• IMA sites
  • IMAJ services
  • IMA journals
  • Follow us
  • Alternate Text Alternate Text
עמוד בית
Sun, 16.06.24

Search results


December 2013
Yael Milgrom, Gideon Goldman, Alex Gileles Hillel, Pojurovsky Svetlana and Zvi Ackerman
August 2013
M.W. Moloi, F. Zhou, K. Baliki, M.K. Kayembe, F. Cainelli and S. Vento
December 2012
M. Papiashvili, I. Bar, L. Sasson, M. Lidji, K. Litman, A. Hendler, V. Polanski, L. Treizer and D. Bendayan

Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) presents a difficult therapeutic problem due to the failure of medical treatment. Pulmonary resection is an important adjunctive therapy for selected patients with MDR-TB.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of pulmonary resection in the management of MDR-TB patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of MDR-TB patients referred for major pulmonary resections to the departments of thoracic surgery at Assaf Harofeh and Wolfson Medical Centers. For the period under study, 13 years (from 1998 to 2011), we analyzed patients’ medical history, bacteriological, medical and surgical data, morbidity, mortality, and short-term and long-term outcome.

Results: We identified 19 pulmonary resections (8 pneumonectomies, 4 lobectomies, 1 segmentectomy, 6 wedge resections) from among 17 patients, mostly men, with a mean age of 32.9 years (range 18–61 years). Postoperative complications developed in six patients (35.3%) (broncho-pleural fistula in one, empyema in two, prolonged air leak in two, and acute renal failure in one). Only one patient (5.8%) died during the early postoperative period, three (17.6%) in the late postoperative period, and one within 2 years after the resection. Of 12 survivors, 9 were cured, 2 are still under medical treatment, and 1 is lost from follow-up because of poor compliance.

Conclusions: Pulmonary resection for MDR-TB patients is an effective adjunctive treatment with acceptable morbidity and mortality.
 

February 2012
D. Bendayan, A. Hendler, K. Litman and V. Polansky
Background: Interferon-gamma release tests are appealing alternatives to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection.

Objectives: To determine the yield of the Quantiferon TB Gold test (QFT-G) in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis disease, with a focus on elderly patients, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB).

Methods: The QFT-G test was performed in 98 patients suspected of having active tuberculosis. The results were evaluated for each subgroup of patients and compared to the results of the TST.

Results: Active tuberculosis was diagnosed in 92 of the 98 patients. Sixteen (17.3%) were elderly patients (over age 70), 15 (16%) were co-infected with HIV, and 14 (15%) had EPTB. QFT-G was positive in 49 patients (53%) and indeterminate in 4. The results were not significantly affected by HIV co-infection (P = 0.17), old age (P = 0.4), or the presence of EPTB (P = 0.4). There was a good correlation between the TST and the QFT-G test (P < 0.001). In EPTB and in the elderly, the QFT-G test appears to be better than the TST.

Conclusions: The QFT-G test is suboptimal in its ability to detect active tuberculosis and should not be used to exclude it.
L. Nesher, K. Riesenberg, L. Saidel-Odes, F. Schlaeffer and R. Smolyakov
Background: The southern region of Israel has recently experienced an influx of African refugees from the Eastern Sub-Sahara desert area. These influxes led to a significant increase in incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in that region.

Objectives: To review the data of African refugees diagnosed with TB between January 2008 and August 2010 at a tertiary care regional hospital.

Results: Twenty-five TB cases were diagnosed, 22 of which presented with pulmonary TB, 3 with  extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB), and 7 with combined pulmonary and EPTB. Only one case had concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and multidrug-resistant TB. Fifteen patients underwent extensive radiological investigations including chest, abdominal and spine computed tomography, 1 was reviewed by magnetic resonance imaging, and 9 underwent tissue biopsy. Eighteen patients were admitted as suspected TB and 4 as suspected pneumonia or pulmonary infiltrates that could have been defined as suspected TB. All 24 HIV-negative cases were sensitive to first-line drugs for TB except one case that was resistant to streptomycin and one to rifampicin. All patients responded well to first-line therapy. The average duration of hospitalization was 8.7 days (range 1–36). Following diagnosis 23 patients were transferred to a quarantine facility.

