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עמוד בית
Tue, 23.04.24

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March 2022
Inbar Nardi-Agmon MD MPH, Alona Zer MD, Yuri Peysakhovich MD, Ili Margalit MD, Ran Kornowski MD, Nir Peled MD PhD, and Zaza Iakobishvili MD PhD

Background: No specific clinical or histological factors are recognized to be associated with the development of pericardial effusion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) other than a metastatic disease.

Objectives: To assess whether specific clinical and histological features are associated with development of pericardial effusion in patients with NSCLC.

Methods: A consecutive cohort of patients with NSCLC who presented with symptomatic pericardial effusion 2014–2017 was compared to a control group of patients with advanced NSCLC without pericardial effusion.

Results: The 27 patients in the effusion group were generally younger, more often female, and with a higher percentage of never-smokers, compared to the 54 patients of the control group. Epidermal growth factor receptor/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EGFR/ALK) mutation tumors were found in 48% of patients in the effusion group vs. 25% in the control group. In the multivariate analysis, the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for the development of pericardial effusion in patients with somatic mutations was significantly higher compared to wild type tumors (OR 2.65, 95% confidence interval 1.00–7.00). However, a suspected association between pericardial effusion and mutation status was found to be confounded by age. While a high rate of recurrence was observed when pericardiocentesis was initially performed (9/17, 53%), no recurrence was documented when pericardial window procedure was performed (total of 17 patients).

Conclusions: Patients with EGFR/ALK mutations may be at higher risk for the development of pericardial effusion; therefore, attending physicians need to be aware and have a high index of clinical suspicion

March 2019
Efrat Ben-Nun Yaari BSc, Rivka Kauli MD, Pearl Lilos MA and Zvi Laron MD PhD

Background: Treatment of patients with childhood growth hormone deficiency is usually terminated at the end of puberty. Follow-up into adult age is rare, even more so in patients with congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency (cIGHD).

Objectives: To assess the clinical and social characteristics of adults with cIGHD who received growth hormone (hGH) treatment in childhood.

Methods: Thirty-nine patients (23 men, 16 women) diagnosed in our clinic with cIGHD at 7 ± 4.2 years, and treated with hGH during childhood for 2–18 years, were followed into adulthood (mean age 30.7 ± 13.3 years). Ascertained detailed data were found for 32 patients.

Results: Mean ± SD height for males was 160.2 ± 10.6 cm and for females 146.4 ± 5.4 cm. All patients achieved full sexual development and 14 were married. After cessation of GH treatment and with advanced age all exhibited a progressive increase in adiposity to the degree of obesity. Twelve patients suffered from hyperlipidemia, 4 developed diabetes mellitus, and 5 have cardiovascular diseases. One patient died in an accident. None developed cancer. Of the 39 patients, 22 have an education level of high school or higher, and 2 are in special institutions. Most are employed in manual labor.

Conclusions: Patients with congenital IGHD who do not receive early and regular replacement treatment are prone to lag in achieving normal height and suffer from educational and vocational handicaps.

November 2018
Eliyahu Zaig MD, Odile Cohen-Ouaknine MD, Anat Tsur MD, Sheila Nagar MD, Gherta Bril MD, Lior Tolkin MD, Avivit Cahn MD, Mozhgan Heyman and Benjamin Glaser MD

Background: Reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone (RSTH) syndrome describes a group of rare heterogeneous genetic disorders. Precise diagnosis is essential to avoid unnecessary treatment.

Objectives: To identify and characterize previously undiagnosed patients with RSTH in Israel.

Methods: Patients with suspected RSTH throughout Israel were referred for study. After clinical evaluation, genomic DNA was obtained and all coding exons of the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene were sequenced. If mutations were found, all available blood relatives were evaluated. The common polymorphism rs2596623, a putative intronic regulatory variant, was also genotyped. Genotype/phenotype correlations were sought, and the effect of mutation status on pregnancy outcome was determined.

Results: Eight mutations (one novel; two de-novo, six dominant) were identified in eight probands and 13 family members. Clinical and genetic features were similar to those reported in other populations. Previous suggestions that rs2596623 predicts clinical features were not confirmed. There was no evidence of increased risk of miscarriage or fetal viability. Mothers carrying a THRB mutation tended to have increased gestational hypertension and low weight gain during pregnancy. Their affected offspring had increased risk of small-for-gestational age and poor postnatal weight gain.

