the mission’s work and the patients’ characteristics, and summar­ize a panel discussion of all participants and organizers regarding potential alternative operative modes.

Results: An ongoing medical disaster exists in Ethiopia, resulting from the burden of morbidity, an inadequate health budget, and insufficient medical personnel, facilities and supplies. The mission operated a mobile outreach clinic for 3 months, providing primary care to 2,500 patients at an estimated cost of $48 per patient. Frequent clinical diagnoses included gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections, skin and ocular diseases (particularly trachoma), sexually trans­mitted diseases, AIDS, tuberculosis, intestinal parasitosis, malnutrition and malaria.

Conclusions: This type of operation is feasible but its overall impact is marginal and temporary. Potential alternative models of providing medical support under such circum­stances are outlined.
 

July 2001
Daniel Chemtob, MD, MPH, DEA, Leon Epstein, MD, MPH, Paul E. Slater, MD, MPH and Daniel Weiler-Ravell, MD
Background: Sensing an inadequacy of tuberculosis control due to an influx of TB associated with immigration, we analyzed TB treatment outcome in Israel by population groups.

Objectives:
To provide an epidemiological basis necessary for any new national TB control policy, and to bring it to the attention of the medical profession in Israel and abroad since its results led to a change in Israel’s TB control policy.

Methods:
We reviewed all TB cases notified during the period 1990 to September 1992. New cases” (820 cases, 93.5%) and “re-treatment cases” (57 cases, 6.5%) were analyzed according to three mutually exclusive groups: “successful outcome,” “death” and “potentially unsatisfactory outcome” (according to WHO/IUATLD definitions).

Results:
Of 820 “new cases,” 26.6% had a satisfactory outcome,” 68.5% had a “potentially unsatisfactory outcome” and 4.9% died compared to 47.4%, 45.6% and 7% among 57 “re-treatment cases,” respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, outcome was associated with the district health office (P<0.0001), the TB experience” of the notifying clinic (P<0.0001), and the form of TB (P=0.02). No significant relationships were obtained for population groups, gender and age, interval between arrival in Israel and TB notification, and bacteriological results.
Daniel Chemtob, MD, MPH, DEA, Leon Epstein, MD, MPH, Paul E. Slater, MD, MPH and Daniel Weiler-Ravell, MD

Background: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae comprise the majority of spinal vascular malformations. The most common clinical presentation is that of progressive myelor­adicuiopathy, probably related to venous hypertension, which may lead to permanent disability and even death.

Objective: To report our clinical experience with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae.

Methods: Nine patients with spinal dural AVF were managed at our center during a one year period (1998-1999). The patients, eight men and one woman ranging in age from 46 to 75 years, presented with initially fluctuating and eventually permanent and progressive paraparesis, sensory disturbances and sphincter dysfunction. The neurological signs generally began symmetrically and progressed from the distal to proximal limb regions. The duration of symptoms before diagnosis ranged from 6 to 36 months during which the patients underwent an extensive but fruitless work-up and even unnecessary operations due to misdiagnosis. All patients finally underwent magnetic resonance imaging and spinal angiography, which demonstrated the pathological vascular fistula. Interruption of the AVF was achieved by embolization or by surgical resection.

Results: Following treatment, six patients experienced improvement of gait and sphincter control, and the severe neurological deficits stabilized in the other three patients with long duration of illness. There was no further deterioration in any of the treated patients.

Conclusions: The history, neurological findings and radiological changes on MRI scan should alert clinicians to the possibility of spinal dural AVF, leading to diagnostic spinal angiography. Early diagnosis and treatment may significantly improve outcome and prevent permanent disability and even mortality.

June 2001
Rivka Zissin, MD, Gabriela Gayer, MD, Michal Chowers, MD, Myra Shapiro-Feinberg, MD, Eugen Kots, MD and Marjorie Hertz, MD

Background: Abdominal tuberculosis usually presents with general symptoms and obscure abdominal complaints for which computerized tomography is often the first imaging study.

Objective: To evaluate the CT findings of abdominal tuberculosis.

Methods: The CT scans of 19 patients (10 men and 9 women aged 20-85 years) with proven abdominal tuberculosis were retrospectively reviewed to define the location and extent of the disease. The patients were referred for the study mainly with general systemic symptoms. Additional abdominal com­plaints were present in four, including acute abdomen in one. Two had symptoms deriving from the urinary tract. Nine patients had recently arrived from high prevalence countries five of them and two others were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Three patients had a family history of tuberculosis one had previously been treated for tubercu­losis and four others had an underlying chronic disease. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was established by standard micro­biological and histological techniques.

Results: We divided the disease manifestations into intraperitoneal (n-13) and genitourinary involvement (n- 6). Peritoneal tuberculosis was fairly common, characterized by ascites, omental and mesenteric infiltration, and smooth thickening of the parietal peritoneum. One oncology patient had a false positive Tc-99m CEA isotope scanning, suggesting tumor recurrence. Genitourinary disease manifested mainly as hydronephrosis and calcifications. Three patients had pulmon­ary tuberculosis as well.

Conclusion: The CT findings of abdominal tuberculosis may mimic various diseases, mainly diffuse peritoneal malig­nancy. We emphasize the need to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis in patients with obscure abdominal symptoms, especially with multi-organ involvement. A high degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with the abdominal CT manifestations allow early diagnosis of this treatable disease.

February 2000
Ben Zion Garty MD and Oded Poznanski MD

Background: Erythema nodosum, although uncommon in children, is the most frequent form of panniculitis in pediatrics.  EN has been associated with various infections and chronic inflammations, and its course varies with age, gender, and racial and geographic factors.  There is no information on EN in Israeli children.

Objectives: To examine the clinical course of EN and the conditions with which it is associated in Israeli children.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 24 children with a diagnosis of EN who presented at our Center over a 10 year period (1989–98).

Results: EN was more frequent in females than males (ratio 2:1) due to a cluster of adolescent girls. The mean duration of the skin manifestation was 18 days. The course was benign in all patients. Streptococcal infection was the most common cause (25%), followed by Epstein-Barr virus infection (18%) and inflammatory bowel disease (13%).  In one-third of cases, no specific cause could be identified. Tuberculosis, an important cause of EN in the past, was not found in our patients.

Conclusions: Most cases of EN in Israeli children are related to streptococcal and EBV infections or to chronic inflammatory conditions. Despite the increase in tuberculosis morbidity in Israel during recent years, we found no association of EN and tuberculosis in our study.

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EN = erythema nodosum

EBV = Epstein-Barr virus

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