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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

Search results


May 2023
Shoshana Amos MD, Rena Pollack MD, Inon Sarig MD, Ehud Rudis MD, Nir Hirshoren MD, Jeffrey Weinberger MD, Ariela Arad MD, Matan Fischer MD, Aviv Talmon MD, Joshua Stokar MD

Thyroid storm-related heart failure is a rare, life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism. In refractory cases, urgent thyroidectomy is required for definitive control of thyrotoxicosis. venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is a supportive measure for cardiorespiratory failure requiring continuous anticoagulation to prevent clotting. We presented two cases of thyrotoxic cardiac failure that necessitated VA-ECMO. One of the patients was successfully treated with thyroidectomy while on VA-ECMO. To the best of our knowledge, only two such cases have previously been reported.

Aviv Schupper MD, Galia Barash MD, Lilach Benyamini MD, Revital Ben-Haim MD, Eli Heyman MD, Eli Lahat MD, Haim Bassan MD

Global developmental delay (GDD), defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains (e.g., gross/fine motor, cognitive, speech/language, personal/social, activities of daily living), affects 1–3% of children. According to the Israeli Ministry of Health, thyroid function studies are not indicated in children with GDD unless there are systemic features suggestive of thyroid dysfunction (https://www.health.gov.il/hozer/mr36_2012.pdf). This approach also exists in other countries with newborn screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism.

We present the case of an infant with GDD, who despite normal newborn screening tests, underwent a repeated extended thyroid function analysis (including T3 levels) leading to a diagnosis of Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, a rare genetic neurodevelopmental syndrome.

February 2023
Lior Baraf MD, Yuval Avidor MD, Anat Bahat Dinur MD, Uri Yoel MD, Benzion Samueli MD, Ben-Zion Joshua MD, Merav Fraenkel MD

Background: Due to the high variability in malignancy rate among cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules (Bethesda categories III–V), the American Thyroid Association recommends that each center define its own categorical cancer risk.

Objectives: To assess cancer risk in patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules who were operated at our center.

Methods: In a retrospective study, we analyzed the pathology results of all the patients whose fine needle aspiration results showed Bethesda III–V cytology and who subsequently underwent total thyroidectomy or lobectomy from December 2013 to September 2017.

Results: We analyzed 56 patients with indeterminate cytology on fine needle aspiration. Twenty-nine (52%) were defined as Bethesda III, 19 (34%) Bethesda IV, and 8 (14%) Bethesda V category. Malignancy rates were 38%, 58%, and 100% for Bethesda categories III, IV, and V, respectively. Most malignancies in Bethesda categories III and IV were follicular in origin (follicular thyroid carcinoma and follicular type papillary thyroid carcinoma), while 100% of the patients with Bethesda category V were diagnosed with classical papillary thyroid carcinoma. No correlation was found between sonographic and cytological criteria of nodules with Bethesda categories III and IV and rates of malignancy.

Conclusions: We found higher than expected rates of malignancy in indeterminate cytology. This finding reinforces the guidelines of the American Thyroid Association to establish local malignancy rates for thyroid nodules with indetermined cytology.

December 2022
Reem Abbasi MPH, Ruthie Harari-Kremer MSc, Alon Haim MD, Raanan Raz PHD

Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation and delayed growth in children. Several prenatal and environmental factors might be associated with the disease.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of permanent CH and transient congenital hypothyroidism (TCH) in Israel.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Israeli national newborn screening program database from 2011 to 2015. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess the association of the demographic and gestational factors with the CH and TCH.

Results: Of the 889,033 live births screened between 2011 and 2015, 860 were diagnosed with CH (9.76 per 10,000 live births) and 298 with TCH (3.35 per 10,000 live births). In multivariate analyses, CH was positively associated with female sex, gestational ages < 38 or > 39 weeks, birth weight < 3000 grams, and winter birth. A decreased risk of TCH was detected in Arabs and neonates from high socioeconomic areas. An increased risk was independently associated with gestational ages < 38 weeks, low birth weight, and winter birth.

Conclusions: Several demographic, gestational, and geographical factors are associated with the development of CH and TCH. Future studies are needed to further investigate the pathogenesis in Israel.

November 2022
Katya Meridor MD, Pnina Rotman-Pikielny MD, Or Carmi MD, Myriam Werner MD, Yair Levy MD

Background: Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) are at increased risk for autoimmune thyroid diseases, but information regarding thyroid nodules and cancer in SSc is scarce.

Objectives: To evaluate the thyroid gland in patients with SSc at a single Israeli center.

Methods: Thyroid workup was conducted in consecutive SSc patients: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), anti-thyroid peroxidase, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, as well as thyroid ultrasound and fine needle aspiration (FNA) when appropriate.

