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עמוד בית
Tue, 23.07.24

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October 2022
March 2021
Moran Slavin MD, Shmuel Avital MD, Yael Einbinder MD, Barak Benjamin MD, and Roye Inbar MD

Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiorenal syndrome (CRS).

Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of this patient population.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of patients who underwent an open or laparoscopic insertion of a PD catheter at our institution between 2009 and 2017. Data included demographics, peri-operative parameters, and long-term outcome. Patient and technique survival curves are presented, including subgroup analysis by method of catheter insertion and techniques for infection prevention.

Results: The study population included 95 men and 42 women, aged 65.7 ± 12.4 years. Mean follow-up was 34.6 ± 27.3 months. Open insertion was performed in 113 cases, while 24 underwent laparoscopic insertion. There was no difference in technique survival between these groups (P = 0.943). Removal of the catheter was required in 66% of patients. Median technique survival was 12.1 months. Two-year technique survival was 37% and 5-year technique survival was 12%. The leading cause for catheter removal was infection (69%). Application of measures for prevention of infections were significantly associated with prolonged technique survival (P = 0.001). Technique survival after 2 years was 38% with the application of a single measure and 57% with the application of two measures (P = 0.001). CRS patients (n=24) had a significantly lower overall survival rate (2-year survival 20% vs. 74%, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: The method of catheter insertion has no effect on technique survival. Prevention of infections is the most significant factor for improving the technique survival rates.

July 2020
Yaron Rudnicki MD, Ian White MD, Barak Benjamin MD, Lauren Lahav MD, Baruch Shpitz MD and Shmuel Avital MD

Background: Following an intestinal anastomotic leak, stoma creation may be the safest approach. However, this method may be challenging and cause significant morbidity. In selected cases, a T drain approach can be beneficial and a stoma can be avoided.

Objectives: To present one group's experience with a T drain approach for anastomotic leaks.

Methods: Data on patients who underwent emergent re-laparotomy following gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks were retrieved retrospectively and assessed with a new intra-operative leak severity score.

Results: Of 1684 gastrointestinal surgeries performed from 2014 to 2018, 41 (2.4%) cases of anastomotic leaks were taken for re-laparotomy. Cases included different sites and etiologies. Twelve patients were treated with a T-tube drain inserted through the leak site, 18 had a stoma taken out, 6 re-anastomosis, 4 were treated with an Endosponge, and one primary repair with a proximal ileostomy was conducted. T drain approach was successful in 11 of 12 patients (92%) with full recovery. One patient did not improve and underwent reoperation with resection and re-anastomosis. A severity score of anastomotic integrity is provided to help surgeons in decision making.

Conclusions: A T drain approach can be an optimal solution in selected cases following an intestinal anastomotic leak. When the leak is limited, the remaining anastomosis is intact and the abdominal environment allows it, a T drain can be used and a stoma can be avoided.

December 2015
Shmuel Avital MD and Baruch Shpitz MD
June 2015
Barak Benjamin MD, Roy Zaltzman MD PhD, Baruch Shpitz MD, Carlos R. Gordon MD DSc and Shmuel Avital MD
December 2012
O. Dolkart, W. Khoury, S. Avital, R. Flaishon and A.A Weinbroum

Background: Carbon dioxide is the most widely used gas to establish pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery. Gastrointestinal trauma may occur during the peritoneal insufflation or during the operative phase itself. Early diagnosis of these injuries is critical.

Objectives: To assess changes in end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) following gastric perforation during pneumoperitoneum in the rat.

Methods: Wistar rats were anesthetized, tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated with fixed minute volume. Each animal underwent a 1 cm abdominal longitudinal incision. A 0.3 x 0.3 cm cross-incision of the stomach was performed in the perforation group but not in the controls (n=10/group), and the abdomen was closed in both groups. After stabilization, CO2-induced pneumoperitoneum was established at 0, 5, 8 and 12 mmHg for 20 min periods consecutively, each followed by complete pressure relief for 5 minutes.

