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עמוד בית
Wed, 19.06.24

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January 2024
Ravit Peretz-Machluf MD, Mayan Gilboa MD, Shiran Bookstein-Peretz MD, Omri Segal MD, Noam Regev MD, Raanan Meyer MD, Gili Regev-Yochay MD, Yoav Yinon MD, Shlomi Toussia-Cohen MD

Background: Pregnant women are at higher risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since the release of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech), there has been accumulated data about the three vaccine doses. However, information regarding obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women vaccinated with the third (booster) vaccine is limited and primarily retrospective.

Objectives: To evaluate the obstetric and early neonatal outcomes of pregnant women vaccinated during pregnancy with the COVID-19 booster vaccine compared to pregnant women vaccinated only by the first two doses.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women who received the BNT162b2 vaccine during pregnancy. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared between pregnant women who received only the first two doses of the vaccine to those who also received the booster dose.

Results: Overall, 139 pregnant women were vaccinated during pregnancy with the first two doses of the vaccine and 84 with the third dose. The third dose group received the vaccine earlier during their pregnancy compared to the two doses group (212 vs. 315 weeks, respectively, P < 0.001). No differences in obstetric and early neonatal outcomes between the groups were found except for lower rates of urgent cesarean delivery in the third dose group (adjusted odds ratio 0.21; 95% confidence interval 0.048–0.926, P = 0.039).

Conclusions: Compared to the first two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine given in pregnancy, the booster vaccination is safe and not associated with an increased rate of adverse obstetric and early neonatal outcomes.

December 2023
Ron Ben Elyahu MD, Basel Khateeb MD, Eyal Yaacobi MD, Ezequiel Palmanovich MD, Omer Marom MD, David Segal MD, Michael Markushevich MD, Nissim Ohana MD, Yaron S. Brin MD

Background: Hip fractures are a public health problem that disproportionately affects the elderly. Displaced femoral neck fractures were treated historically with hemiarthroplasty, but the use of total hip arthroplasty (THA) is increasing showing superior long-term results.

Objectives: To assess whether THA has superior short-term results compared to bipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures.

Methods: Two groups of active older patients underwent either cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty or THA for displaced femoral neck fracture. All patients were operated on using the direct lateral approach to the hip joint. Patients were assessed using the Harris Hip Score at hospital discharge and at 6 weeks follow-up.

Results: We included 40 patients ages 65–85 years; 18 underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty and 22 THA. The number of women in each group was similar, as was mean age: 73.1 ± 4.2 years in the hemiarthroplasty group and 71.0 ± 3.7 in THA. Harris Hip Score on hospital discharge was similar in both groups. Walking ability at discharge was better in the THA cohort and they were discharged sooner: 5.2 ± 1.3 vs. 6.4 ± 1.7 days following hemiarthroplasty (P = 0.021). At 6 weeks follow-up, the mean Harris Hip Score was higher in the THA group (78.6 ± 11 vs. 61.5 ± 17 for hemiarthroplasty, P < 0.001). Patients in the THA group walked longer distances, needed less support while walking, and reported less pain.

Conclusions: Better short-term results at hospital discharge and at 6 weeks follow-up after THA contributed to earlier patient independence and shorter hospital stays.

October 2023
Dror Dicker MD, Orly Tamir PhD MSc MHA, Gabriella Lieberman-Segal MD, Roy Eldor MD PhD, Moran Accos-Carmel RD MAN, Tatyana Kolobov PhD, Avraham Karasik MD

Background: In 2019, 1 mg subcutaneous semaglutide was registered for the treatment of diabetes in Israel. Recognition of its effect on weight has led to its use as a treatment for obesity.

Objectives: To explore physicians’ pre-therapy considerations, therapy practices, and attitudes regarding subcutaneous semaglutide for weight loss.

Methods: A 22-item questionnaire was disseminated to physicians who prescribed semaglutide 1-mg for weight loss using an authorized off-label path.

Results: In total, 127 physicians completed the questionnaire. As for pretreatment requirements, in the absence of diabetes, 30% requested a minimal body mass index of 30 kg/m2. Additional requirements were documented lifestyle-change effort (67%) and prior weight loss medication use (13%). Half of the physicians regarded calorie restriction, and 23% considered physical activity as necessary for weight loss while on therapy. As for dose, most physicians (78%) started with a 0.25-mg weekly injection, 57% doubled the dose monthly, and all others recommended doubling when side effects subsided. Regarding weight loss goal, 43% of the physicians set a personal goal with each patient while 26% limited the goal to 10% of initial weight. Fewer than 50% of physicians discussed treatment duration with their patients, and 52% of patients discontinued therapy in the first 3 months. The main reasons for discontinuation were price, lack of effect, and fear of long-term side effects.