Results: Fifty patients, mean age 51.3 ± 13.5 years (44 women) were evaluated. Ten were previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. Median TSH level was 2.0 (normal range 0.23–4 mIU/l) and median fT4 level was 1.0 (normal range 0.8–2.0 ng/dL). Among the 40 thyroid disorder-naive patients, 3 had subclinical hypothyroidism and 5 had positive anti-thyroid antibodies; 22 (44%) had 1–6 thyroid nodules, which were ≥ 1 cm in 12 (24%). Accordingly, six patients underwent FNA, and five were diagnosed as colloid nodules and one as papillary carcinoma.

Conclusions: New cases of clinically significant autoimmune thyroid disease were not detected in our cohort of patients with SSc. Nevertheless, almost half had thyroid nodules. The clinical significance of these findings and their relation to thyroid cancer remains to be determined.

October 2022
Ofira Zloto, M.D., Oded Sagiv, M.D., Ayelet Priel, M.D., Tali Cukierman-Yaffe, M.D., Amir Tirosh, M.D. , Nancy Agmon-Levin, M.D., Shiran Madgar, M.D., Tal Serlin, M.D., Halit Winter, M.D. Ruth Huna-Baron, M.D., Tamara Wygnanski-Jaffe, M.D., Guy Ben Simon, M.D.

Background: Little is known about the success of multidisciplinary thyroid eye disease (TED) clinic.

Objectives: To present the characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients treated in a multidisciplinary TED clinic.

Methods: A medical record review of all patients who attended a TED clinic was performed. Data included demographics, medical history, laboratory tests, visual function tests, ocular examinations, clinical activity score (CAS), and assessment of quality-of-life (QOL).

Results: Clinic visits included 132 patients seen during 385 appointments at a TED clinic (mean 12 appointments per patient). Management of TED included medical treatments for 48 patients (36.3%) and surgical treatment for 56 (42.4%). There was a positive significant correlation between the CAS and thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) activity at the first visit and at the last follow-up visit (P < 0.01 and P < 0.02, respectively). However, no correlation was found between the CAS and the thyroid-stimulating hormone levels or between the free triiodothyronine (fT3) and fT4 levels at the first or last visit. There was a significant negative correlation between the CAS and color vision (-0.347, P < 0.01, Pearson correlation) at the first visit, but not between the CAS and visual acuity and visual field at either the first or last visit. Changes in the QOL and the CAS scores were significantly negatively correlated (-0.240, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Treatment and management decisions for TED should be based on multiple parameters including clinical examinations by ophthalmologists and endocrinologists, laboratory tests, and CAS and QOL scores.

January 2022
Tzlil Mordechay-Heyn MD, Haggi Mazeh MD, Yair Elitzur MD, and Auryan Szalat MD
November 2021
Miki Paker MD, Tal Goldman MD, Muhamed Masalha MD, Lev Shlizerman MD, Salim Mazzawi MD, Dror Ashkenazi MD, and Rami Ghanayim MD

Background: The 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA2015) and the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging and Reporting Data System (ACR TI-RADS) are two widely used thyroid sonographic systems.

Objectives: To compare the two systems for accuracy of cancer risk prediction.

Methods: Preoperative ultrasound images from 265 patients who underwent thyroidectomy at our hospital from January 2012 to March 2019 were retrospectively categorized by the ACR TI-RADS and ATA2015 systems. Diagnostic performances were compared.

Results: Of 238 nodules assessed, 115 were malignant. Malignancy risks for the five ACR TI-RADS categories were 0%, 7.5%, 11.4%, 59.6%, and 90.0%. Malignancy risks for the five ATA2015 categories were 0%, 6.8%, 17.0%, 55.5%, and 92.1%. The proportion of total nodules biopsied was higher with the ATA2015 system than the ACR TI-RADS system: 88.7% vs. 66.3%. Proportions of malignant nodules and benign nodules biopsied were higher with ATA2015 than with ACR TI-RADS: 93.3% vs. 87.8% and 84.4% vs. 46.3%, respectively. Specificity and sensitivity rates were 53.6% and 84.3%, respectively, for ACR TI-RADS, and 15.5% and 93.3%, respectively, for ATA2015. The two systems showed similarly accurate diagnostic performance (AUC > 0.88). False negative rates for ACR TI-RADS and ATA2015 were 15.6% and 6.6%, respectively. Rates of missed aggressive cancer were similar for the two systems: 3.4% and 3.7%, respectively.

