• IMA sites
  • IMAJ services
  • IMA journals
  • Follow us
  • Alternate Text Alternate Text
עמוד בית
Fri, 31.05.24

Search results


February 2021
Marwan Hanna Pharm D and Ram Mazkereth MD

Extremely preterm infants are at high risk for mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment from invasive Candida infections. Prophylactic antifungal therapy has been shown to reduce both colonization and invasive candidemia in high-risk preterm infants. Prophylactic treatment should be started in the first 48 to 72 hours after birth to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (weighing ≤ 1000 grams at birth) or below 27 weeks gestation age with risk factors, or in any NICU with moderate (5–10%) or high (≥ 10%) rates of invasive candidiasis. Studies demonstrated the benefits of fluconazole prophylaxis regarding its safety of the short-term and long-term without the development of fungal resistance. Empiric antifungal therapy may lower mortality and improve outcomes

February 2019
Lital Oz-Alcalay MD, Shai Ashkenazi MD MSc, Aharona Glatman-Freedman MD MPH, Sarit Weisman-Demri MD, Alexander Lowenthal MD and Gilat Livni MD MHA

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related bronchiolitis is a common cause of morbidity in young infants. The recommendations for its passive prevention by palivizumab are currently under intensive debate.

Objectives: To elucidate the optimal prevention strategy by studying the morbidity of RSV disease under the current recommendations for palivizumab prophylaxis in Israel.

Methods: We collected demographic and clinical data of all children hospitalized with microbiologically confirmed RSV bronchiolitis during 2015–2016 at Schneider Children's Medical Center. The seasonality of RSV disease was also studied for the period 2010–2017 in sentinel clinics scattered throughout Israel.

Results: Of the 426 hospitalized children, 106 (25%) had underlying diseases but were not eligible for palivizumab prophylaxis according to the current criteria in Israel. Their course was severe, with a mean hospital stay of 6.7 days and a 12% admission rate to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Palivizumab-eligible children who did not receive the prophylaxis before hospitalization had the most severe course, with 22% admitted to the PICU. More children were diagnosed with RSV disease in October than in March among both hospitalized and ambulatory children; 44% of the palivizumab-eligible hospitalized children were admitted in the last 2 weeks of October, before 1 November which is the recommended date for starting palivizumab administration in Israel.

Conclusions: According to the results of the present study we suggest advancing RSV prophylaxis in Israel from 1 November to mid-October. The precise palivizumab-eligible categories should be reconsidered.

April 2017
Noam Oz MD, Danny Alon MD, Gideon Y Stein MD PhD and Dan Turner MD

Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for populations at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still not available in Israel.

Objectives: To analyze post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) treatment adherence rates among adult men in Tel Aviv, Israel, who have sex with men (MSM), and to obtain data on the demographics of PEP users, exposure types, timeline of exposure and PEP administration, incidence of side effects, number of treatments per individual, and satisfaction with selected elements of treatment provision.

Methods: The authors conducted an observational cohort study of adult MSM who requested PEP treatment in the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. Information from patients receiving treatment between January 2013 and June 2014 was obtained through telephone interviews by means of a 30-item questionnaire.

Results: Of 336 individuals requesting PEP treatment, 255 (75.9%) were adult MSM, and 100 (39.2%) satisfactorily completed the interview. The average age of the study cohort was 32.4 years (standard deviation of 7.5). Ninety-one (91%) reported completing a full 28-day course of treatment, 84% reported side effects, and 20% underwent multiple courses. Satisfaction was high for interactions with the HIV specialists. Patient experience with PEP treatment in the emergency room setting, and follow-up were inadequate deficient.

Conclusions: PEP adherence rates in Tel Aviv were significantly higher than previously reported. PEP should be administered in designated community settings. PrEP as a general treatment policy might suit the MSM population in Tel Aviv.

 

July 2016
Irena Ulanovsky MD, Morya Shnaider, Yuval Geffen PhD, Tatiana Smolkin MD, Tatyana Mashiah MA and Imad R. Makhoul MD PhD

Background: Due to a shortage of individualized erythromycin ointment (IEO), we switched to shared erythromycin drops (SED). Following this change, nurses claimed observing more cases of eye discharge. 