Conclusions: The diverse approaches regarding off-label use of semaglutide for weight reduction highlight the necessity to guide physicians and standardize treatment regimen.

April 2023
Chen Hanna Ryder PhD, Yori Gidron PhD, Darian Ryder PhD, Yair Shmidt, Naomi Dovrat MD, Ziv Sarusi MD, Noam Welder-Segalovich MD, Matan Segalovich MD, Daniel Marmor MD, Radi Shahien MD

Background: The two cerebral hemispheres influence the immune response differently. While the left hemisphere enhances cellular immunity, the right hemisphere inhibits it.

Objectives: To determine whether immune and inflammatory markers correlated with stroke severity and hospitalization duration as a function of stroke side.

Methods: The study included 137 patients with unilateral ischemic stroke. The medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical laboratory data, including C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC) count, its differential stroke side and stroke severity according to the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and length of hospital stay (LOS). We examined differences between right side (RS) and left side (LS) stroke on immune and inflammatory markers and compared correlations between these markers and NIHSS and LOS as a function of stroke side.

Results: RS stroke patients had higher CRP and monocytes than LS stroke patients. In RS stroke patients, CRP, total WBC, and lymphocyte levels positively correlated with both NIHSS and LOS, whereas levels of neutrophils were positively correlated with NIHSS alone. No correlations were found for LS stroke patients.

Conclusions: Immune-inflammatory markers correlated with stroke severity and LOS only in patients with RS stroke. Neuroimmunological processes influence short-term clinical outcomes after stroke, especially considering the differential effects of the hemispheres on immunity. Prospective studies that evaluate long-term clinical outcomes are needed. Testing the effects of anti-inflammatory treatments on prognosis of RS stroke patients should be considered.

Gad Shaked MD, Yoav Bichovsky MD, Guy Golani MD, Adi Segal BMedSc, Ilia Replyanski MD, Moti Klein MD, Yair Binyamin MD, Amit Frenkel MD MHA

Background: Massive, non-compressible bleeding is a leading cause of preventable trauma mortality. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) is a minimally invasive procedure in which a balloon catheter is maneuvered into the aorta to temporarily occlude large vessels and enable stabilization of the exsanguinating patient.



Objectives: To present experiences in assimilating REBOA at a single level 1 trauma center in Israel, to evaluate the technical aspects of the procedure, and to describe patient characteristics and outcomes.


Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised civilians admitted with hemorrhagic shock to our trauma department who were treated with REBOA between November 2017 and July 2021. Descriptive statistics of the patients, characteristics of the injuries and patient outcomes are presented.


Results: The study included 22 patients (median age 30.1 years, 21 male). The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) before REBOA inflation was 59.6 ± 11.4 mmHg, and the mean SBP measured after the procedure was 115.2 ± 26.3 mmHg. In 20 patients (91%), the SBP was normalized (> 90 mmHg) shortly after inflation of the balloon, and they survived the treatment in the trauma department; 15 (75%) survived the first 30 days.



Conclusions: REBOA is an effective method for the initial resuscitation and hemorrhage control of patients with massive, non-compressible bleeding and is relatively easy to assimilate in a hospital. The achievement of immediate normalization of SBP enables medical personnel to correct physiological parameters and obtain accurate imaging before proceeding to the operating theater.

January 2023
Maya Yakir MD, Adi Brom MD, Amitai Segev MD, Gad Segal MD

Background: The prognosis of long-term clinical outcomes for each patient is of utmost importance.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between rates of family attendance during rounds and long-term outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a historic cohort study.

Results: We followed 200 consecutive patients for a median of 19 months. Within the group of patients that had family members present in > 75% of rounds, the 30-day re-hospitalization rate was tenfold higher (P = 0.017). The overall prognosis (including median survival length) of patients who had the highest rates of family attendance (> 75%) was significantly worse compared to patients who had lower rates (P = 0.028). High rates of family attendance were found to correlate with other established risk factors for long-term mortality, including advanced age (r = 0.231, P = 0.001) and in-hospital delirium.

Conclusions: High family attendance during physician rounds in an internal medicine department is associated with worse patient prognosis.

November 2022
Moriah Bergwerk MBBS, Nir Lasman MD, Limor Helpman MD, Barak Rosenzweig MD, Dor Cohen MD, Edward Itelman MD, Raz Gross MD, Gad Segal MD

Worldwide, students of healthcare professions attend clinical rotations at medical facilities. Much research, and consequently scientific publications, is produced during their studies, bearing the fruits of student–faculty collaboration. To the best of our knowledge, no previous contract has been proposed detailing the fine print to pre-determine mutual responsibilities and privileges of students and faculty. Our objective was to present such a contract to the relevant students and faculty. We conducted a literature review to study existing proposals and solutions for this dilemma. Appropriate guidelines were also scanned. We included a proposal for a standard contract as the basis for student–faculty agreement for conducting research and publishing collaborative work. Questions regarding the relative contribution of students and subsequent authorship often arise. Vague rules and absent regulations in this realm can, at times, can be disadvantageous to students. We foresee a future role for our proposed agreement.

