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עמוד בית
Mon, 24.06.24

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June 2024
Ran Ben David MD, Iftach Sagy MD PhD, Alan Jotkowitz MD, Leonid Barski MD

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute metabolic, life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus with a mortality rate that now stand at less than 1%. Although mortality is coupled with the etiology of DKA, literature on the influence of DKA etiology on patient outcome is scarce.

Objectives: To study different triggers for DKA and their effect on outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study that include 385 DKA patients from 2004 to 2017. The study compared demographics, clinical presentation, and mortality rates by different precipitating factors.

Results: Patients with DKA due to infections had a higher risk to develop in-hospital mortality after controlling for age and sex (odds ratio 4.40, 95% confidence interval 1.3514.30), had a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index score, a higher risk of being mechanical ventilated (14% vs. 3%, P < 0.01), and a longer duration of hospitalization (5 days vs. 3 days, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: It is crucial to find the triggers that precipitate DKA and start the treatment as early as possible in addition to the metabolic aspect of the treatment especially when the trigger is an infectious disease.

Assaf Albagli MD, Ehud Rath MD, Matias Vidra MD, David Ben Haroush MD, Shai Factor MD, Eyal Amar MD

Background: Intra-articular knee injections (IAKI) are commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but may induce anxiety and fear. While existing literature has identified the variance between expected and actual pain levels in various medical procedures, this phenomenon remains unexplored in the context of IAKI.

Objectives: To describe the differences between anticipated and experienced pain recorded during IAKI.

Methods: The study cohort included 50 patients who underwent IAKI by an orthopedic specialist in an outpatient clinic. Patients recruited to the study recorded the anticipated and experienced pain, anxiety index, and factors influencing injection related fear.

Results: The study population (n=50) demonstrated a significant difference between the pain expected before the injection (mean Visual Analogue Scale [VAS] score 6.19) and the actual experienced (mean VAS score 2.07, P-value < 0.001). Significant differences between anticipated and experienced VAS scores were demonstrated for both females and males. There was a significant difference between males and females in terms of estimated VAS score. There was no significant difference between males and females in term of the experienced VAS score. The difference (delta) between expected and experienced pain differed significantly between sexes.

Conclusions: These findings emphasize the importance of educating patients about expected pain levels during IAKI. Presenting this quantified information may reassure patients that the procedure is not as painful as expected, which can potentially increase the compliance.

Elias Nasrallah MD, Hussein Zaitoon MD, Marina Zeltser MD, Ran Steinberg MD, Ran Miron MD, Hanna Farah MD, Ranaa Damouni-Shalabi MD, Imad Kassis MD, Halima Dabaja-Younis MD MPH

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSA) is an infectious pathogen associated with acute appendicitis; however, it is not consistently addressed by empirical antibiotic therapy, despite potential complications.

Objectives: To investigate the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of PSA-associated acute appendicitis in children.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis involving pediatric patients who underwent acute appendicitis surgery and had positive peritoneal cultures. Clinical, microbiological, and intraoperative data were extracted from medical records.

Results: Among 2523 children with acute appendicitis, 798 (31.6%) underwent peritoneal cultures, revealing 338 positive cases (42.3%), with PSA detected in 77 cases (22.8%). Children with PSA were three times more likely to exhibit high intraoperative grading ≥ 3 (93.4% vs. 76.8%, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.2–8.3, P = 0.023) and nearly four times more likely to have polymicrobial cultures (88.3% vs. 62.1%, 95%CI 1.8–8.0, P < 0.001) than those without PSA in peritoneal cultures. Duration of symptoms did not predict PSA isolation (P = 0.827). Patients with PSA had longer median hospital stays (8 days, interquartile range [IQR] 7–10) than those with other pathogens (7 days, IQR 5–9) (P = 0.004). Antibiotic treatment duration, intensive care unit admission rates, readmission, and mortality were similar between the two groups (P = 0.893, 0.197, 0.760, and 0.761, respectively).

Conclusions: PSA is a common pathogen in children diagnosed with acute appendicitis and positive peritoneal cultures. The likelihood of isolating PSA increases with high-grade intraoperative assessment and in the presence of multiple pathogens in peritoneal cultures, suggests antipseudomonal treatment.