Objectives: To test whether switching from IEO to SED affected the rate of neonatal conjunctivitis (NC).

Methods: The study group included 14,916 neonates > 35 weeks of gestation, further divided into two birth periods of 12 months each: 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013 (IEO) and 1 February 2014 to 31 January 2015 (SED). We compared the two birth periods with regard to three variables: clinical NC (number of conjunctival swabs/1000 neonates), bacterial NC (number of culture-positive swabs/1000 neonates), and bacterial growth percentage (number of culture-positive swabs/100 samples).  

Results: Compared to 2012–2013, the period 2014–2015 included fewer cesarean deliveries and shorter length of stay (LOS). Clinical NC, bacterial NC and bacterial-growth percentage were not different between the two periods. Variables that were independently significantly associated with increased clinical NC included male gender (OR 1.48, CI 1.21–1.81) and LOS (OR 1.24, CI 1.18–1.29). LOS was associated with bacterial NC (OR 1.19, CI 1.11–1.28). Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the prevalent pathogens, though without difference between periods. 

Conclusions: Rates of clinical NC, bacterial NC and bacterial-growth percentage were not different between the study periods. Switching from IEO to SED had no effect on the NC rate.

 

June 2016
Noam Oz MD, Danny Alon MD, Chava Chezar-Azerrad MD, Lisa Cooper MD, Yochai Levi MD, Shmuel Fuchs MD and Gideon Y. Stein MD PhD

Background: Prophylaxis for hospitalized venous-thromboembolic events (VTEs) is frequently underutilized, in part due to lack of a simple risk assessment model (RAM). 

Objectives: To compare patient selection and administration of VTE prophylaxis according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2008 guidelines versus the newer 2012 guidelines, and assess the feasibility of developing simpler local RAMs.

Methods: We conducted a prospective assessment of VTE risk among 300 unselected consecutive patients admitted to a medical hospital ward, using the 2008 and 2012 ACCP guidelines. The frequency and relative weight of each risk factor in the 2012 ACCP guidelines were used to develop a local VTE RAM.

Results: VTE prophylaxis was indicated by the 2008 and 2012 ACCP guidelines in 40% and 42% of the cohort respectively, and was administered in 28% and 26% of eligible patients, respectively. Contraindication to VTE prophylaxis was found in 29% of patients according to both guidelines. In comparison to the 2008 guidelines, sensitivity and specificity of the 2012 guidelines were 96% and 88%, respectively. A local RAM based on the following concise score, comprising age, malignancy and immobility, correctly identified 99% of at-risk patients based on the 2012 guidelines, with a sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 95%, respectively.

Conclusions: Both guidelines performed to a similar degree and were poorly implemented in daily practice. A simplified RAM accurately identified the vast majority of these eligible patients. The development of local RAMs is feasible and may result in higher utilization rates.

 

May 2016
Daniel Elbirt MD, Keren Mahlab-Guri MD, Shira Bezalel-Rosenberg MD, Ilan Asher MD and Zev Sthoeger MD
February 2016
Yigal Helviz MD, Ilia Dzigivker MD, David Raveh-Brawer MD, Moshe Hersch MD, Shoshana Zevin MD and Sharon Einav MD

Background: Enoxaparin is frequently used as prophylaxis for deep venous thrombosis in critically ill patients. 

Objectives: To evaluate three enoxaparin prophylactic regimens in critical care patients with and without administration of a vasopressor.

Methods: Patients admitted to intensive care units (general and post-cardiothoracic surgery) without renal failure received, once daily, a subcutaneous fixed dose of 40 mg enoxaparin, a subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg enoxaparin, or an intravenous dose of 0.5 mg/kg enoxaparin. Over 5 days anti-activated factor X levels were collected before the daily administration and 4 hours after the injection.

Results: Overall, 16 patients received the subcutaneous fixed dose, 15 received the subcutaneous weight-based dosage, and 8 received the dose intravenously. Around two-fifths (38%) of the patients received vasopressors. There was no difference between anti-activated factor X levels regarding vasopressor administration. However, in all three groups the levels were outside the recommended range of 0.1 IU/ml and 0.3 IU/ml.

