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עמוד בית
Wed, 12.06.24

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September 2017
Aref Elnasasra MD, Hilmi Alnsasra MD, Rozalia Smolyakov MD, Klaris Riesenberg MD and Lior Nesher MD

Background: Little is known about the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in the dispersed Bedouin population. UTIs are routinely treated empirically according to local resistance patterns, which is important when evaluating the risk factors and antibiotic resistance patterns in the Bedouin population.

Objectives: To analyze risk factors, pathogens, and antibiotic resistance patterns of UTIs in the Bedouin population compared to the general population in southern Israel. To compare data from this study to that from a previous study conducted at our center.

Methods: We prospectively followed all patients hospitalized with community acquired UTIs during a 4 month period at Soroka Medical Center. We also compared results from this study to those from a study conducted in 2000.

Results: The study comprised 223 patients: 44 Bedouin (19.7%), 179 (80.3) non-Bedouin; 158 female (70.9%), 65 male (29.1). The Bedouin were younger (51.7 vs. 71.1 years of age, P < 0.001) and had a lower Charlson Comorbidity Index (2.25 vs. 4.87, P < 0.001). Enterobacteriaceae were the most common pathogens identified, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) was the most common with 156 (70%) strains identified, followed by Klebsiella spp. with 29 (13%), Proteus spp. with 18 (8%), pseudomonas with 9 (4%), and other bacteria including enterococci with 11 (5%). The prevalence of E. coli increased significantly from 56% in 2000 to 70% in this study. We also noted an increase in community acquired extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) pathogens from 4.5% in 2000 to 25.5% in the present study. No statistically significant difference was observed between the Bedouin and general populations in the causal pathogens, resistance to antibiotics, length of therapy, and readmission rate within 60 days. 

Conclusions: The Bedouin population hospitalized for UTIs is younger and presents with fewer co-morbidities. Isolated pathogens were similar to those found in the general population as was the presence of drug resistant infections. Overall, a substantial percentage of pathogens were resistant to standard first-line antibiotics, driving the need to change from empiric therapy to aminoglycoside therapy. 

 

February 2012
L. Nesher, K. Riesenberg, L. Saidel-Odes, F. Schlaeffer and R. Smolyakov
Background: The southern region of Israel has recently experienced an influx of African refugees from the Eastern Sub-Sahara desert area. These influxes led to a significant increase in incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in that region.

Objectives: To review the data of African refugees diagnosed with TB between January 2008 and August 2010 at a tertiary care regional hospital.

Results: Twenty-five TB cases were diagnosed, 22 of which presented with pulmonary TB, 3 with  extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB), and 7 with combined pulmonary and EPTB. Only one case had concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and multidrug-resistant TB. Fifteen patients underwent extensive radiological investigations including chest, abdominal and spine computed tomography, 1 was reviewed by magnetic resonance imaging, and 9 underwent tissue biopsy. Eighteen patients were admitted as suspected TB and 4 as suspected pneumonia or pulmonary infiltrates that could have been defined as suspected TB. All 24 HIV-negative cases were sensitive to first-line drugs for TB except one case that was resistant to streptomycin and one to rifampicin. All patients responded well to first-line therapy. The average duration of hospitalization was 8.7 days (range 1–36). Following diagnosis 23 patients were transferred to a quarantine facility.

Conclusions: We identified overutilization of medical resources and invasive procedures. For African refugees from the eastern Sub-Sahara who were HIV-negative and suspected of having TB, a sputum acid-fast smear and culture should have been the primary investigative tools before initiating treatment with four drugs (first-line), and further investigations should have been postponed and reserved for non-responders or for patients for whom the culture was negative. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for EPTB in this population.
April 2002
Rosalia Smolyakov, MD, Klaris Riesenberg, MD, Francisc Schlaeffer, MD, Abraham Borer, MD, Jacob Gilad, MD, Nechama Peled, MSc and Michael Alkan, MD
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