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עמוד בית
Sat, 22.06.24

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January 2024
Adnan Zaina MD, Sami Hussein MD

The cause of death for Pharaoh Tutankhamun (ca. 1330–1324 BCE) is still unknown despite the advancement in modern paleopathology and the introduction of computed tomography mummy examination and modern molecular pathology, including PCR-based gene analysis. Many speculations regarding his unexpected death have been published, including crush injury, infectious diseases such as malaria, and hereditary disease. We discuss for the first time all these events that could have ultimately caused Tutankhamun's sudden death, particularly sickle cell disease, which can cause osteonecrosis and lead to walking disability, bone deformities, and fragility. Malaria-associated tropical splenomegaly, as an acquired infectious disease, and the crush injury, which represents an acute event, were verified by a left distal femur fracture that contributed to splenic rupture as a major fatal event. We highlight important issues that can provide clinicians and clinical care practitioners with a broad vision while analyzing such cases.

March 2023
Yoav Siegler MD, Chen Ben David MD, Zeev Weiner MD, Ido Solt MD

Late, preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) presents a major obstetrical challenge balancing between iatrogenic prematurity and risk of prolonged rupture of membranes. In recent years, the pendulum has been shifting toward expectant management until gestation week 37 + 0. We examined the latest guidelines and major trials and summarized optimal management. We addressed the major dilemmas of women with PPROM during gestation weeks 34 + 0 to 36 + 6.

April 2022
Nir Levi MD, Linda Shavit MD, Adam Farkas MD, Joad Atrash MD, Yigal Helvitz MD, Yaacov Esayag MD, and Talya Wolak MD
November 2021
August 2021
Yaniv Steinfeld MD, Roi Akian MD, Alexey Rovitsky MD, Natalia Puchkov MD, and Yaniv Keren MD

Background: In recent years, treatment for Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) went through radical changes: from the conservative non-weight bearing approach to a functional protocol. This functional protocol allows complete weight bearing after only 2 weeks by placing the foot in a plastic boot in tapered down equines and using interchangeable wedges under the heel. This change of approach has dramatically lowered the rate of re-rupture.

Objectives: To describe our preliminary results with this functional protocol and to assess outcome measures in the functional conservative treatment.

Methods: The study comprised 15 people who were evaluated clinically and by sonograph. We measured calf circumference, ankle joint range of motion (ROM), and single-leg heel-rise test (SLHRT). In addition, standard scoring methods (Achilles Tendon Rupture Score and Physical Activity Scale) were examined.

Results: In our cohort 14 people successfully gained SLHRT. The mean Achilles Tendon Rupture Score functional questionnaire and Physical Activity Scale physical activity questionnaire score was 85.6 of 100, and 4.7 of 6, respectively. There were no significant differences in ankle ROM compared to the uninjured limb. There was statistically significant reduction in the calf circumference and soleus muscle thickness sonographically.

Conclusions: It seems that the conservative functional treatment of ATR demonstrates good functional outcomes, with the patients returning to close to normal activity, although noted muscle wasting and weakness. This protocol presents a true alternative to surgery and should be considered for most non-insertional Achilles tendon tears

January 2021
Mohamed Kittani MD, Barak Haviv MD, Shai Shemesh MD, Lee Yaari MD, Mustafa Yassin MD, and Lea Rath-Wolfson MD

Background: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common and complete tears often fail to heal. ACL reconstruction is considered the surgical gold standard of care for ACL injuries in young active patients.

Objectives: To determine the corresponding morphological and histological features of the torn ACL in different time periods after injury.

Methods: The study included 28 remnant specimens of torn ACLs from patients who had ACL reconstruction surgery of the knee. The remnant pathology was evaluated by its morphology during arthroscopy and by histopathologic measurements.

Results: At surgery there were three progressive and distinct morphological tear patterns. The first pattern was noticed within the first 3 months from injury and showed no scar tissue. The second pattern appeared later and was characterized by the appearance of scar tissue with adhesion to the femoral wall. The third pattern was characterized by adhesion of the ACL remnant to the posterior cruciate ligament. The histological changes of the first morphological pattern showed abundance of blood vessels and lymphocytes at the torn femoral end with few irregular collagen fibers. The second and third tear patterns showed decrement in the number of blood vessels and lymphocytes with longitudinally oriented collagen fibers.