Conclusions: Although not influenced by vasopressor administration, the enoxaparin regimens resulted in blood activity levels outside the recommended range.

 

July 2015
Einat Fireman-Klein MD, Avraham Man MD, Yehuda Schwartz MD and Elizabeth Fireman PhD

Background: Determining the accuracy of interferon gamma-releasing assays (IGRAs) is difficult due to the lack of a gold standard test for diagnosing latent tuberculosis (LTB). 

Objectives: To analyze the guidelines used for interpreting IGRAs in determining prophylactic treatment management for latent tuberculosis (LTB) in Israel.

Methods: We analyzed the retrospective data of 367 subjects who were referred to our laboratory during the period 2007–2011 for QuantiFERON Test-Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) tests because of suspected LTB. Demographics and clinical data were retrieved from a questionnaire at enrollment, and 166/367 (45%) were further interviewed by phone in order to complete follow-up information on prophylactic TB treatment. 

Results: The majority of subjects (116/166, 69.9%, P < 0.0001) were spared prophylactic treatment subsequent to QFT-GIT testing. Subjects with negative QFT-GIT and positive tuberculin skin test (TST) results who were BCG-vaccinated had the lowest treatment rates (6/68, 8.8%, P < 0.0001). Most BCG-vaccinated subjects with positive TST and negative QFT-GIT test results received treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) (17/19, 89.5%, P = 0.004). We found more negative QFT-GIT test results in subjects who were receiving anti-TNFα or steroid and other immunosuppressive treatment prior to testing (11/11, 100%, P = 0.029; 22/26, 84.6%, P = 0.06; 15/17, 88%, P = 0.06, respectively). 

Conclusions: Deciding on LTB prophylactic treatment in Israel is highly influenced by QFT-GIT test results. QFT-GIT findings contribute to clinical decisions, but their interpretation must also consider the patient’s medical history and clinical characteristics. 

 

December 2014
Alessandra Soriano MD, Ribhi Mansour MD, Yuval Horovitz MD and Howard Amital MD MHA
February 2014
Itai Gat, Mordechai Dulitzki, Eyal Schiff, Eyal Sivan and Michal J. Simchen
Background: Homozygous carriers of factor V Leiden (FVL) have an up to 80-fold increased risk of venous thrombosis, but the risk of obstetric complications in FVL homozygosity is unclear.

Objectives:
To compare obstetric and thromboembolic complications among factor V Leiden (FVL) homozygous and heterozygous carriers treated with prophylactic dose anticoagulation during pregnancy.

Methods:
In this retrospective case-control study we performed a chart review for the years 2004–2010 of homozygous and heterozygous FVL carriers who were treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg/day during pregnancy. Adverse outcomes included thromboembolic and obstetric complications. A composite adverse obstetric outcome was defined as the presence of at least one of the following: late intrauterine fetal demise, severe intrauterine growth restriction (< 5th percentile), preeclampsia, placental abruption. Pregnancy outcomes of homozygous and heterozygous FVL carriers were compared.

Results:
We compared the pregnancies of 13 homozygous FVL women with those of 82 heterozygous FVL carriers. Thromboembolic events occurred only in heterozygous FVL controls. Gestational age and birth weight were similar. The composite adverse obstetric outcome rate was higher for homozygous compared with heterozygous FVL carriers (23.1% vs. 11%, respectively), although not statistically significant. A trend for prematurity among homozygous FVL patients was evident, with 2/13 women (15.3%) in the homozygous FVL group giving birth before 34 weeks gestation, compared with only 2/82 (2.3%) in the heterozygous group.