Conclusions: We identified overutilization of medical resources and invasive procedures. For African refugees from the eastern Sub-Sahara who were HIV-negative and suspected of having TB, a sputum acid-fast smear and culture should have been the primary investigative tools before initiating treatment with four drugs (first-line), and further investigations should have been postponed and reserved for non-responders or for patients for whom the culture was negative. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for EPTB in this population.
September 2010
I. Fuchs, M. Abu-Shakra, E. Gelfer, A. Smoliakov, D. Ben-Haroch, J. Horowitz and L.S. Avnon
February 2010
D. Bendayan, K. Littman and V. Polansky

Background: Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection among people infected with human immunodeficiency virus and its first cause of morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of a population in Israel with both tuberculosis disease and HIV[1] infection in order to identify factors that contribute to outcome.

Methods: The study group comprised patients hospitalized in the Pulmonary and Tuberculosis Department of Shmuel Harofeh Hospital during the period January 2000 to December 2006. They were located by a computer search in the hospital registry and the pertinent data were collected.

Results: During the study period 1059 cases of active tuberculosis disease were hospitalized; 93 of them were co-infected with HIV. Most of them came from endemic countries (61.2% from Ethiopia and 20.4% from the former Soviet Union; none of them was born in Israel). Ten percent of the cases were multiple-drug resistant and 32% showed extrapulmonary involvement. The response rate to the treatment was good, and the median hospitalization time was 70 days. The mortality rate was 3.2%.

Conclusions: Despite the high prevalence of pulmonary disease in our group, the short-term outcome was good and the Mycobacterium was highly sensitive to first-line drugs. These encouraging results can be attributed to the fact that tuberculosis patients in Israel are identified early and treated continuously and strictly, with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, which ensures that the development of drug resistance is low.






[1] HIV = human immunodeficiency virus


March 2008
Z. Mor, A. Adler, A. Leventhal, I. Volovic, E. Rosenfeld, M.N. Lobato and D. Chemtob

Background: The crowded environment of correctional facilities may enhance infectious diseases transmission, such as tuberculosis.

Objectives: To define the tuberculosis burden in prisons in Israel, a country of low TB[1] incidence (7.9 cases:100,000 population in 2004), in which about 13,000 inmates are being incarcerated annually, and to recommend policy adaptations for TB control.

Methods: All prison clinic lung records from 1998 through 2004 in Israel were reviewed to identify pulmonary TB patients. Additionally, we reviewed TB epidemiological investigation files from one northern prison (years 2002 through 2005) to evaluate possible transmission of the disease.

Results: During the study period 23 Israeli inmates had pulmonary TB (25 cases/100,000 prisoners), which was 3.5 times higher than for the general population. Of those, 18 (78%) were born in the Former Soviet Union and immigrated to Israel after 1990. Four pulmonary TB cases in the evaluated prison were reported, and 22% (149/670) of all inmates and staff were referred for treatment of latent TB infection.

Conclusions: To prevent future TB cases, we recommend new prevention measures, including a symptom questionnaire for all new inmates and selective tuberculin skin testing for inmates infected with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, those who inject drugs, and those who emigrated from the former Soviet Union after 1990. New staff should be screened by the two-step tuberculin skin test and annual symptoms questionnaire thereafter. Incarceration may be used as a point of detection for TB and a window of opportunity for treatment in this hard-to-reach population. 






[1] TB =tuberculosis


December 2007
E. Lubart, M. Lidgi, A. Leibovitz, C. Rabinovitz and R. Segal

Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis continues to be a major cause of mortality, particularly in developing countries. Despite modern anti-TB[1] treatment, the elderly and immigrants from TB-endemic countries are at risk. Multidrug resistance has yet to be resolved..

Objectives: To determine the mortality rate and predictors of mortality among patients hospitalized with TB in Israel.

Methods: We evaluated the medical records of 461 patients with active pulmonary TB who were hospitalized in the department of respiratory care during the 5 year period 2000–2004. Data included demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings, drug resistance as well as adverse reactions to anti-TB treatment.

