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עמוד בית
Tue, 16.07.24

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June 2024
Ran Ben David MD, Iftach Sagy MD PhD, Alan Jotkowitz MD, Leonid Barski MD

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute metabolic, life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus with a mortality rate that now stand at less than 1%. Although mortality is coupled with the etiology of DKA, literature on the influence of DKA etiology on patient outcome is scarce.

Objectives: To study different triggers for DKA and their effect on outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study that include 385 DKA patients from 2004 to 2017. The study compared demographics, clinical presentation, and mortality rates by different precipitating factors.

Results: Patients with DKA due to infections had a higher risk to develop in-hospital mortality after controlling for age and sex (odds ratio 4.40, 95% confidence interval 1.3514.30), had a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index score, a higher risk of being mechanical ventilated (14% vs. 3%, P < 0.01), and a longer duration of hospitalization (5 days vs. 3 days, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: It is crucial to find the triggers that precipitate DKA and start the treatment as early as possible in addition to the metabolic aspect of the treatment especially when the trigger is an infectious disease.

Ehud Jacobzon MD, Avital Lifschitz RN, Danny Fink MD, Tal Hasin MD

Background: Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are a staple element in contemporary treatment of advanced heart failure. LVAD surgeries are mostly done in heart transplantations centers, as a destination therapy or as a bridge to heart transplantation.

Objectives: To describe our step-by-step experience in establishing and implementing a new LVAD program in a non-heart transplant center. To give insight to our short- and long-term results of our first 25 LVAD patients.

Methods: Preliminary steps included identifying the need for a new program and establishing the leading team. Next is defining protocols for pre-operative evaluation, operating room, post-operative management, and outpatient follow-up. The leading team needs to educate other relevant units in the hospital that will be involved in the care of these patients. It is essential to work in collaboration with a heart transplant center from the very beginning. Patient selection is of major importance especially in the early experience. Initially “low risk” patients should be enrolled.

Results: We describe our first 25 LVAD patients. Our first five patients all survived beyond 2 years, with no major complications. Overall, there was one operative death due to massive GI bleeding. There were four late deaths due to septic events.

Conclusions: Establishing a new LVAD program can be successful also with small- and medium-size programs. With careful and meticulous planning LVAD implantation can be extended to more centers thus offering an excellent solution for advanced heart failure patients.

David Hazzan MD, Douglas Zippel MD, Lior Segev MD

Background: Although minimally invasive surgery for Crohn’s disease has been validated in previous studies, most of those reports have referred to laparoscopic-assisted procedures with an extra-corporeal anastomosis.

Objectives: To evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of total laparoscopic ileocolic resection with an intracorporeal anastomosis for Crohn’s disease patients.

Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective review of all patients who underwent primary ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease between 2010 and 2021. Group A included 34 patients who underwent total laparoscopic ileocolic resection with intracorporeal anastomosis. Group B comprised 144 patients who underwent an open or laparoscopic-assisted procedure.

Results: No differences were noted in operative time (mean 167 minutes vs. 152 minutes, P = 0.122), length of stay (median 6.4 days vs. 7.5 days, P = 0.135), readmission rates (11.8% vs. 13.2%, P = 1), and microscopic involvement of surgical margins (7.7% vs. 18.5%, P = 0.249). Group A had significantly fewer postoperative surgical site infections (2.9% vs. 22.2% respectively, P = 0.013), with no differences in other complications prevalence. After a median follow-up of 46 months, there were similar rates of endoscopic recurrence (47.1% vs. 51.4%, P = 0.72), clinical recurrence (35.3% vs. 47.9%, P = 0.253), and surgical recurrence (2.9% vs. 4.9%, P = 0.722).

Conclusions: Total laparoscopic ileocolic resection with intracorporeal anastomosis for Crohn’s disease is safe and resulted in favorable outcomes in terms of postoperative wound healing. The long-term disease recurrence rates were like those of laparoscopic-assisted and open ileocolic resection.