Conclusions:
Pregnancy outcome was similar for homozygous and heterozygous FVL carriers on LMWH thromboprophylaxis. The overall likelihood of thromboembolic complications was low. Thromboprophylaxis may decrease the risk for placental and thromboembolic complications in homozygous FVL patients to a similar level as in heterozygotes.
June 2013
I. Fuchs, M. Abu-Shakra and E. Sikuler
 Information on reactivation of chronic viral hepatitis infection in patients who are candidates for tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNFi) is in a constant state of flux. We retrieved the most updated guidelines (in English) of prominent rheumatological and gastroenterological professional societies for the management of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the context of treatment with TNFi. Subsequently, the major areas of uncertainty and absence of consensus in the guidelines were located and a secondary search for additional studies addressing those areas was performed. Based on our search we formulated a personal interpretation applicable to health care settings with virological laboratories capable of performing viral load measurements, and health systems that can support use of potent nucleoside/tide analogues in well-defined patient populations.

 

February 2013
E. Ashkenazi, Y. Kovalev and E. Zuckerman
 Portal hypertension is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis. Complications of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients include esophageal and gastric varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy, ascites, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension. The hepatic venous pressure gradient should be at least 10 mmHg for esophageal varices to appear, and more than 12 mmHg for acute esophageal variceal bleeding. This article reviews the pathophysiology responsible for portal hypertension and its complications, and the treatments used for esophageal varices in the setting of primary and secondary prophylaxis and during active bleeding.

 

June 2012
M. Yulish, I. Beiran, B. Miller and J. Pikkel

Background: Corneal haze is a significant complication of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted sub-epithelial keratectomy (LASEK).

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ascorbic acid supplementation in addition to perioperative topical mitomycin-C for the prevention of haze after LASEK.

Methods: We performed a retrospective, non-randomized case series study of two groups of 48 consecutive patients (96 myopic eyes) who had LASEK surgery. The treatment group was given ascorbic acid (vitamin C) orally 500 mg twice daily from 1 week before to 2 weeks after surgery. The control group was not offered any additional treatment. Ascorbate supplementation was the only difference in the postoperative treatment protocol between the treatment and control groups. Haze was assessed on a scale from 0 to 4 at the 1 year visit.

Results: Overall, 33.3% and 37.5% of the patients in the treatment and control groups respectively developed corneal haze. The trend of increased haze severity in the control group did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusions: Our results showed that systemic ascorbate supplementation does not have an additional effect on the prevention of haze after LASEK compared to the effect of topical mitomycin-C alone.

November 2009
N. Fisch, S. Ashkenazi and M. Davidovits

Background: Although febrile urinary tract infections are very common in young children, the need for antimicrobial prophylaxis and evaluation following a first event is controversial.

Objectives: To assess the approach of leading pediatric specialists throughout Israel.

Methods: A questionnaire regarding the approach to antibiotic prophylaxis and diagnostic evaluation following a first event of febrile UTI[1], according to age and underlying renal abnormality, was sent to all 58 directors of departments of pediatrics, units of pediatric infectious diseases and pediatric nephrology in Israel.

Results: Fifty-six directors (96%) responded. Most prescribed prophylactic antibiotics after UTI. Heads of infectious disease departments prescribed less prophylaxis following UTI at the age of 18 months than heads of pediatrics or heads of pediatric nephrology units (34% vs. 72–75%, P = 0.018), but more often in cases of severe vesico-ureteral reflux without UTI. Cephalosporins were used prophylactically more often by directors of pediatrics compared to heads of pediatric nephrology units (71% vs. 38%, P = 0.048); the latter used non-beta-lactam prophylaxis (61% vs. 23%, P = 0.013) more often. Most pediatricians used renal sonography for evaluation; renal scan was used more commonly by pediatric nephrologists.

Conclusions: The administration of prophylactic antibiotics after UTI is still common practice among pediatric opinion leaders, although the specific approach differs by subspecialty. According to up-to-date evidence-based data, educational efforts are needed to formulate and implement judicious guidelines.

 




[1] UTI = urinary tract infection


Legal Disclaimer: The information contained in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or medical advice on any matter.
The IMA is not responsible for and expressly disclaims liability for damages of any kind arising from the use of or reliance on information contained within the site.
© All rights to information on this site are reserved and are the property of the Israeli Medical Association. Privacy policy

2 Twin Towers, 35 Jabotinsky, POB 4292, Ramat Gan 5251108 Israel