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עמוד בית
Thu, 18.07.24

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January 2024
Adnan Zaina MD, Sami Hussein MD

The cause of death for Pharaoh Tutankhamun (ca. 1330–1324 BCE) is still unknown despite the advancement in modern paleopathology and the introduction of computed tomography mummy examination and modern molecular pathology, including PCR-based gene analysis. Many speculations regarding his unexpected death have been published, including crush injury, infectious diseases such as malaria, and hereditary disease. We discuss for the first time all these events that could have ultimately caused Tutankhamun's sudden death, particularly sickle cell disease, which can cause osteonecrosis and lead to walking disability, bone deformities, and fragility. Malaria-associated tropical splenomegaly, as an acquired infectious disease, and the crush injury, which represents an acute event, were verified by a left distal femur fracture that contributed to splenic rupture as a major fatal event. We highlight important issues that can provide clinicians and clinical care practitioners with a broad vision while analyzing such cases.

October 2018
Julie Vaynshtein MD, Ohad Guetta MD, Ilya Replyansky MD, Alexander Vakhrushev MD, David Czeiger MD PHD, Amnon Ovnat MD and Gilbert Sebbag MD MPH
June 2018
Osher Cohen MD, Arthur Baazov MD, Inbal Samuk MD, Michael Schwarz MD, Dragan Kravarusic MD1 and Enrique Freud MD

Background: Wandering spleen is a rare entity that may pose a surgical emergency following torsion of the splenic vessels, mainly because of a delayed diagnosis. Complications after surgery for wandering spleen may necessitate emergency treatment.

Objectives: To describe the clinical course and treatment for children who underwent emergency surgeries for wandering spleen at a tertiary pediatric medical center over a 21 year period and to indicate the pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment as reflected by our experience and in the literature.

Methods: The database of a tertiary pediatric medical center was searched retrospectively for all children who underwent emergency treatment for wandering spleen between 1996 and 2017. Data were collected from the medical files. The relevant literature was reviewed.

Results: Of ten patients who underwent surgery for wandering spleen during the study period, five underwent seven emergency surgeries. One patient underwent surgery immediately at initial presentation. In the other four, surgical treatment was delayed either due to misdiagnosis or for repeated imaging studies to confirm the diagnosis. Emergency laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen in all patients; splenectomy was performed in two and the spleen was preserved in three. Four of the seven emergency operations were performed as the primary surgery and three were performed to treat complications.

Conclusions: Wandering spleen should ideally be treated on an elective or semi-elective basis. Surgical delays could be partially minimized by a high index of suspicion at diagnosis and by eliminating unnecessary and time-consuming repeated imaging studies.

April 2017
Eyal Lotan MD MSc, Stephen P. Raskin MD, Michal M. Amitai MD, Yeruham Kleinbaum MD, Ella Veitsman MD, Peretz Weiss MD, Oranit Cohen-Ezra MD, Tania Berdichevski MD and Ziv Ben-Ari MD

Background: Accurate assessment of liver fibrosis is crucial for the management of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of liver segment-to-spleen volume ratio in predicting the severity of liver fibrosis.

Methods: Sixty-four consecutive HCV patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and were divided into three groups based on their hepatic fibrosis stage evaluated by shear-wave elastography (SWE): non-advanced (F0–F1, n=29), advanced (F2, n=19) and severe fibrosis (F3–F4, n=16). Using semi-automated liver segmentation software, we calculated the following liver segments and spleen volumes for each participant: total liver volume (TLV), caudate lobe (CV), left lateral segment (LLV), left medial segment (LMV), right lobe (RV) and spleen (SV), a well as their ratios: CV/SV, RV/SV, LLV/SV, LMV/SV and TLV/SV.

Results: RV/SV was found to discriminate between patients with non-advanced and advanced fibrosis (P = 0.001), whereas SV, CV, RV, TLV/SV, LMV/SV and RV/SV discriminated between patients with advanced and severe fibrosis (P < 0.05). RV/SV ≤ 3.6 and RV ≤ 2.9 were identified as the best cutoff values to differentiate non-advanced from advanced fibrosis and advanced from severe fibrosis with sensitivities of 72.2% and 92.7%, specificities of 72.7% and 77.8%, and with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.797 and 0.847, respectively (P ≤ 0.002).

Conclusions: RV/SV may be used for the assessment and monitoring of liver fibrosis in HCV patients prior to the administration of antiviral therapy, considering SWE as the reference method.

 

October 2016
Naseem Shadafny MD, Samuel N. Heyman MD, Michael Bursztyn MD, Anna Dinaburg MD, Ran Nir-Paz MD and Zvi Ackerman MD
February 2011
H. Ityel, Y. Granot, H. Vaknine, A. Judich and M. Shimonov
December 2008
A. Hadary, I. Dashkovsky, A. Rapaport, J.C. Cozakov

Background: Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen is a rare condition. It can occur in a pathological spleen caused by any of a variety of diseases. For yet unknown reasons this condition may sometimes involve an apparently normal spleen as well.