David Hazzan MD, Douglas Zippel MD, Lior Segev MD

Background: Although minimally invasive surgery for Crohn’s disease has been validated in previous studies, most of those reports have referred to laparoscopic-assisted procedures with an extra-corporeal anastomosis.

Objectives: To evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of total laparoscopic ileocolic resection with an intracorporeal anastomosis for Crohn’s disease patients.

Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective review of all patients who underwent primary ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease between 2010 and 2021. Group A included 34 patients who underwent total laparoscopic ileocolic resection with intracorporeal anastomosis. Group B comprised 144 patients who underwent an open or laparoscopic-assisted procedure.

Results: No differences were noted in operative time (mean 167 minutes vs. 152 minutes, P = 0.122), length of stay (median 6.4 days vs. 7.5 days, P = 0.135), readmission rates (11.8% vs. 13.2%, P = 1), and microscopic involvement of surgical margins (7.7% vs. 18.5%, P = 0.249). Group A had significantly fewer postoperative surgical site infections (2.9% vs. 22.2% respectively, P = 0.013), with no differences in other complications prevalence. After a median follow-up of 46 months, there were similar rates of endoscopic recurrence (47.1% vs. 51.4%, P = 0.72), clinical recurrence (35.3% vs. 47.9%, P = 0.253), and surgical recurrence (2.9% vs. 4.9%, P = 0.722).

Conclusions: Total laparoscopic ileocolic resection with intracorporeal anastomosis for Crohn’s disease is safe and resulted in favorable outcomes in terms of postoperative wound healing. The long-term disease recurrence rates were like those of laparoscopic-assisted and open ileocolic resection.

Shelly Tartakover Matalon PhD, Noa Rabinowicz PhD, Or Carmi MD, Tali Zitman-Gal PhD, Liat Drucker PhD, Yair Levy MD

Background: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic, immune-mediated condition characterized by fibro-inflammatory lesions with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Diagnosis traditionally relies on histopathological findings, including the presence of IgG4+ plasma cells. However, due to challenges in biopsy accessibility, additional measures are needed to facilitate diagnosis.

Objectives: To identify additional parameters for characterizing IgG4-RD patients.

Methods: We compared several circulating factors between a cohort of patients with IgG4-RD disease seen at our hospital between 2017 and 2023 and healthy controls.

Results: Among 16 suspected patients, 13 were confirmed to have IgG4-RD, and 3 were classified as highly likely. Comparison with controls revealed differences in white blood cell count (WBC) (Folf change (FC) 1.46, P < 0.05), plasmablasts (FC 3.76, P< 0.05), plasmablasts CD38 (FC 1.43, P < 0.05), and CD27 (FC 0.66, P = 0.054), thus highlighting potential markers for IgG4-RD diagnosis. Treatments with steroids/rituximab tend to reduce plasmablast (FC 0.6) and IgG4 (FC 0.28) levels and to increase Gal-3 levels.

Conclusions: Levels of plasmablasts are a significant diagnostic feature in IgG4-RD. Healthy individuals have a lower level of plasmablasts. Elevated Gal-3 in serum of patients with IgG4-RD suggests a role in plasmablast activation. CD38/CD27 expression by plasmablasts emerges as a potential marker. Further research on a larger cohort is needed to confirm these findings.

Milana Gelman MD, Tzipora Galperin MD, Esther Maor-Sagie MD, Yochai Yoeli MD, Mordechai Hallak MD, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv MD, Amir Naeh MD

Background: The prevalence of pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) in women of reproductive age has surged globally, contributing to increased rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a crucial marker for diagnosing and monitoring PGDM, with periconceptional levels influencing the risk of congenital anomalies and complications.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between periconceptional HbA1c levels and perinatal complications in pregnant women with poorly controlled PGDM.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of pregnancies between 2010 and 2019, HbA1c > 6% at 3 months prior to conception or during the first trimester. Outcomes of periconceptional HbA1c levels were compared.