Conclusions: Clinical heterogeneity due to THRB mutations cannot be explained by the variant rs2596623. Mothers and newborns with THRB mutations seem to be at increased risk of certain complications, such as gestational hypertension and poor intrauterine and postnatal growth. However, these issues are usually mild, suggesting that routine intervention to regulate thyroid hormone levels may not be warranted in these patients.

Naim Abu Freha MD MHA, Wafi Badarna MD, Muhammad Abu Tailakh RN MPH PhD, Heba Abu Kaf MD, Alex Fich MD, Doron Schwartz MD, Arik Segal, Jabir Elkrinawi and Amir Karban MD

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) prevalence is increasing among Bedouin Arabs in Israel. This population is known to have a high rate of consanguinity. NOD2/CARD15 mutations are well-studied in IBD.

Objectives: To investigate the frequency of NOD2/CARD15 mutations in IBD Bedouin patients and their relevance to disease phenotype.

Methods: The IBD-Arab cohort in southern Israel included 68 patients, of which 25 Crohn's disease (CD) patients and 25 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients consented to participate (72%). Blood samples were obtained from all participants who were genotyped for NOD2/CARD15 variants Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg, and Leu1007fsinsC.

Results: The NOD2/CARD15 mutation frequency was higher in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis patients. Carrier frequency for the Gly908Arg mutation in CD and UC patients was 8/25 (32%) and 3/25 (12%), respectively (P = 0.08). Neither the Arg702Trp nor Leu1007fsinsC mutation was found in our cohort. No homozygous/compound heterozygote mutations were found. Genotype-phenotype analysis revealed that CD patients carrying the Gly908Arg mutation were younger at diagnosis, 22.8 ± 4.5 vs. 28.82 ± 9.1 years (P = 0.04). All carriers were males, compared with 41.2% in non-carriers (P = 0.005). NOD2/CARD15 mutation carriers with UC were older, 67.0 ± 24.5 years compared with 41.2 ± 12.3 years (P = 0.006). No other associations regarding disease localization or other clinical parameter were found.

Conclusions: The frequency of NOD2/CARD15 gene mutations is high in CD and UC among Bedouin Arab IBD patients and is associated with younger age at onset in CD and male gender.

September 2017
Ido-David Dechtman MD, Chagai Grossman MD, Yael Shinar MD, Rinat Cohen MD, Eyal Nachum MD, Ehud Raanani MD, Avi Livneh MD and Ilan Ben-Zvi MD

Background: Postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) is characterized by pleuro-pericardial inflammation, which occurs in patients undergoing surgical procedures involving the pleura, pericardium, or both. The syndrome is considered to be immune mediated. However, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. It has previously been demonstrated that the Mediterranean Fever (MEFV) gene, which is associated with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), has a role in the activation and expression of several inflammatory diseases.

Objectives: To investigate whether carriage of the MEFV mutation may precipitate PPS or affect its phenotype.

Methods: The study population included 45 patients who underwent cardiac surgery and developed PPS. The control group was comprised of 41 patients who did not develop PPS. Clinical and demographic data was collected. The severity of PPS was evaluated. Genetic analysis to determine the carriage of one the three most common MEFV gene mutations (M694V, V726A, E148Q) was performed. The carriage rate of MEFV mutations in patients with and without PPS was compared. Association between MEFV mutation carriage and severity of PPS was evaluated. 

Results: The rate of mutation carriage in the MEFV gene was similar in patients with and without PPS (15.6% in the study groups vs. 29.3% in the control group, P = 0.1937). The rate of mutation carriage in the MEFV gene was significantly lower among patients with severe PPS as compared to patients with mild-moderate PPS (4.8% vs. 25%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Carriage of mutations in the MEFV gene is not associated with development of PPS; however, it may affect PPS severity.

 

August 2017
Karen Belkić MD PhD and Dževad Belkić PhD

Ovarian cancer is a major cause of cancer death among women worldwide, and particularly in Israel. Although the disease at stage IA has 5 year survival rates of over 90%, early detection methods are not sufficiently accurate. Consequently, ovarian cancer is typically diagnosed late, which results in high fatality rates. An excellent candidate for early ovarian cancer detection would be in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) because it is non-invasive and free of ionizing radiation. In addition, it potentially identifies metabolic features of cancer. Detecting these metabolic features depends on adequate processing of encoded MRS time signals for reconstructing interpretable information. The conventional Fourier-based method currently used in all clinical scanners is inadequate for this task. Thus, cancerous and benign ovarian lesions are not well distinguished. Advanced signal processing, such as the fast Padé transform (FPT) with high-resolution and clinically reliable quantification, is needed. The effectiveness of the FPT was demonstrated in proof-of-concept studies on noise-controlled MRS data associated with benign and cancerous ovaries. The FPT has now been successfully applied to MRS time signals encoded in vivo from a borderline serous cystic ovarian tumor. Noise was effectively separated out to identify and quantify genuine spectral constituents that are densely packed and often overlapping. Among these spectral constituents are recognized and possible cancer biomarkers including phosphocholine, choline, isoleucine, valine, lactate, threonine, alanine, and myoinositol. Most of these resonances remain undetected with Fourier-based in vivo MRS of the ovary. With Padé optimization, in vivo MRS could become a key method for assessing ovarian lesions, more effectively detecting ovarian cancer early, thereby improving survival for women afflicted with this malignancy.