Shelly Tartakover Matalon PhD, Noa Rabinowicz PhD, Or Carmi MD, Tali Zitman-Gal PhD, Liat Drucker PhD, Yair Levy MD

Background: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic, immune-mediated condition characterized by fibro-inflammatory lesions with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Diagnosis traditionally relies on histopathological findings, including the presence of IgG4+ plasma cells. However, due to challenges in biopsy accessibility, additional measures are needed to facilitate diagnosis.

Objectives: To identify additional parameters for characterizing IgG4-RD patients.

Methods: We compared several circulating factors between a cohort of patients with IgG4-RD disease seen at our hospital between 2017 and 2023 and healthy controls.

Results: Among 16 suspected patients, 13 were confirmed to have IgG4-RD, and 3 were classified as highly likely. Comparison with controls revealed differences in white blood cell count (WBC) (Folf change (FC) 1.46, P < 0.05), plasmablasts (FC 3.76, P< 0.05), plasmablasts CD38 (FC 1.43, P < 0.05), and CD27 (FC 0.66, P = 0.054), thus highlighting potential markers for IgG4-RD diagnosis. Treatments with steroids/rituximab tend to reduce plasmablast (FC 0.6) and IgG4 (FC 0.28) levels and to increase Gal-3 levels.

Conclusions: Levels of plasmablasts are a significant diagnostic feature in IgG4-RD. Healthy individuals have a lower level of plasmablasts. Elevated Gal-3 in serum of patients with IgG4-RD suggests a role in plasmablast activation. CD38/CD27 expression by plasmablasts emerges as a potential marker. Further research on a larger cohort is needed to confirm these findings.

Yuval Avidan MD, Amir Aker MD, Vsevolod Tabachnikov MD

Late arrival ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is defined as a patient-related delay > 12 hours. It is estimated to represent a significant portion of STEMI patients. As reflected by society guidelines, this group of patients impose great therapeutic challenge, namely due to controversy in the literature regarding optimal care, together with major adverse clinical outcomes [1]. In addition to a possible myocardial infarction (MI), mechanical complications include ventricular septal defect (VSD), left ventricular (LV) free wall, or papillary muscle rupture. Prompt diagnosis and intervention are crucial to improve outcomes as post-infarction ventricular septal defect (PIVSD) carries a high mortality rate. We describe the successful management of a large VSD complicated by cardiogenic shock in a latecomer STEMI patient with complex coronary artery disease (CAD).

May 2024
Tal Frenkel Rutenberg MD, Alon Ben Uri MD, Omer Slevin MD, Yona Kosashvili MD, Franck Atlan MD, Sorin Daniel Iordache MD

Background: Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis (PFT) is a common and severe hand infection. Patients who present early can be treated with intravenous antibiotics.

Objectives: To determine whether PFT caused by animal bites and treated with antibiotics leads to a different outcome than other disease etiologies due to the extensive soft tissue insult and different bacterial flora.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43 consecutive patients who presented with PFT between 2013 and 2020. The 10 patients who presented with PFT following an animal bite were compared to those who presented with PFT caused by any other etiology.

Results: Patients who were bitten pursued medical attention sooner: 1.9 ± 1.4 days compared with 5.3 ± 4.7 days (P = 0.001). Despite the quicker presentation, patients from the study group received similar antibiotic types and duration as controls. All patients were initially treated with intravenous antibiotics under surveillance of a hand surgeon. One patient (10%) from the study group and four controls (12%) were treated surgically (P = 1). Average follow-up was 17 ± 16 days. At the end of follow-up, one (10%) patient from the study group and three (9%) controls sustained mild range of motion limitation and one (3%) patient from the control group had moderate limitations (P = 0.855).

Conclusions: Intravenous antibiotic treatment, combined with an intensive hand surgeon follow-up, is a viable option for the treatment of PFT caused by animal bites.

April 2024
Kassem Sharif MD, Adi Lahat MD, Yonatan Shneor Patt MD, Niv Ben-Shabat MD, Mahmud Omar MD, Abdulla Watad MD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Omer Gendelman MD

Background: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are chronic conditions with overlapping pathogenic mechanisms. The genetic predisposition and inflammatory pathways common to both diseases suggest a syndemic relationship. While some evidence points to a connection between the two conditions, other reports do not support this link.