Objectives: To examine the incidence, symptoms, causes, therapy and prognosis of "spontaneous" splenic rupture.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of seven patients diagnosed with splenic rupture not related to any traumatic event, who had been treated in the surgical department of a community hospital within the last 19 years.

Results: The male to female ratio was 5:2. In some patients, no background disease that could explain increased friability of splenic tissue could be identified. In some cases, where hemodynamic stability and absence of peritoneal signs afforded observation, splenectomy was delayed. In one case it was avoided altogether.

Conclusions: “Spontaneous” rupture of spleen should be suspected when abdominal symptomatology occurs against a background of an acute infectious disease, especially in young males, or a disease known to affect target organs of the reticular endothelial system. Preoperative use of imaging studies in hemodynamically stable patients can sometimes obviate surgery, or in cases of massive hemoperitoneum reduce intraoperative time.

October 2006
N. Hazanov, M. Attali, M. Somin, N. Beilinson, S. Goland, M. Katz and S.D.H. Malnick
 Background: Despite the spleen having a very rich blood supply, there is a paucity of reports of splenic emboli.

Objectives: To investigate the incidence of splenic emboli treated in a single general internal medicine department over the last 3 years.

Methods: We examined the records of a 35 bed internal medicine department in a hospital in the center of Israel.

Results: Over a period of 3 years 13 patients admitted to one internal medicine department developed acute abdominal pain and areas of hypoperfusion in the spleen on contrast computed tomography imaging. The patients were treated with anticoagulants, their course was benign and there were no long-term sequelae.

Conclusions: Embolus to the spleen is not rare in an internal medicine department. Diagnosis can be easily made by contrast CT scanning and treatment with anticoagulants results in a good prognosis. 

November 2005
N. Sharon, J. Schachter, R.T. Talnir, J. First, U. Rubinstein and R. Bilik
August 2001
Altoon Dweck, MD, Ayala Abrahamov, MD, Irith Hadas-Halpern, MD, Ari Zimran, MD and Devorah Elstein, PhD
April 2001
July 2000
Miguel Iuchtman MD, Ricardo Alfici MD, Ehud Sternberg MD, Leonid Trost MD and Menachem Litmanovitch MD

Background: Trauma is the leading cause of death in children. In abdominal lesions the spleen is the most commonly involved organ. During the last two decades much effort has focused on spleen tissue conservation.

Objectives: To analyze the rationale of a multimodality management policy that includes autotransfusion and mesh wrapping.

Methods: Data gathered over 14 years illustrate the introduction of new techniques and their impact on cases of severe spleen rupture.

Results: A total of 122 children were treated during the 14 year period, 1985-98. In 16 children an absorbable mesh wrapping, alone or in combination with other techniques, was used to obtain hemostatis and save spleen tissue.

Conclusions: Mesh wrapping, partial splenectomy and autotransfusion can be used, alone or in combination, to preserve severely injured spleens. According to our records, all children survived with a functional spleen. There were no cases of rebleeding. In only one case of prolonged postoperative fever could the cause be traced to an infected spleen hematoma that was drained transcutaneously. Autotransfusion is performed simply and without the use of a "cell saver." Its use can be crucial in small or field hospitals or in a situation of mass casualty.

February 2000
Yehuda Nofech-Mozes MD, Yael Yuhas PhD, Elisabeth Kaminsky MSc, Abraham Weizman MD and Shai Ashkenazi MD MSc

Background: The pathogenesis of neurological symptoms, the most common extraintestinal complication ofchildhood shigellosis, is unclear. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we developed an animal model and demonstrated that TNF alpha and IL-1 beta play a role.

Objectives: To determine whether TNF alpha and IL-1 beta genes are expressed in the brain following peripheral administration of Shigella dysenteriae 60R.

Methods: Expression of mRNA for TNF alpha and IL-1 beta was examined in the brain structures (hypothalamus and hippocampus) and peripheral organs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, at different time points after intraperitoneal injection of S. dysenteriae sonicate.

Results: In our animal model of Shigella related seizures, TNF alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA were induced in the brain, spleen and liver already 1 hour after injection of S. dysenteriae sonicate. The expression of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA in spleen, hippocampus and hypothalamus decreased after 6 h and increased again at 18 h post-injection.

Conclusions: Local production of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta in the brain may be involved in the enhanced seizure response of mice after administration of S. dysenteriae. It is possible that intracerebral production of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta plays a role in neurological disturbances of human shigellosis.
 

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