September 2022
David Segal MD MPH, Nitzan Shakarchy-Kaminsky MD MSc, Yair Zloof MD, Tomer Talmy MD, Galina Shapiro MD PHD, Irina Radomislensky BSc, Avishai M. Tsur MD MHA, Shaul Gelikas MD MBA, Erez Karp MD MHA, and Avi Benov MD MHA; Israel Trauma Group

Background: Medical organizations worldwide aim for equity and diversity in the medical profession to improve care quality. Data on whether the caregiver gender affects outcomes in the prehospital setting are essential but scarce compared to available in-hospital studies.

Objective: To analyze the rates of missed injuries in the prehospital setting and determine whether these rates were associated with the gender of the on-field physician or paramedic.

Methods: A retrospective record review was conducted, which included trauma records documented in two trauma registries, the prehospital Israel Defense Forces-Trauma Registry (IDF-TR), and the in-hospital Israeli National Trauma Registry (INTR). Missed injuries were defined as injuries documented in the INTR but not in the IDF-TR. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association between provider’s gender and missed injuries.

Results: Of 490 casualties, 369 (75.3%) were treated by teams that included only male paramedics or physicians. In 386 (78.8%) cases, a physician was a part of the prehospital team. In all, 94 (19.2%) casualties sustained injuries that were missed by the prehospital medical team. Missed injuries were not associated with the gender of the paramedic or physician (odds ratio 1.242, 95% confidence interval 0.69–2.193).

Conclusions: No association was found between the gender of the medical provider in the prehospital setting and the rate of missed injuries. These results should encourage prehospital emergency medical systems to aim for a balanced and diverse caregiver population.

January 2022
Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Yaniv Zager MD, Batia Segal MD, and Yoram Klein MD

Background: Emergency surgical repair is the standard approach to the management of an incarcerated abdominal wall hernia (IAWH). In cases of very high-risk patients, manual closed reduction (MCR) of IAWH may prevent the need for emergency surgery.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety, success rate, and complications of MCR in the management of IAWH conducted in an emergency department.

Methods: The data of all patients who underwent MCR between 2012 and 2018 were retrospectively collected. Patient demographics, presenting symptoms, clinical parameters, and management during the hospitalization were retrieved from the medical charts.

Results: Overall, 548 patients underwent MCR during the study period. The success rate was 25.4% (139 patients). One patient had a complication that required a laparotomy 2 days after his discharge. A recurrent incarceration occurred in 23%, 60% of them underwent successful repeated MCR and the others underwent emergency surgery. Six patients (1.4%) had a bowel perforation after a failed MCR.

Conclusions: MCR can be performed safely in the emergency department and should be consider as an option to treat IAWH, especially in high operative risk patients

October 2021
Michael Goldenshluger MD, Hen Chaushu MS, Guy Ron MD, Haya Fogel-Grinvald MHA, Shay Mandler MD, Liron Miller MBA PhD, Nir Horesh MD, Batia Segal RN MA, Uri Rimon MD, and Yoram Klein MD

Background: Extra peritoneal packing (EPP) is a quick and highly effective method to control pelvic hemorrhage.

Objectives: To determine whether EPP can be as safely and efficiently performed in the emergency department (ED) as in the operating room (OR).

Methods: Retrospective study of 29 patients who underwent EPP in the ED or OR in two trauma centers in Israel 2008–2018.

Results: Our study included 29 patients, 13 in the ED-EPP group and 16 in the OR-EPP group. The mean injury severity score (ISS) was 34.9 ± 11.8. Following EPP, hemodynamic stability was successfully achieved in 25 of 29 patients (86.2%). A raise in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) with a median of 25 mmHg (mean 30.0 ± 27.5, P < 0.001) was documented. All patients who did not achieve hemodynamic stability after EPP had multiple sources of bleeding or fatal head injury and eventually succumbed. Patients who underwent EPP in the ED showed higher change in MAP (P = 0.0458). The overall mortality rate was 27.5% (8/29) with no difference between the OR and ED-EPP. No differences were found between ED and OR-EPP in the amount of transfused blood products, surgical site infections, and length of stay in the hospital. However, patients who underwent ED-EPP were more prone to develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT): 50% (5/10) vs. 9% (1/11) in ED and OR-EPP groups respectively (P = 0.038).

Conclusions: EPP is equally effective when performed in the ED or OR with similar surgical site infection rates but higher incidence of DVT

August 2021
Omer Marom MD, Eyal Yaacobi MD, Pnina Shitrit MD, Yaron Brin MD, Shimon Cohen MD, David Segal MD, and Nissim Ohana MD

Background: Proximal femoral fractures (PFF) are among the most common injuries in the elderly population treated by orthopedic surgeons. Postoperative complications, especially infections, are of great importance due to their effect on patient mortality and morbidity and healthcare costs.