Results:| Three main ethno-geographic groups were observed: 253 patients from the former USSR, 130 from Ethiopia, and 54 of Israeli origin (as well as 24 residents of other countries). Of the 461 patients 65 patients (13%) died in hospital. The factors that were best predictors of mortality were older age, ischemic heart disease, cachexia, prior corticosteroid treatment, hypoalbuminemia and pleural effusion (P < 0.005 for all). The ethno-geographic factor and the presence of multidrug-resistant bacteria had no significant effect on mortality in our study group.

Conclusions: The mortality rate in our study was relatively low, and there was no significant difference between the three ethno-geographic groups.

 






[1] TB = tuberculosis


June 2007
A. Basok, M. Vorobiov, B. Rogachev, L. Avnon, D. Tovbin, M. Hausmann, N. Belenko, M. Zlotnik, A. Shnaider

Background: Patients with end-stage renal disease are at high risk of mycobacterial infection.

Objectives: To analyze the difficulties in reaching an accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis in dialysis patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective follow-up of patients who attended our peritoneal and hemodialysis units during the 10 year period 1995–2005.

Results: Our dialysis unit diagnosed 10 cases of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 9 cases of Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis. In the former group, five patients had mycobacterium in the sputum, which was diagnosed by intraabdominal mass biopsy in one, culture of the gastric juices in one, and pleural fluid culture or pleural biopsy in three. One of these patients was suffering from pleural TB[1] as well as Potts disease. Of the patients with Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis, five were diagnosed by sputum cultures, three by urine cultures and one in peritoneal fluid. Differences in treatment and outcome were also reviewed.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of TB in dialysis patients should be approached with a high index of suspicion. It is clear that extensive diagnostic procedures are required to ensure an accurate diagnosis of the disease. Tuberculosis incurs a significant added burden due to the need for isolation of infected patients within the dialysis unit. Treatment of patients with Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis should be addressed individually.






[1] TB = tuberculosis


.T. Handzel, V. Barak, Y. Altman, H. Bibi, M. Lidgi, M. Iancovici-Kidon, D. Yassky, M. Raz

Background: The global spread of tuberculosis necessitates the development of an effective vaccine and new treatment modalities. That requires a better understanding of the differences in regulation of the immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis between individuals who are susceptible or resistant to the infection. Previous immune studies in young Ethiopian immigrants to Israel did not demonstrate anergy to purified protein derivative or a Th2-like cytokine profile.

Objectives: To evaluate the profile of Th1 and Th2 cytokine production in immigrant TB patients, in comparison with asymptomatic control subjects.

Methods: The present study included (part 1): 39 patients with acute TB[1] (group 1), 34 patients with chronic relapsing TB (group 2), 39 Mantoux-positive asymptomatic TB contacts (group 3), and 21 Mantoux-negative asymptomatic controls (group 4). Patients were mainly immigrants from Eastern Europe and Ethiopia. Levels of interferon gamma, interleukin 2 receptor, IL-6[2] and IL-10 were measured in serum and in non-stimulated and PPD[3]-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture supernatants, using commercial ELISA kits. In addition (part 2), levels of IFNg[4] and IL-12p40 were evaluated in 31 immigrant Ethiopian patients and 58 contact family members.

Results: Patients with acute disease tended to secrete more cytokines than contacts, and contacts more than chronic patients and controls, without a specific bias. None of the patients showed in vitro anergy. Discriminant probability analysis showed that from the total of 12 available parameters, a cluster of 6 (IFNg-SER[5], IFNg-PPD, IL-2R[6]-SER, IL-10-SER, IL-10-NS[7] and IL-6-PPD) predicted an 84% probability to become a TB contact upon exposure, 71% a chronic TB patient and 61% an acute TB patient. Family-specific patterns of IFNg were demonstrated in the second part of the study.

