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עמוד בית
Tue, 28.05.24

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January 2007
R. Ilia, D. Zahger, C. Cafri, A. Abu Ful, J. Marc Weinstein, S. Yaroslavtsev, H. Gilutz, G. Amit

Background: The significance of arrhythmia occurring after successful recanalization of an occluded artery during treatment following primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is controversial.

Objectives: To study the association of reperfusion arrhythmia with short and long-term survival.

Methods: We used a prospective registry of consecutive STEMI[1] patients undergoing PPCI[2]. Patients with an impaired epicardial flow (TIMI flow grade < 3) at the end of the procedure were excluded.

Results: Of the 688 patients in the study group, 22% were women. Mean (± SD) age of the cohort was 61 (± 14) years and frequent co-morbidities included diabetes mellitus (25%), dyslipidemia (55%), hypertension (43%) and smoking (41%). RA[3] was recorded in 200 patients (29%). Patients with RA had lower rates of diabetes (16% vs. 30%, P < 0.01) and hypertension (48% vs. 62%, P < 0.01), and a shorter median pain-to-balloon time (201 vs. 234 minutes, P < 0.01) than patients without RA. Thirty day mortality was 3.7% and 8.3% for patients with and without RA, respectively (P = 0.04). After controlling for age, gender and pain-to-balloon time the hazard ratio for mortality for patients with RA during a median follow-up period of 466 days was 0.46 (95% confidence interval 0.23–0.92).

Conclusions: The occurrence of RA immediately following PPCI for acute STEMI is associated with better clinical characteristics and identifies a subgroup with a particularly favorable prognosis.






[1] STEMI = ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction



[2] PPCI = primary percutaneous coronary intervention



[3] RA = reperfusion arrhythmia


October 2006
H.S. Oster, M. Hoffman, S. Prutchi-Sagiv, O. Katz, D. Neumann and M. Mittelman
 Recombinant human erythropoietin has become an essential part of the management of anemic patients with end-stage renal disease. It is also used to treat the anemia associated with cancer and other diseases, and it improves quality of life. In recent years, studies in animals and humans have focused on the use of rHuEPO[1] for other indications. It has been found to play a role in both cardioprotection and neuroprotection. It has effects on the immune system, and can cause regression in hematologic diseases such as multiple myeloma. It may also improve the response of solid tumors to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. On the other hand, concerns have been raised following two studies of patients with solid tumors in whom those treated with rHuEPO had diminished survival. Criticism of the design of these studies makes it clear that large, well-designed, randomized trials must be performed to determine the role of rHuEPO in the treatment of cancer, and more generally to clarify the full clinical benefits of the drug, while minimizing the harm.







[1] rHuEPO = recombinant human erythropoietin


June 2006
A. Ekka-Zohar, Y. Zitser-Gurevich, M. Mandel, I. Weiss-Salz, S. Nir, E. Mor, R. Nakash, H. Merhav, R. Bruck and E. Simchen
Background: There is a dearth of organs for liver transplantation in Israel. Enhancing our understanding of factors affecting graft survival in this country could help optimize the results of the transplant operation.




Objectives: To report 3 years national experience with orthotopic liver transplantation, and to evaluate patient and perioperative risk factors that could affect 1 year graft survival.

Methods: The study related to all 124 isolated adult liver transplantations performed in Israel between October 1997 and October 2000. Data were abstracted from the medical records. One-year graft survival was described using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and three multivariate logistic regression models were performed: one with preoperative case-mix factors alone, and the other two with the addition of donor and operative factors respectively.

Results: Of the 124 liver transplantations performed, 32 failed (25.8%). The 1 year survival was lower than rates reported from both the United States and Europe, but the difference was not significant. Of the preoperative risk factors, recipient age ≥ 60 years, critical condition prior to surgery, high serum bilirubin and serum hemoglobin ≤ 10 g/dl were independently associated with graft failure, adjusting for all the other factors that entered the logistic regression equation. Extending the model to include donor and operative factors raised the C-statistic from 0.79 to 0.87. Donor age ≥ 40, cold ischemic time > 10 hours and a prolonged operation (> 10 hours) were the additional predictors for graft survival. A MELD score of over 18 was associated with a sixfold increased risk for graft failure (odds ratio = 6.5, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Graft survival in Israel is slightly lower than that reported from the U.S. and Europe. Adding donor and operative factors to recipient characteristics significantly increased our understanding of 1 year survival of liver grafts.

February 2006
R.M Spira, P. Reissman, S. Goldberg, M. Hersch and S. Einav

Three decades have elapsed since the inception of Level I trauma centers as the final link in the trauma system "chain of survival".

January 2006
H. Matsumoto, K. Mashiko, Y. Hara, Y. Sakamoto, N. Kutsukata, K. Takei, Y. Tomita, Y. Ueno and Y. Yamamoto

Background: In Japan, helicopters have rarely been used for emergency medical services. The use of helicopters not only ensures rapid evacuation but may also serve to provide emergency management to patients with life-threatening injuries in the prehospital setting.