Results: The cohort included 89 women: 49 with HbA1c 6–8%, 29 with HbA1c 8–10%, and 11 with HbA1c > 10%. Higher HbA1c levels were more prevalent in type 1 diabetics and were associated with increased end-organ damage risk. Women with elevated HbA1c levels tended toward unbalanced glucose levels during pregnancy. The cohort exhibited high rates of preterm delivery, hypertensive disorders, cesarean delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Overall live birth rate was 83%. While a significant correlation was found between HbA1c levels and preterm delivery, no consistent association was observed with other adverse outcomes.

Conclusions: Periconceptional glycemic control in PGDM pregnancies is important. Elevated HbA1c levels are associated with increased risks of adverse outcomes. Beyond a certain HbA1c level, risks of complications may not proportionally escalate.

Mahmoud Massalha MD, Sharon Reisfeld MD

Background: Gram-negative bloodstream infections (GN-BSI) are life threatening. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy and source control when indicated improve survival. Dementia is an independent risk factor for death and is associated with increased risk for infections, especially in advanced stages. Data about the best diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with dementia and GN-BSI are lacking.

Objectives: To evaluate patients with dementia and GN-BSI and determine whether diagnostic imaging improves clinical outcomes.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with GN-BSI, during 2019–2022. Patients with or without a diagnosis of dementia were compared. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality and recurrent bacteremia. Demographic, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic data were collected and analyzed.

Results: A total of 87 patients with dementia and 130 without were included. Patients with dementia received appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy in 38% of cases compared to 62% of patients without dementia, P < 0.001. Imaging studies were performed in half of patients in both groups. In the dementia group, 17% had abnormal findings that required source control versus 30% in the control group (P = 0.049). Source control was performed in 15% of patients with dementia versus 28% of patients without dementia (P = 0.032). Mortality was 27.6% in the dementia group versus 22.3% in the control group (P = 0.42).

Conclusions: In patients with dementia and GN-BSI, imaging studies have lower effect on clinical outcomes. Imaging studies should be performed in selected cases only and not conducted routinely.

Yacov Shacham MD

Among patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), deterioration of renal function with resulting acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported in up to 70% of patients with cardiogenic shock. Twenty percent of heart failure patients with AKI progress to dialysis (AKI-D). Optimal timing for initiation of renal replacement therapies (RRT) has been researched; however, minimal studies discuss guidelines for weaning from RRT [1]. Electronic monitoring of urine output (UO) may serve as a tool to aid in withdrawal from RRT. We present a case of ADHF with severe AKI requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) where real-time electronic monitoring of UO was implemented for the first time to guide de-escalation therapy from CRRT until successful withdrawal.

Yuval Avidan MD, Amir Aker MD, Vsevolod Tabachnikov MD

Late arrival ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is defined as a patient-related delay > 12 hours. It is estimated to represent a significant portion of STEMI patients. As reflected by society guidelines, this group of patients impose great therapeutic challenge, namely due to controversy in the literature regarding optimal care, together with major adverse clinical outcomes [1]. In addition to a possible myocardial infarction (MI), mechanical complications include ventricular septal defect (VSD), left ventricular (LV) free wall, or papillary muscle rupture. Prompt diagnosis and intervention are crucial to improve outcomes as post-infarction ventricular septal defect (PIVSD) carries a high mortality rate. We describe the successful management of a large VSD complicated by cardiogenic shock in a latecomer STEMI patient with complex coronary artery disease (CAD).

May 2024
Rabea Haddad MD, Edo Birati MD, Hiba Zayyad MD, Nizar Andria MD, Eyal Nachum MD, Erez Kachel MD, Ibrahim Marai MD

Background: Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are increasingly being used; thus, there is an increasing need for transvenous lead extraction (TLE).

Objectives: To summarize our experience with TLE at single referral center in northern Israel.

Methods: The study included all patients who underwent TLE at our center between 2019 and 2022, regardless of the indication.

Results: The cohort included 50 patients. The mean age was 69 ± 10.36 years; 78% were males. A total of 99 electrodes were targeted. The mean number of electrodes was 1.96 (range 1–4) per patient. The time between lead implantation and extraction ranged between 1.1 and 34 years with an average of 8.14 ± 5.71 years (median of 7.5 years). Complete lead removal was achieved in 98% of patients and in 98.99% of leads. The complete procedural success rate as well as the clinical procedural success rate was 96%. The procedural failure rate was 4% (1 patient died 2 days after the index procedure and 1 patient remained with large portion of lead). The indication for TLE was infection in 78% of the cohort group. Powered mechanical sheaths were used in 36 patients (72%), laser sheaths in 27 (54%), and a combination of laser and mechanical sheaths in 16 (32%).