Objectives: To investigate the association between AS and the subsequent incidence of IBD. To identify potential risk factors and effect modifiers that contribute to this relationship.

Methods: Utilizing the Chronic Disease Registry of Clalit Health Services, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of individuals diagnosed with AS between January 2002 and December 2018. We compared these patients with age- and sex-matched controls, excluding those with a prior diagnosis of IBD. Statistical analyses included chi-square and t-tests for demographic comparisons, and Cox proportional hazards models for evaluating the risk of IBD development, with adjustments for various co-morbidities and demographic factors.

Results: The study included 5825 AS patients and 28,356 controls. AS patients demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of IBD with hazard ratios of 6.09 for Crohn's disease and 2.31 for ulcerative colitis, after multivariate adjustment. The overall incidence of IBD in the AS cohort was significantly higher compared to controls.

Conclusions: AS patients exhibit a markedly increased risk of developing IBD. These findings advocate for heightened clinical vigilance for IBD symptoms in AS patients and suggest the need for a multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Further research into the shared pathogenic pathways is needed to develop personalized treatment strategies and improve patient management.

Limor Adler MD MPH, Or Tzadok Zehavi MD, Miriam Parizade PhD, Yair Hershkovitz MD, Menashe Meni Amran MD, Robert Hoffman MD, Tal Hakmon Aronson MD, Erela Rotlevi MD, Bar Cohen MPH, Ilan Yehoshua MD

Background: The prevalence of Group A streptococcus (GAS) carriage among adults is studied less than in children. The variability of reported carriage rates is considerably large and differs among diverse geographic areas and populations.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of GAS carriage among adults in Israel.

Methods: In this prospective study, conducted in a large healthcare maintenance organization in Israel, we obtained pharyngeal cultures from adults attending the clinic without upper respiratory tract complaints or fever. Patient data included sex, age, number of children, and religious sectors.

Results: From May to December 2022, eight family physicians collected a total of 172 throat swabs (86% response rate). The median age was 37 years (range 18–65); 72.7% were females, 22.7% were ultra-Orthodox Jewish, and 69.2% had children. The prevalence of GAS carriage was 6.98%, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 3.7%–11.9%. GAS carriers were younger (31.7 vs. 39.3 years, P = 0.046), and the majority were ultra-Orthodox Jews (58.3% vs. 20%, P = 0.006). All GAS carriers were from lower socioeconomic status. When assessing risk factors for GAS carriage using multivariate analysis, only being an ultra-Orthodox Jew was positively related to GAS carriage (adjusted odds ratio 5.6, 95%CI 1.67–18.8).

Conclusion: Being an ultra-Orthodox Jew was the single variable associated with a GAS carriage, which may be related to having many children at home and living in overcrowded areas. Primary care physicians in Israel should recognize this situation when examining patients with sore throats, mainly ultra-Orthodox Jews.

Ruba Tuma MD, Marwan Odeh MD, Maya Wolf MD, Inshirah Sgayer MD, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi MD PhD, Rola Khamisy-Farah MD

Background: The cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) is a brain-enclosed cavity located on the midline between the two leaflets of the septum pellucidum that separates the lateral ventricles. This structure develops in the fetus from week 18 and can be seen up to week 37 in almost all cases and then begins to disappear.



Objectives: To measure and determine the normative values of the CSP volume in fetuses between 20 to 40 weeks of gestation.

Methods: The study comprised 161 consecutive pregnant women between 20 to 40 weeks of gestation with single viable fetuses. All patients had normal, disease-free pregnancies. Transvaginal or transabdominal ultrasound was used according to the fetal presentation. The fetal head was assessed in mid-sagittal sections. Once the CSP was visualized, its volume was measured using three-dimensional ultrasound with Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis software. The width of the CSP was also measured at the biparietal diameter (BPD) plane.