March 2015
Slavomíra Mattošová MSc, Ján Chandoga MD PhD, Anna Hlavatá MD PhD MPH, Jana Šaligová MD and Danka Maceková PhD

Abstract

Background: Gaucher disease is the most common lysosomal storage disorder and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Enzyme deficiency leads to the accumulation of undegraded substrates, mainly in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, which is responsible for the clinical manifestations of the disease. To date, no study has attempted to identify the mutation spectrum of the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) in Slovak patients

Objectives: To identify mutations in 14 Slovak patients with confirmed glucocerebrosidase deficiency.

Methods: Using molecular genetics methods PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) and direct sequencing of coding region GBA we identified the spectrum of mutations in our patients.

Results: Five mutations (N370S, L444P, G377S, D409H and RecNciI) accounted for 75% of the mutant alleles. The remaining 25% were rare and probably individual mutations.

Conclusions: The mutational spectrum in our patients is similar to that observed in other European countries and corresponds to a Caucasian population, with N370S, L444P, RecNciI being the most common mutation. Interestingly, mutation G377S was more frequent in our patients as compared to other published data. The C4W, L96P, H311N, 745delG and 1127_1128delTT mutations are described here for the first time in Gaucher disease, contributing to the panel of published GBA mutations.  

December 2014
November 2014
Silvia Bronstein MSc, Mazal Karpati PhD and Leah Peleg PhD

Background: Gaucher disease is the most prevalent inherited disorder among Ashkenazi Jews (carrier frequency of about 6%) and six mutations account for about 96% of their mutant alleles. Two mutations, N370S and R496H, have been reported only in mildly affected or asymptomatic patients, Due to the rarity of R496H, it was recommended that it be excluded from screening programs. 

Objectives: To verify the frequency and trace the origin of Gaucher mutations in screened individuals whose Ashkenazi ethnicity was confirmed by the birthplace of their grandparents.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the screened results for the period 2006–2011. Mutations were identified by restriction analysis, Tag-ItTM detection system, Pronto® diagnostic kit and Nanogen technology (NanoChip® 400).

Results: The heterozygote frequency of eight mutations was estimated in a cohort of 16,910 alleles. Two mutations, N370S and R496H, were the most frequent in our population. However, while the occurrence of N370S carriers was similar to other reports (1:19.4), that of R496H carriers was considerably elevated (1:207). Examination of the screened individuals' ethnicity showed a significant difference in the distribution pattern of the country of origin between the carriers of these two mutations.

Conclusions: The origin pattern differences between the two groups of heterozygotes might reflect a separate geographic region of introduction for various mutations. As a result, secondary subgroups could be formed within the Ashkenazi population. This might clarify the dissimilarities in the occurrence of R496H mutation reported by various centers. 

April 2011
Y. Kilim, N. Magal and M. Shohat

Background: Since the identification of the MEFV gene 198 mutations have been identified, not all of which are pathologic. The screening methods used in Israel to test patients suspected of having FMF include a kit that tests for the five main mutations (M694V, V726A, M680Ic/g, M694I, E148Q), and the sequencing of MEFV exon 10 in combination with restriction analysis for detecting additional mutations.

Objectives: To determine the contribution of testing for five additional mutations – A744S, K695R, M680Ic/t, R761H and P369S – to the molecular diagnosis of patients clinically suspected of having FMF.

Methods: A total of 1637 patients were tested for FMF mutations by sequencing exon 10 and performing restriction analysis for mutations E148Q and P369S.

Results: Nearly half the patients (812, 49.6%) did not have any detectable mutations, 581 (35.5%) had one mutation, 241 (14.7%) had two mutations, of whom 122 were homozygous and 119 compound heterozygous, and 3 had three mutations. Testing for the additional five mutations enabled us to identify 46 patients who would have been missed by the molecular diagnosis kit and 22 patients who would have been found to have only one mutation. Altogether, 4.3% of the patients would not have been diagnosed correctly by using only the kit that tests for the five main mutations.