Conclusions: The clinical and procedural success rates of TLE, primarily for CEID-related infection, were high. A combination of laser and mechanical sheaths was needed in one-third of patients.

Jonathan Eisenberger BSc, Shmuel Somer BSc, Eyal Nachum MD, Eilon Ram MD, Jacob Lavee MD, Leonid Sternik MD, Jeffrey Morgan MD

Background: Long-term support with a HeartMate 3 (HM3) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has improved outcomes of patients with end-stage heart failure. However, there is a paucity of data on the outcomes of patients who underwent concomitant cardiac surgical procedure (CCSP) during HM3-LVAD implantation.

Objectives: To assess our single-center experience with patients who underwent CCSP during the implantation of an HM3-LVAD.

Methods: From December 2016 until April 2022, 131 adult patients underwent HM3-LVAD implantation. A total of 23 patients underwent CCSP during the HM3-LVAD implantation+CCSP, and 108 underwent only HM3-LVAD implantation (HM3-only).

Results: The median age was 59 ± 11 years (range 54-67), 82% (n=108) were male, and 76% (n=100) were implanted as a bridge-to-transplant. The concomitant procedures performed during the implantation included 8 aortic valve repairs/replacements, 14 tricuspid valve repairs, 4 patent foramen ovales or atrial septal defect closures, and 3 other cardiac procedures. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 113 ± 58 minutes for the HM3-only group and 155 ± 47 minutes for the HM3+CCSP group (P = 0.007). The mortality rates at 30 days, 6 months, and 12 months post-implantation were 2 (9%), 5 (22%), and 6 (26%) respectively for the HM3+CCSP group, and 7 (6%), 18 (17%), and 30 (28%) for the HM3-only group (P = 0.658, 0.554, and 1.000).

Conclusions: Our experience demonstrated no significant difference in the 30-day, 6-month, and 12-month mortality rates for patients who underwent a CCSP during HM3-LVAD implantation compared to patients who did not undergo CCSP during HM3-LVAD implantation.

Jen Barak Levitt MD, Shira Barmatz MD, Shira Fisch-Gilad MD, Yossef H. Taieb MD, Adam Dalal MD, Khashayar Afshari MD, Nazgol Haddadi MD, Dana Tzur Bitan MD, Arnon Dov Cohen MD PhD, Daniel Mimouni MD, Emmilia Hodak MD, Shany Sherman MD

Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease involving apocrine gland-bearing regions. There is an under-representation of non-Caucasians in epidemiologic studies of HS. The characteristics of HS in Israeli Arabs have not yet been studied.

Objectives: To investigate the demographic and clinical profile of HS in the Israeli Arab population.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in two cohorts of patients with HS in Israel. The patients were derived from the database of a large health management organization (n=4191, 639 Arabs; population-based) and a major tertiary medical center (n=372, 49 Arabs). Demographic and clinical data were compared between ethnic groups.

Results: The prevalence of HS in Israeli Arabs was found to be 0.5%, fivefold higher than in Jews. Arab patients were younger (35.3 vs. 40.5 years, P < 0.001) and mostly male (52% vs. 35.7%, p < 0.001), with lower rates of co-morbidities, including smoking (40.8% vs. 55.7%, p < 0.001), hyperlipidemia, and depression as well as a higher rate of dissecting cellulitis (10.2% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.008). HS was more severe in Arabs, but of shorter duration, with mainly axillary involvement (79.6% vs. 57.9%, p = 0.004). Treatment with hormones was more common in Jews, and with biologic agents in Arabs.

Conclusions: The findings suggest a different phenotype of HS in Arabs, warranting further study.

Waseem Abboud DMD MD, Dror Shamir DMD MSc, Rania Elkhatib MD, Heli Rushinek DMD, Yoli Bitterman DMD MSc, Mati Cohen Sela DMD, Adir Cohen DMD MSc

Background: Condylar hyperplasia is a non-neoplastic overgrowth of the mandibular condyle. The disorder is progressive and causes gradual jaw deviation, facial asymmetry, and dental malocclusion. The only treatment capable of stopping hyperplastic growth is surgical condylectomy to remove the upper portion of the condyle containing the deranged growth center. When this procedure is conducted in proportion to the length of the healthy side it may also correct the jaw deviation and facial asymmetry.