Results: Of the 161 fetuses, the CSP volume was measured in 158. In three patients the CSP was not identified. The CSP volume correlated poorly with gestational age (r=0.229) and with the BPD (r=0.295). The mean CSP volume was 0.508 ± 0.372 ml (range: 0.03-1.78 ml). The simple measurement of the CSP width correlated better with gestational age (r=0.535) and the BPD (r=0.484).

Conclusions: The CSP volume had a poor correlation with gestational age; however, the volume did not exceed 2 ml regardless of gestational age. This information can be used to assess pathologies involving the CSP.

 

Roy Apel MD, Slava Bard MD, Ari Naimark MD, Nikolai Menasherov MD PhD, Nir Wasserberg MD, Ory Wiesel MD

Hiatal hernia is defined as a protrusion of abdominal contents through the hiatal foramen into the thoracic cavity. Etiology is presumed to be a congenital malformation, trauma, or iatrogenic like prior surgical dissection of the hiatus during surgery for esophageal or gastric etiology. Age, sex, hormonal changes, body habitus (i.e., kyphosis, scoliosis), and increased body weight are key risk factors. Most hiatal hernias are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. Surgical repair of hiatal hernia is indicated in symptomatic patients with dysphagia, weight loss, respiratory symptoms such as aspirations, and recurrent pneumonia events [1]. Complications arising from laparoscopic repair of hiatal hernia are generally minor and do not typically necessitate surgical intervention. Major complications include pneumothorax, splenic laceration, esophageal rupture, and pericardial injury. Other complications include recurrence of hernia, vagal nerve injury, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and gastroparesis. The utilization of mesh in repair procedures introduces additional complications such as mesh migration and mesh infection. Previously reported recurrence rates following the repair of a hiatal hernia with mesh range from 10–30%. In this case communications, we presented a case involving the early recognition and treatment of postoperative cardiac tamponade.

March 2024
Joseph Mendlovic MD MHA, Yuval Dadon MD MBA MPH, Francis B. Mimouni MD

Background: According to Hamas sources, many Israeli hostages in Gaza were killed by indiscriminate Israeli airstrikes, together with a large number of Palestinian citizens.

Objectives: To verify whether the estimated death rate of Israeli hostages was similar to the estimated death rate of Gaza citizens from these acts of war.

Methods: We used two estimates of hostage death rates, one obtained from Israeli intelligence sources, and one published by a Hamas spokesperson. We used the Palestinian casualty rates published by the Palestinian Ministry of Health. We compared death rates using Fisher's exact test.

Results: By 30 December 2023, the rate of Israeli hostage death was 23/238 (9.7%) according to Israeli intelligence sources, and 60/238 (25.2%) according to Hamas. Both figures are strikingly and significantly higher than the death rate among Palestinians, estimated to be 19,667/2.2 million (0.89%) by 19 December 2023 (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Israeli airstrikes as the cause of death of Israeli hostages are implausible unless they were specifically exposed to these strikes more than Palestinian citizens.

Lea Ohana Sarna Cahan MD, Dina Qaraen Saloni MD, Mevaseret Avital MD, Naama Pines MD, Itai Gross MD, Giora Wieser MD, Saar Hashavya MD

Background: Hypothermia, as a sign of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children and infants older than 90 days is poorly characterized, especially in the post-pneumococcal vaccine era.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of SBI in children and infants presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED) with reported or documented hypothermia.

Methods: Retrospective data analysis was conducted of all well-appearing children aged 0–16 years who presented with a diagnosis of hypothermia at two tertiary PEDs from 2010 to 2019.

Results: The study comprised 99 children, 15 (15.2%) age 0–3 months, 71 (71.7%) 3–36 months, and 13 (13.1%) > 36 months. The youngest age group had increased length of stay in the hospital (P < 0.001) and increased rates of pediatric intensive care unit admissions (P < 0.001). Empirical antibiotic coverage was initiated in 80% of the children in the 0–3 months group, 21.1% in the 3–36 months group, and 15.4% in > 36 months (P < 0.001). Only one case of SBI was recorded and no bacteremia or meningitis. Hypothermia of unknown origin was the most common diagnosis in all age groups (34%, 42%, 46%), respectively, followed by bronchiolitis (26%) and hypoglycemia (13.3%) for 0–3 month-old children, unspecified viral infection (20%) and otitis media (7%) for 3–36-month old, and unspecified viral infection (23%) and alcohol intoxication (15.2%) in > 36 months.