Conclusions: This study suggests that testing for the additional five mutations as well as the five main mutations in patients with a clinical presentation of FMF adds significantly to the molecular diagnosis of FMF in the Israeli population.
 

November 2007
Y. Laitman, B. Kaufmann, E. Levy Lahad, M.Z. Papa and E. Friedman

Background: Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes account for only 20–40% of familial breast cancer cases. The CHEK2 gene encodes a checkpoint kinase, involved in response to DNA damage, and hence is a candidate gene for breast cancer susceptibility. Indeed, the CHEK2*1100delC truncating mutation was reported in a subset of mostly North European breast cancer families. The rate of the CHEK2*1100delC variant in the Ashkenazi* Jewish population was reported to be 0.3%.

Objectives: To evaluate whether CHEK2 germline mutations contribute to a breast cancer predisposition in Ashkenazi-Jewish high risk families.

Methods: High risk Ashkenazi Jewish women, none of whom was a carrier of the predominant Jewish mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2, were genotyped for germline mutations in the CHEK2 gene by exon-specific polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of abnormally migrating fragments.

Results: Overall, 172 high risk women were genotyped: 75 (43.6%) with breast cancer (average age at diagnosis 49.6 ± 9.6 years, mean ± SD) and 97 asymptomatic individuals (age at counseling 48.3 ± 8.2 years). No truncating mutations were noted and four previously described missense mutations were detected (R3W 1.2%, I157T 1.2%, R180C 0.6% and S428F 5%), one silent polymorphism (E84E 20.5%) and one novel missense mutation (Y424H 1.2%). Segregation analysis of the I157T and S428F mutations (shown to affect protein function) with the cancer phenotype showed concordance for the CHK2*I157T mutation, as did two of three families with the CHK2*S428F mutation.

Conclusions: CHEK2 missense mutations may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility in Ashkenazi Jews.

 






*  Of East European descent


July 2007
D.Lotan, G.Yoskovitz, L.Bisceglia, L.Gerad, H.Reznik-Wolf and E.Pras

Background: Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disease that is manifested by kidney stones   and is caused by mutations in two genes: SLC3A1 on chromosome 2p and SLC7A9 on chromosome 19q. Urinary cystine levels in obligate carriers are often, but not always, helpful in identifying the causative gene.

Objectives: To characterize the clinical features and analyze the genetic basis of cystinuria in an inbred Moslem Arab Israeli family.

Methods: Family members were evaluated for urinary cystine and amino acid levels. DNA was initially analyzed with polymorphic markers close to the two genes and SLC7A9 was fully sequenced.

Results: Full segregation was found with the marker close to SLC7A9. Sequencing of this gene revealed a missense mutation, P482L, in the homozygous state in all three affected sibs.

Conclusions: A combination of urinary cystine levels in obligate carriers, segregation analysis with polymorphic markers, and sequencing can save time and resources in the search for cystinuria mutations.
 

October 2003
R. Brik, M. Shinawi and R. Gershoni-Baruch
August 2003
N. Zaks, Y. Shinar, S. Padeh, M. Lidar, A. Mor, I. Tokov, M. Pras, P. Langevitz, E. Pras and A. Livneh

Background: Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and serositis. The disease is caused by mutations in the MEFV gene, presumed to act as a down-regulator of inflammation within the polymorphonuclear cells.

Objectives: To present the results of 412 FMF patients genotyped for three MEFV mutations, M694V, V726A and E148Q.

Results: The most frequent mutation, M694V, was detected in 47% of the carrier chromosomes. This mutation, especially common among North African Jewish FMF[1] patients, was not found in any of the Ashkenazi (East European origin) patients. Overall, one of the three mutations was detected in 70% of the carrier chromosomes. M694V/M694V was the most common genotype (27%), followed by M694V/V726A (16%). The full genotype could be assessed in 57% of the patients, and one disease-causing mutation in an additional 26%. Only one patient with the E148Q/E148Q genotype was detected despite a high carrier rate for this mutation in the Jewish population, a finding consistent with a low penetrance of this genotype. The M694V/M694V genotype was observed in 15 patients with amyloidosis compared to 4 amyloidosis patients with other genotypes (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Because of low penetrance and as yet other undetermined reasons, mutation analysis of the most common MEFV mutations supports a clinical diagnosis in only about 60% of patients with definite FMF.

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[1] FMF = familial Mediterranean fever


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