Objectives: To assess the degree to which condylectomy corrects the asymmetry and to determine the proportion of patients after condylectomy who were satisfied with the esthetic result and did not desire further corrective surgery.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients who underwent condylectomy that was not followed by corrective orthognathic surgery for at least 1 year to determine the degree of correction of chin deviation and lip cant. Patient satisfaction from treatment or desire and undergo further corrective surgery was reported.

Results: Chin deviation decreased after condylectomy from a mean of 4.8⁰ to a mean of 1.8⁰ (P < 0.001). Lip cant decreased after condylectomy from a mean of 3.5⁰ to a mean of 1.5⁰ (P < 0.001). Most patients (72%) were satisfied with the results and did not consider further corrective orthognathic surgery.

Conclusions: Proportional condylectomy could be a viable treatment to both arrest the condylar overgrowth and achieve some correction of the facial asymmetry.

Oshrit Hoffer PhD, Moriya Cohen BS, Maya Gerstein MD, Vered Shkalim Zemer MD, Yael Richenberg MD, Shay Nathanson MD, Herman Avner Cohen MD

Background: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the predominant bacterial pathogen of pharyngitis in children. However, distinguishing GAS from viral pharyngitis is sometimes difficult. Unnecessary antibiotic use contributes to unwanted side effects, such as allergic reactions and diarrhea. It also may increase antibiotic resistance. 

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a machine learning algorithm on the clinical evaluation of bacterial pharyngitis in children.

Methods: We assessed 54 children aged 2–17 years who presented to a primary healthcare clinic with a sore throat and fever over 38°C from 1 November 2021 to 30 April 2022. All children were tested with a streptococcal rapid antigen detection test (RADT). If negative, a throat culture was performed. Children with a positive RADT or throat culture were considered GAS-positive and treated antibiotically for 10 days, as per guidelines. Children with negative RADT tests throat cultures were considered positive for viral pharyngitis. The children were allocated into two groups: Group A streptococcal pharyngitis (GAS-P) (n=36) and viral pharyngitis (n=18). All patients underwent a McIsaac score evaluation. A linear support vector machine algorithm was used for classification.

Results: The machine learning algorithm resulted in a positive predictive value of 80.6 % (27 of 36) for GAS-P infection. The false discovery rates for GAS-P infection were 19.4 % (7 of 36).

Conclusions: Applying the machine-learning strategy resulted in a high positive predictive value for the detection of streptococcal pharyngitis and can contribute as a medical decision aid in the diagnosis and treatment of GAS-P.

Tal Frenkel Rutenberg MD, Alon Ben Uri MD, Omer Slevin MD, Yona Kosashvili MD, Franck Atlan MD, Sorin Daniel Iordache MD

Background: Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis (PFT) is a common and severe hand infection. Patients who present early can be treated with intravenous antibiotics.

Objectives: To determine whether PFT caused by animal bites and treated with antibiotics leads to a different outcome than other disease etiologies due to the extensive soft tissue insult and different bacterial flora.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43 consecutive patients who presented with PFT between 2013 and 2020. The 10 patients who presented with PFT following an animal bite were compared to those who presented with PFT caused by any other etiology.

Results: Patients who were bitten pursued medical attention sooner: 1.9 ± 1.4 days compared with 5.3 ± 4.7 days (P = 0.001). Despite the quicker presentation, patients from the study group received similar antibiotic types and duration as controls. All patients were initially treated with intravenous antibiotics under surveillance of a hand surgeon. One patient (10%) from the study group and four controls (12%) were treated surgically (P = 1). Average follow-up was 17 ± 16 days. At the end of follow-up, one (10%) patient from the study group and three (9%) controls sustained mild range of motion limitation and one (3%) patient from the control group had moderate limitations (P = 0.855).

Conclusions: Intravenous antibiotic treatment, combined with an intensive hand surgeon follow-up, is a viable option for the treatment of PFT caused by animal bites.

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