Conclusion: There is a low incidence of SBI in well-appearing children presenting to the PED with hypothermia and a benign course and outcome in those older than 3 months.

February 2024
Natalie Nathan MD, Michael Saring MD, Noam Savion-Gaiger MD, Kira Radinsky PhD, Alma Peri MD

A rise in the incidence of chronic health conditions, notably heart failure, is expected due to demographic shifts. Such an increase places an onerous burden on healthcare infrastructures, with recurring hospital admissions and heightened mortality rates being prominent factors. Efficient chronic disease management hinges on regular ambulatory care and preemptive action. The application of intelligent computational models is showing promise as a key resource in the ongoing management of chronic diseases, particularly in forecasting disease trajectory and informing timely interventions. In this review, we explored a pioneering intelligent computational model by Diagnostic Robotics, an Israeli start-up company. This model uses data sourced from insurance claims to forecast the progression of heart failure. The goal of the model is to identify individuals at increased risk for heart failure, thus enabling interventions to be initiated early, mitigating the risk of disease worsening, and relieving the pressure on healthcare facilities, which will result in economic efficiencies.

January 2024
Maya Schwartz-Lifshitz MD, Stav Bloch Priel MD, Noam Matalon MD, Yehonathan Hochberg MD, Dana Basel MD, Doron Gothelf MD

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused significant global turmoil, including changes in social and societal conduct such as lockdowns, social isolation, and extensive regulations. These changes can be major sources of stress. The first wave of the pandemic (April–May 2020) was a time of global uncertainty. We evaluated symptom severity among 29 Israeli children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Our previous study found that most of these participants did not experience an exacerbation of symptoms.

Objective: To re-evaluate the OCD symptoms of 18 participants from the original group of 29 children and adolescents during three time points: before the pandemic, during the first wave, and 2 years later.

Methods: Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) were assessed using the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI), a functional questionnaire, and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-child version (OCI-CV).

Results: OCS in patients did not change significantly during the three time points. Participants reported minimal changes in their general functioning 2 years after the outbreak of COVID-19 and showed minimal change in OCI-CV scale scores.

Conclusions: Our results indicated clinical stability of OCD symptoms among most of the participants.

Ravit Peretz-Machluf MD, Mayan Gilboa MD, Shiran Bookstein-Peretz MD, Omri Segal MD, Noam Regev MD, Raanan Meyer MD, Gili Regev-Yochay MD, Yoav Yinon MD, Shlomi Toussia-Cohen MD

Background: Pregnant women are at higher risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since the release of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech), there has been accumulated data about the three vaccine doses. However, information regarding obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women vaccinated with the third (booster) vaccine is limited and primarily retrospective.

Objectives: To evaluate the obstetric and early neonatal outcomes of pregnant women vaccinated during pregnancy with the COVID-19 booster vaccine compared to pregnant women vaccinated only by the first two doses.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women who received the BNT162b2 vaccine during pregnancy. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared between pregnant women who received only the first two doses of the vaccine to those who also received the booster dose.

Results: Overall, 139 pregnant women were vaccinated during pregnancy with the first two doses of the vaccine and 84 with the third dose. The third dose group received the vaccine earlier during their pregnancy compared to the two doses group (212 vs. 315 weeks, respectively, P < 0.001). No differences in obstetric and early neonatal outcomes between the groups were found except for lower rates of urgent cesarean delivery in the third dose group (adjusted odds ratio 0.21; 95% confidence interval 0.048–0.926, P = 0.039).

Conclusions: Compared to the first two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine given in pregnancy, the booster vaccination is safe and not associated with an increased rate of adverse obstetric and early neonatal outcomes.

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