Objectives: To evaluate a Japanese helicopter-based emergency medical system including an onboard physician, particularly in terms of probability of survival.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of trauma victims, and calculated two estimates of PS[1] – at the scene and on arrival at the emergency department – based on patient age, Injury Severity Score, and Revised Trauma Score.

Results: We identified trauma victims who had an ISS[2] above 15 and were transported from the scene by helicopter. Excluding cardiopulmonary arrest at the scene, 151 cases were studied. Thirty-two patients had hemodynamic instability with systolic blood pressures below 90 mmHg, caused by hemorrhagic shock (29 cases) or obstructive shock (3 cases). Their PS values were 0.56 ± 0.38 in the prehospital setting and 0.65 ± 0.38 on arrival at the ED[3], representing a significant difference (P = 0.0003). Twenty-four of these patients survived, reflecting successful resuscitation during prehospital and ED management.

Conclusions: A doctor-helicopter system was shown to improve probability of survival for life-threatening trauma in the Japanese emergency medical system.






[1] PS = probability of survival

[2] ISS = Injury Severity Score

[3] ED = Emergency Department


S. Silberman, A. Oren, M. W. Klutstein, M. Deeb, E. Asher, O. Merin, D. Fink, D. Bitran.

Background: Ischemic mitral regurgitation is associated with reduced survival after coronary artery bypass surgery.

Objectives: To compare long-term survival among patients undergoing coronary surgery for reduced left ventricular function and severe ischemic MR[1] in whom the valve was either repaired, replaced, or no intervention was performed.

Methods: Eighty patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and severe MR underwent coronary bypass surgery. The mean age of the patients was 65 years (range 42–82), and 63 (79%) were male. Sixty-three (79%) were in preoperative NYHA functional class III-IV (mean NYHA 3.3), and 26 (32%) were operated on an urgent/emergent basis. Coronary artery bypass surgery was performed in all patients. The mitral valve was repaired in 38 and replaced in 14, and in 28 there was no intervention. The clinical profile was similar in the three groups, although patients undergoing repair were slightly younger.

Results: Operative mortality was 15% (8%, 14%, and 25% for the repair, replacement and no intervention respectively; not significant). Long-term follow up was 100% complete, for a mean of 38 months (range 2–92). Twenty-nine patients (57%) were in NYHA I-II (mean NYHA 2.3). Among the surgery survivors, late survival was improved in the repair group compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Predictors for late mortality were non-repair of the mitral valve, residual MR, and stroke (P = 0.005).

Conclusions: Patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe MR undergoing coronary bypass surgery should have a mitral procedure at the time of surgery. Mitral valve repair offers a survival advantage as compared to replacement or no intervention on the valve. Patients with residual MR had the worst results.






[1] MR = mitral regurgitation


A. I. Rivkind and G. Almogy.

"Surviving severe injury depends very heavily upon the time it takes to receive trauma services. The risk of death increases three fold after one hour without the uniqe surgical care of a trauma center. This is often referred to as the 'golden hour'..."

September 2003
A.B. Chkhotua, T. Klein, E. Shabtai, A. Yussim, N. Bar-Nathan, E. Shaharabani, S. Lustig and E. Mor

Background: Recent advances in immunosuppressive therapy have led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of kidney transplantation. Living unrelated donors may become a source of additional organs for patients on the kidney waiting list.

Objectives: To study the impact of combination of calcineurin inhibitors and mycophenolate-mofetile, together with steroids, on outcomes of living related and unrelated transplants. 

Methods: Between September 1997 and January 2000, 129 patients underwent living related (n=80) or unrelated (n=49) kidney transplant. The mean follow-up was 28.2 months. Immunosuppressive protocols consisted of MMF[1] with cyclosporine (41%) or tacrolimus (59%), plus steroids. Patient and graft survival data, rejection rate, and graft functional parameters were compared between the groups.

Results: LUD[2] recipients were older (47.8 vs. 33.6 years) with higher number of re-transplants (24.5% vs. 11.2% in LRD[3] recipients, P < 0.05). Human leukocyte antigen matching was higher in LRD recipients (P < 0.001). Acute rejection developed in 28.6% of LUD and 27.5% of LRD transplants (P = NS). Creatinine levels at 1, 2 and 3 years post-transplant were 1.6, 1.7 and 1.7 mg/dl for LRD patients and 1.5, 1.5 and 1.3 mg/dl for LUD recipients (P = NS). There was no difference in patient survival rates between the groups. One, 2 and 3 year graft survival rates were similar in LRD (91.3%, 90% and 87.5%) and LUD (89.8%, 87.8% and 87.8%) recipients.

Conclusions: Despite HLA[4] disparity, rejection and survival rates of living unrelated transplants under current immunosuppressive protocols are comparable to those of living related transplants.