Objectives: To assess the main causes for postoperative infection among PFF patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of PFF patients in our medical center between 2015 and 2017. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether there was postoperative infection during immediate hospitalization and 30 days after surgery. Factors such as time from admission to surgery, duration of surgery, and length of stay were analyzed. Groups were analyzed and compared using a t-test, chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests.

Results: Of 1276 patients, 859 (67%) underwent closed reduction internal fixation, 67 (5%) underwent total hip arthroplasty, and 350 (28%) underwent hemiarthroplasty. Of the total, 38 patients (3%) were diagnosed with postoperative infection. The demographics and co-morbidities were similar between the two study groups. The incident of infection was the highest among patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty (6%, P < 0.0001). Length of hospitalization (15 vs. 8 days, P = 0.0001) and operative time (117 vs. 77 minutes, P = 0.0001) were found to be the most significant risk factors for postoperative infection.

Conclusions: Predisposition to postoperative infections in PPF patients was associated with prolonged length of surgery and longer hospitalization. We recommend optimizing fast discharge, selecting the appropriate type of surgery, and improving surgical planning to reduce intraoperative delays and length of surgery.

August 2020
Shani Dahan MD, Gad Segal MD, Itai Katz MD, Tamer Hellou MD, Michal Tietel MD, Gabriel Bryk MD, Howard Amital MD, Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MaACR and Amir Dagan MD

Background: Ferritin, the cellular protein storage for iron, has emerged as a key molecule in the immune system, orchestrating the cellular defense against inflammation. At the end of 2019, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly spread throughout China and other countries around the world, resulting in a viral pandemic.

Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between ferritin and disease severity in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we obtained clinical and laboratory data regarding 39 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 from two hospitals in Israel.

Results: A significant increase in ferritin levels was demonstrated in patients with moderate and severe disease, compared to patients with mild disease (P = 0.006 and 0.005, respectively). Severe patients had significantly higher levels of ferritin (2817.6 ng/ml) than non-severe patients (708.6 ng/ml) P = 0.02.

Conclusions: In this preliminary cross-sectional study, elevated ferritin levels were shown to correlate with disease severity in 39 patients from Israel with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Our results further strengthen the hypothesis that severe COVID-19 disease might be due to an underlying dysregulated hyperimmune response. In order to identify these patients early and prioritized resources, we believe that all patients with COVID-19 should be screened for hyperferritinemia.

May 2020
Edward Itelman MD, Yishay Wasserstrum MD, Amitai Segev MD, Chen Avaky MD, Liat Negru MD, Dor Cohen MD, Natia Turpashvili MD, Sapir Anani MD, Eyal Zilber MD, Nir Lasman MD, Ahlam Athamna MD, Omer Segal MD, Tom Halevy MD, Yehuda Sabiner MD, Yair Donin MD, Lital Abraham MD, Elisheva Berdugo MD, Adi Zarka MD, Dahlia Greidinger MD, Muhamad Agbaria MD, Noor Kitany MD, Eldad Katorza MD, Gilat Shenhav-Saltzman MD and Gad Segal MD

Background: In February 2020, the World Health Organisation designated the name COVID-19 for a clinical condition caused by a virus identified as a cause for a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China. The virus subsequently spread worldwide, causing havoc to medical systems and paralyzing global economies. The first COVID-19 patient in Israel was diagnosed on 27 February 2020.

Objectives: To present our findings and experiences as the first and largest center for COVID-19 patients in Israel.

Methods: The current analysis included all COVID-19 patients treated in Sheba Medical Center from February 2020 to April 2020. Clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological data gathered during their hospitalization are presented.

Results: Our 162 patient cohort included mostly adult (mean age of 52 ± 20 years) males (65%). Patients classified as severe COVID-19 were significantly older and had higher prevalence of arterial hypertension and diabetes. They also had significantly higher white blood cell counts, absolute neutrophil counts, and lactate dehydrogenase. Low folic acid blood levels were more common amongst severe patients (18.2 vs. 12.9 vs. 9.8, P = 0.014). The rate of immune compromised patients (12%) in our cohort was also higher than in the general population. The rate of deterioration from moderate to severe disease was high: 9% necessitated non-invasive oxygenation and 15% were intubated and mechanically ventilated. The mortality rate was 3.1%.

Conclusions: COVID-19 patients present a challenge for healthcare professionals and the whole medical system. We hope our findings will assist other providers and institutions in their care for these patients.

Gad Segal MD, Dror Mevorach MD, Avishay Elis MD and Dror Dicker MD and COVID-19 Task Force on behalf of the Israeli Society of Internal Medicine
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