Conclusions: The morphological features of the ACL remnant in the first 3 months after injury showed no scar tissue and its histological features had the characteristics of a reparative phase. This phase was followed by a prolonged remodeling phase that ended with attachment of the remnant to the posterior cruciate ligament.

July 2018
Yuval Cavari MD, Victor Ginzburg MD, Gabriel Szendro MD, Anatoly Leytzin MD, Evelin Novik Farkash MD and Isaac Lazar MD
October 2017
Neri Katz MD, Letizia Schreiber MD, Anat Oron MD, Sarel Halachmi MD and David Kohelet MD

Background: Preterm birth is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates in the United States. Early recognition of sepsis in this population is a challenging task since overt clinical signs can be difficult to determine. C-reactive protein (CRP), one of the most frequently non-specific used laboratory test, can indirectly aid the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between histological findings in the placenta of preterm newborns born after prolonged rupture of membranes, CRP levels, and blood cultures.

Methods: Medical records were reviewed of all preterm newborns born after prolonged premature rupture of membranes at a medical center in Israel between 2011 and 2014.

Results: Of 128 newborns with prolonged rupture of membranes, 64 had evidence of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA). Gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar scores were significantly lower, while CRP levels (on admission and 10–12 hours post-delivery) were significantly higher in preterm newborns born to mothers with histological evidence of chorioamnionitis, but values were within normal ranges. Duration of the rupture of membranes and white blood cell counts did not differ between groups.

Conclusions: CRP levels taken on admission and 10–12 hours after delivery were higher when HCA was present, but since there was a substantial overlap between those with and without HCA and the values for most were within normal range, the differences were not enough to serve as a tool to diagnose placental histological chorioamnionitis in preterm infants born after prolonged premature rupture of membranes and exposed to intrapartum antibiotics.

December 2016
Eyal Klang MD, Michal M. Amitai MD, Stephen Raskin MD, Noa Rozendorn, Nicholas Keddel MD, Jana Pickovsky MD and Miri Sklair-Levy MD

Background: Silicone breast augmentation is a common cosmetic surgery. Previous case reports demonstrated lymphadenopathy in the presence of implant ruptures.

Objectives: To investigate the association between enlarged axillary lymph nodes and silicone implant ruptures as seen on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Two groups were derived retrospectively from breast MRI reports in our institution for the period December 2011–May 2014. A search of our hospital records for "silicone" and "lymph node" was performed (group A), and the relationship between the presence of enlarged nodes and ruptures was evaluated. The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was calculated and the association between MRI imaging features and ruptures evaluated. A search for "silicone" and "implant rupture" was performed (group B) and, as for group A, the relationship between the presence of ruptures and nodes was evaluated and the prevalence of enlarged nodes in the presence of ruptures calculated.

Results: Group A comprised 45 women with enlarged nodes. Intracapsular ruptures were associated with nodes (P = 0.005), while extracapsular ruptures showed a trend of association with nodes (P = 0.08). The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was 31.4%. Nodes associated with ruptures showed a strong silicone signal (P = 0.008) and absent enhancement (P = 0.005). Group B comprised 73 women with ruptures. Enlarged nodes were associated with both intra- and extracapsular ruptures (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002 respectively). The prevalence of nodes in the presence of ruptures was 22.2%.

Conclusions: Enlarged axillary nodes were associated with ruptures in two groups of patients. This finding can guide clinical decisions when either enlarged nodes or ruptures are encountered in patients with silicone implants. The association between silicone lymphadenopathy and implant rupture raises concerns regarding the role of rupture in silicone-induced systemic disease.

 

August 2015
May 2014
Eyal Lotan MD MSc, David Orion MD, Mati Bakon MD, Rafael Kuperstein MD and Gahl Greenberg MD
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