[1] MMF = mycophenolate-mofetile



[2] LUD = living unrelated donor



[3] LRD = living related donor



[4] HLA = human leukocyte antigen


June 2002
Gabriel Izbicki, MD, David Shitrit, MD, Dan Aravot MD, Gershon Fink, MD, Milton Saute, MD, Leonid Idelman, MD, Ilana Bakal, BA, Jaqueline Sulkes, PhD and Mordechai R. Kramer, MD

Background: Historically, donor age above 55 years has been considered to be a relative contraindication for organ transplantation. The shortage of organs for transplantation has led to the expansion of the donor pool by accepting older donors. 

Objectives: To compare the 1 year follow-up in patients after lung transplantation from older donors (>50 years old) and in patients after transplantation from younger donors (± 50 years).

Methods: The study group comprised all adult patients who underwent lung transplantation at the Rabin Medical Center between May 1997 and August 2001. Donors were classified into two groups according to their age: ≤ 50 years (n=20) and > 50 years (n=9). Survival, number and total days of hospitalization, development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and pulmonary function tests, were examined 1 year after transplantation.     

Results: We performed 29 lung transplantations in our center during the observed period. Donor age had no statistically significant impact on 1 year survival after lung transplantation. There was no statistically significant effect on lung function parameters, the incidence of hospitalization or the incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans between both donor age groups at 1 year after transplantation.

Conclusions: Donor age did not influence survival or important secondary end-points 1 year after lung transplantation. By liberalizing donor criteria of age up to 65 years, we can expand the donor pool, while assessing other possible mechanisms to increase donor availability. 

April 2001
Ausim Azizi, MD, PhD, Perry Black, MD, Curtis Miyamoto, MD and Sidney E. Croul, MD

Background: The impact of repeated surgical resection on the survivorship of patients with malignant astrocytomas is an issue of some controversy in the medical literature.

Objectives: To clarify this issue through a retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes in a brain tumor clinic.

Methods: The patient records from the Brain Tumor Clinic at Hahnemann University Hospital for the period 1988 to 2000 were reviewed. From these, 112 cases of glioblastoma multiforme and 50 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma were chosen for analysis.

Results: The group of patients with glioblastomas showed a median survival of 415 days. When analyzed as subgroups based on the number of surgical resections, the median survival was 393 days in the group with biopsy only, 380 days in the group with one surgical resection, and 548 days in the group with two or three resections. Using the Kaplan-Meier method to generate survival plots and the log rank test to compare groups, repeat debulking was found to be a significant predictor of survival (P= 0.1 73). The group of patients with anaplastic astrocytomas showed a median survival of 1,311 days. When analyzed by subgroups, the patients with biopsy only had a median survival of 544 days, those with one debulking 1,589 days and those with two or three debulkings 1,421 days. There was a trend toward increased survival with debulking and the log rank test again showed statistical significance (P 0.1998).

Conclusions: This study indicates that repeated surgical resections offer increased survival for both glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas.
 

January 2001
Ofer Nativ MD, Edmond Sabo MD, Ralph Madeb MSc, Sarel Halachmi MD, Shahar Madjar MD and Boaz Moskovitz MD

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using combined clinical and histomorphometric features to construct a prognostic score for the individual patient with localized renal cell carcinoma.

Patients and Methods: We studied 39 patients with pT1 and pT2 RCC who underwent radical nephrectomy between 1974 and 1983. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association between various prognostic features and patient survival.

Results: The most important and independent predictors of survival were tumor angiogenesis (P=0.009), nuclear DNA ploidy (P=0.0071), mean nuclear area (P=0.013), and mean elongation factor (P=0.0346). Combination of these variables enabled prediction of outcome for the individual patient at a sensitivity and specificity of 78% and 89% respectively.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that no single parameter can accurately predict the outcome for patients with localized RCC. Combination of neovascularity, DNA content and morphometric shape descriptors enabled a more precise stratification of the patients into different risk categories.
 

September 2000
Arnon Broides MD, Shaul Sofer MD and Joseph Press MD

Background: The outcome of cardiopulmonary arrest in children is poor, with many survivors suffering from severe neurological defects. There are few data on the survival rate following cardiopulmonary arrest in children who arrived at the emergency room without a palpable pulse.

Objective: To determine the survival rate and epidemiology of cardiopulmonary arrest in children who arrived without a palpable pulse at a pediatric ER in southern Israel.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients with cardiopulmonary arrest who arrived at the ER of the Soroka University Medical Center during the period January 1995 to June 1997.

Results: The study group included 35 patients. Resuscitation efforts were attempted on 20, but the remaining 15 showed signs of death and were not resuscitated. None of the patients survived, although one patient survived the resuscitation but succumbed a few hours later. The statistics show that more cardiopulmonary arrests occurred among Bedouins than among Jews (32 vs. 3, P0.0001).

Conclusions: The probability of survival from cardiopulmonary arrest in children who arrive at the emergency room without palpable pulse is extremely low. Bedouin children have a much higher risk of suffering from out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest than Jewish children.

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