Conclusion: ACR TI-RADS was superior to ATA2015 in specificity and avoiding unnecessary biopsies. ATA2015 yielded better sensitivity and a lower false negative rate. Identification of aggressive cancers was identical in the two systems

February 2020
Tawfik Khoury MD, Anas Kadah MD, Amir Mari MD, Wisam Sbeit MD, Ariel Drori MD and Mahmud Mahamid MD

Background: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) may be associated with other autoimmune diseases. Autoantibodies are common in AIH suggesting their potential role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Among these autoantibodies, thyroid autoantibodies have been reported in patients with chronic hepatitis, with greater prevalence in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among patients with AIH.

Methods: In this case-control, retrospective study, we examined patients diagnosed with AIH according to both the original and revised international AIH group scoring systems. Patients with other hepatic pathologies were excluded AIH was evaluated as an independent risk factor for thyroid disease by a logistic regression model. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted using hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism as the dependent variables.

Results: Our cohort comprised 163 patients diagnosed with AIH and 1104 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Hypothyroidism was more prevalent among those with AIH compared to controls (17.7% vs. 5%, respectively, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.68–2.48, P <  0.001). Hyperthyroidism was more prevalent in AIH patients compared to controls (odds ratio 3.2% and 1.2%, respectively, 95%CI 1.68–2.47, P <  0.001). Using a multivariate logistic analysis, we found an independent association between AIH and hypothyroidism but not with hyperthyroidism.

Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction is more prevalent in patients with AIH. Whether thyroid dysfunction is the cause or a risk factor for AIH, or vice versa, is still unclear. Screening for thyroid dysfunction is warranted after AIH is diagnosed.

October 2019
David Zahler MD, Elena Izkhakov MD PhD, Keren-Lee Rozenfeld MD, Dor Ravid MD, Shmuel Banai MD, Yan Topilsky MD and Yacov Shacham MD

Background: Data suggest that subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with progression of chronic renal disease; however, no study to date has assessed the possible relation between SCH and acute deterioration of renal function.

Objectives: To investigate the possible relation between SCH and acute kidney injury (AKI) in a large cohort of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: We evaluated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 levels of 1591 STEMI patients with no known history of hypothyroidism or thyroid replacement treatment who were admitted to the coronary care unit (October 2007–August 2017). The presence of SCH was defined as TSH levels ≥ 5 mU/ml in the presence of normal free T4 levels. Patients were assessed for development of AKI ( 0.3 mg/dl increase in serum creatinine, according to the KDIGO criteria).

Results: The presence of SCH was demonstrated in 68/1593 (4.2%) STEMI patients. Patients presenting with SCH had more AKI complications during the course of STEMI (20.6% vs. 9.6 %; P = 0.003) and had significantly higher serum creatinine change throughout hospitalization (0.19 mg/dl vs. 0.08 mg/dl, P = 0.04). No significant difference was present in groups regarding baseline renal function and the amount of contrast volume delivered during coronary angiography. In multivariate logistic regression model, SCH was independently associated with AKI (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval 1.05–4.54, P =0.04).

Conclusions: Among STEMI patients treated with PCI, the presence of SCH is common and may serve as a significant marker for AKI.

August 2019
Tamar Laron-Kenet MD, Aviva Silbergeld MSc, Pearl Lilos BSc and Zvi Laron MD PhD (hc)
November 2018
Eliyahu Zaig MD, Odile Cohen-Ouaknine MD, Anat Tsur MD, Sheila Nagar MD, Gherta Bril MD, Lior Tolkin MD, Avivit Cahn MD, Mozhgan Heyman and Benjamin Glaser MD

Background: Reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone (RSTH) syndrome describes a group of rare heterogeneous genetic disorders. Precise diagnosis is essential to avoid unnecessary treatment.

Objectives: To identify and characterize previously undiagnosed patients with RSTH in Israel.

Methods: Patients with suspected RSTH throughout Israel were referred for study. After clinical evaluation, genomic DNA was obtained and all coding exons of the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene were sequenced. If mutations were found, all available blood relatives were evaluated. The common polymorphism rs2596623, a putative intronic regulatory variant, was also genotyped. Genotype/phenotype correlations were sought, and the effect of mutation status on pregnancy outcome was determined.

Results: Eight mutations (one novel; two de-novo, six dominant) were identified in eight probands and 13 family members. Clinical and genetic features were similar to those reported in other populations. Previous suggestions that rs2596623 predicts clinical features were not confirmed. There was no evidence of increased risk of miscarriage or fetal viability. Mothers carrying a THRB mutation tended to have increased gestational hypertension and low weight gain during pregnancy. Their affected offspring had increased risk of small-for-gestational age and poor postnatal weight gain.

Conclusions: Clinical heterogeneity due to THRB mutations cannot be explained by the variant rs2596623. Mothers and newborns with THRB mutations seem to be at increased risk of certain complications, such as gestational hypertension and poor intrauterine and postnatal growth. However, these issues are usually mild, suggesting that routine intervention to regulate thyroid hormone levels may not be warranted in these patients.

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