Results: Ventilatory pressure increased in both groups when pneumoperitoneal pressure ≥ 5 mmHg was applied, but more so in the perforated stomach group (P = 0.003). ETCO2 increased in both groups during the experiment, but less so in the perforated group (P = 0.04). It then returned to near baseline values during pressure annulation in all perforated animals but only in the 0 and 5 mmHg periods in the controls.

Conclusions: When subjected to pneumoperitoneum, ETCO2 was lower in rats with a perforated stomach than in those with an intact stomach. An abrupt decrease in ETCO2 during laparoscopy may signal gastric perforation.
 

June 2011
O. Chechik, R. inbar, B. Danino, R. Lador, R. Greenberg and S. Avital

Background: The effect of anti-platelet drugs on surgical blood loss and perioperative complications has not been studied in depth and the management of surgical patients taking anti-platelet medications is controversial.

Objective: To assess the effect of anti-platelet therapy on perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing appendectomy either laparoscopically or via open surgery.

Methods: We reviewed the files of all patients > 40 years old who underwent open or laparoscopic appendectomies from 2007 to 2010. Excluded were patients with short hospitalization and no follow-up of hemoglobin level, patients on warfarin treatment and patients who underwent additional procedures. Estimation of blood loss was based on decrease in hemoglobin level from admission to discharge. Risk factors for blood loss, such as anti-platelet therapy, age, gender, surgical approach, surgical time, surgical findings and complications, were analyzed.

Results: The final cohort included 179 patients (mean age 61 ± 14 years, range 40–93) of whom 65 were males. The mean perioperative hemoglobin decrease was 1.59 ± 1.07 mg/dl (range 0–5 mg/dl). Thirty-nine patients received anti-platelet therapy prior to surgery and 140 did not. No significant differences in decrease of hemoglobin level were found between patients receiving anti-platelet therapy and those who were not (1.73 ± 1.21 vs. 1.55 ± 1.02 mg/dl, P = 0.3). In addition, no difference was found between patients on anti-platelet therapy operated laparoscopically and those operated in an open fashion (1.59 ± 1.18 vs. 2.04 ± 1.28 mg/dl, P = 0.29). Five patients required blood transfusions, two of whom were on anti-platelet therapy. Blood loss was significantly greater in patients with a perforated appendicitis and in those with an operative time of more than one hour.

Conclusions: Anti-platelet therapy does not pose a risk for increased blood loss following emergent appendectomy performed either laparoscopically or in an open fashion.
 

May 2011
L. Shen, Y. Matsunami, N. Quan, K. Kobayashi, E. Matsuura and K. Oguma

Background: Major changes in the evaluation and treatment of curable colorectal cancer (CRC) have emerged in the last two decades. These changes have led to better patient outcome over time.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of these changes as reflected in the difference in long-term outcome of a consecutive group of recently laparoscopically operated curable CRC[1] patients and a consecutive group of patients operated 20 years earlier in the same department.

Methods: Data of the new group were taken from our prospectively collected data of patients who underwent elective laparoscopic surgery for CRC in recent years. Data regarding patients operated on 20 years ago were retrieved from previous prospectively collected data on the long-term survival of CRC patients operated in the same department.

Results: The recently operated group comprised 203 patients and the previous group 199 patients. Perioperative mortality was 0.5% in the new group versus 1.5% in the old group (not significant). There were more early-stage and more proximal tumors in the recently operated group. A Kaplan-Meier 5-year survival analysis revealed no difference between stage I patients of the two groups. However, there was a significant increase in 5-year survival in the new group for stage II (85% vs. 63%, P = 0.004) and for stage III patients (57% vs. 39%, P = 0.01). This trend was maintained after removing the rectal cancer patients from the calculated data.

Conclusions: We have demonstrated improved survival for stage II and III CRC patients over a 20-year period in the same medical center. This change most likely reflects advances both in imaging techniques leading to more accurate staging and in adjuvant treatments.






[1] CRC = colorectal cancer


April 2011
R. Inbar, E. Santo, A. El-Abid Subchi, J. Korianski, Z. Halperin, R. Greenberg and S. Avital

 

Background: Esophageal perforations and postoperative esophageal leaks are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and pose a difficult therapeutic challenge. 

Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of removable self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) as a treatment for postoperative leaks and perforations of the esophagus and stomach.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all patients in one medical center who underwent temporary insertion of a covered plastic stent for postoperative leaks and perforations of the esophagus and stomach from June 2009 to February 2010. Data were retrieved from hospital and outpatient clinical data charts. Data included indication for insertion, post-insertion outcome including stent complications, and follow-up after stent removal.

Results: The indications for stent insertion were postoperative leak in four patients and postoperative esophagopleural fistula in one patient. Three of the patients had a leak at the gastro-esophageal junction following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. In all cases the stent insertion was completed successfully. In three patients the stent migrated distally. In two of these three it was repositioned or replaced endoscopically, and in the third it was excreted in the feces. Stents were removed electively after 6 to 7 weeks. All patients recovered fully and were discharged from the hospital.

Conclusions: SEMS insertion may have an important role in the management of postoperative leaks and perforations of the esophagus and stomach and should be considered in such cases.
 

November 2007
E. Nesher, R. Greenberg, S. Avital, Y Skornick and S. Schneebaum

Background: Peritoneal carcinomatosis is an advanced form of cancer with poor prognosis that in the past was treated mainly palliatively. Today, the definitive approach to peritoneal surface malignancy involves peritonectomy, visceral resection and perioperative intra-abdominal hyperthermic chemotherapy. The anticipated results range from at least palliative to as far as intent to cure. Proper patient selection is mandatory.

Objectives: To determine whether cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy can extend survival, and with minor complications only, in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis.

Methods: Twenty-two IPHP[1] procedures were performed in 17 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis in our institution between 1998 and 2007: 6 had pseudomyxoma peritonei, 5 had colorectal carcinoma, 3 had ovarian cancer and 3 had mesotheliomas. All patients underwent cytoreductive surgery, leaving only residual metastasis < 1 cm in size. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy was administered through four large catheters (2F) using a closed system of two pumps, a heat exchanger and two filters. After the patient’s abdominal temperature reached 41°C, 30–60 mg mitomycin C was circulated intraperitoneally for 1 hour.

Results: The patients had a variety of anastomoses. None demonstrated anastomotic leak and none experienced major complications. Six patients had minor complications (pleural effusion, leukopenia, fever, prolonged paralytic ileus, sepsis), two of which may be attributed to chemotherapy toxicity (leukopenia). There was no perioperative mortality. Some patients have survived more than 5 years.

Conclusions: IPHP is a safe treatment modality for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. It has an acceptable complications rate and ensures a marked improvement in survival and in the quality of life in selected patients.

 






[1] IPHP = intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion


October 2006
S. Avital, H. Hermon, R. Greenberg, E. Karin and Y. Skornick
 Background: Recent data confirming the oncologic safety of laparoscopic colectomy for cancer as well as its potential benefits will likely motivate more surgeons to perform laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

Objectives: To assess factors related to the learning curve of laparoscopic colorectal surgery, such as the number of operations performed, the type of procedures, major complications, and oncologic resections.

Methods: We evaluated the data of our first 100 elective laparoscopic colorectal operations performed during a 2 year period and compared the first 50 cases with the following 50.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 66 years and 49% were males. Indications included cancer, polyps, diverticular disease, Crohn’s disease, and others, in 50%, 23%, 13%, 7% and 7% respectively. Mean operative time was 170 minutes. One patient died (massive pulmonary embolism). Significant surgical complications occurred in 10 patients (10%). Hospital stay averaged 8 days. Comparison of the first 50 procedures with the next 50 revealed a significant decrease in major surgical complications (20% vs. 0%). Mean operative time decreased from 180 to 160 minutes and hospital stay from 8.6 to 7.2 days. There was no difference in conversion rate and mean number of harvested nodes in both groups. Residents performed 8% of the operations in the first 50 cases compared with 20% in the second 50 cases. Right colectomies had shorter operative times and fewer conversions.

Conclusions: There was a significant decrease in major complications after the first 50 laparoscopic colorectal procedures. Adequate oncologic resections may be achieved early in the learning curve. Right colectomies are less difficult to perform and are recommended as initial procedures.

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