Conclusions: Firstly, no deficiency in cytokine production was demonstrated in TB patients. Secondly, acute TB patients secreted more cytokines than contacts, and contacts more than unexposed controls. Thus, neither anergy nor a cytokine dysregulation explains susceptibility to acute TB disease in our cohort, although chronic TB patients produced less cytokines than did acute patients and less than asymptomatic contacts. Thirdly, a certain cytokine configuration may predict a trend of susceptibility to acquire, or not acquire, clinical TB. It is presently unclear whether this finding may explain the disease spread in large populations. Finally, the familial association of IFNg secretion levels probably points towards a genetic regulation of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 

 






[1] TB = tuberculosis

[2] IL = interleukin

[3] PPD = purified protein derivative

[4] IFNγ = interferon-gamma

[5] SER = serum

[6] IL-2R = interleukin 2 receptor

[7] NS = non-stimulated


March 2007
A. Farfel, M.S. Green, T. Shochat, I. Noyman, Y. Levy and A. Afek

Background: Most Israeli males aged 16–17 undergo a thorough medical examination prior to recruitment into the army. During the last 50 years, extensive data have been gathered enabling a study of time trends in the prevalence of common diseases in this age group.

Objectives: To examine the current prevalence of common diseases, compare the results with those of previous cohorts, and assess the influence of the massive immigration during the 1990s.         

Methods: The health examination at the recruitment centers includes a medical history, complete physical examination, and review of medical documentation provided by the family physician. If needed, additional tests and referral to specialists are ordered. The prevalence of selected diseases and severity was drawn from the computerized database of the classification board. Two cohorts, 1992–94 and 2003–04, were examined and compared with three previous cohort studies in 1957–61, 1977–78 and 1982–84. Data were stratified according to origin and country of birth.

Results: The prevalence of asthma increased dramatically during the years from 10.2 per 1000 examinees in 1957–61 to 111.6 per 1000 examinees in 2003–04. The prevalence of tuberculosis declined and then increased from 0.6 per 1000 adolescents in 1982–84 to 2.4 per 1000 adolescents in 2003–04. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus increased from 0.2 cases per 1000 examinees in 1957–61 to 0.8 cases in 1977–78 and 1982–84 and 0.9 cases per 1000 examinees in 2003–04. The prevalence of severe heart defects and severe epilepsy declined in the last 20 years (1.4 and 1.7 cases per 1000 examinees in the 1982–84 cohort to 0.4 and 0.3 cases per 1000 examinees in the 2003–4 cohort respectively). The patterns of disease prevalence were different for immigrants: tuberculosis was more common while asthma and allergic rhinitis were less prevalent.

Conclusions: The prevalence of common diseases among adolescents in Israel has changed over the last 50 years. There is a different pattern for immigrants and for those born in Israel.

 
 

January 2006
D. Chemtob, D. Weiler-Ravell, A. Leventhal, H. Bibi

Background: During the last decade, Israel, a country with low tuberculosis rates, absorbed some 900,000 new immigrants from TB[1]-endemic countries.

Objectives: To analyze the specific impact of our screening procedures on active TB among children in Israel.


Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of epidemiologic and clinical data of all children (aged 0–17) with TB notified to the Ministry of Health between 1990 and 1999.


Results: There were 479 children with TB (male/female ratio 1.36). Most cases (81.8%) were foreign born, predominantly (88.2%) immigrants from Ethiopia and, therefore, huge differences existed in TB incidence rates according to countries of origin. Some 80% were diagnosed within 3 years of arrival, mainly due to active case-finding. Pulmonary TB, with infiltrates on chest X-ray, was found in 49.5%. Extra-pulmonary TB sites were: intra-thoracic lymphadenitis (31.1%), extra-thoracic lymphadenitis (12.5%), bones (3.6%), pleura (1.3%), meninges (1%), and others (1%). Seventy percent had a tuberculin skin test reaction ≥10 mm in size. Two (non-immigrant) children died of TB meningitis.


Conclusions: Most of the pediatric TB cases occurred in recent immigrants and were diagnosed within 3 years of immigration. These data support our policy of active case-finding among new immigrants from Ethiopia and extensive contact evaluation for all TB cases.






[1] TB = tuberculosis


Legal Disclaimer: The information contained in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or medical advice on any matter.
The IMA is not responsible for and expressly disclaims liability for damages of any kind arising from the use of or reliance on information contained within the site.
© All rights to information on this site are reserved and are the property of the Israeli Medical Association. Privacy policy

2 Twin Towers, 35 Jabotinsky, POB 4292, Ramat Gan 5251108 Israel