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עמוד בית
Tue, 25.06.24

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November 2022
Regev Landau MD, Ana Belkin MD, Sapir Kon-Kfir MD, Nira Koren-Morag PhD, Avishay Grupper MD, David Shimunov MD, Ben-Ami Sela PhD, Ehud Grossman MD, Gadi Shlomai MD, Avshalom Leibowitz MD

Background: Most dyspneic patients in internal medicine departments have co-morbidities that interfere with the clinical diagnosis. The role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels is well-established in the acute setting but not in hospitalized patients.

Objectives: To evaluate the additive value of BNP tests in patients with dyspnea admitted to medical wards who did not respond to initial treatment.

Methods: We searched the records of patients who were hospitalized in the department of internal medicine D at Sheba Medical Center during 2012 and were tested for BNP in the ward. Data collected included co-morbidity, medical treatments, diagnosis at presentation and discharge, lab results including BNP, re-hospitalization, and mortality at one year following hospitalization.

Results: BNP results were found for 169 patients. BNP was taken 1.7 ± 2.7 days after hospitalization. According to BNP levels, dividing the patients into tertiles revealed three equally distributed groups with a distinctive character. The higher tertile was associated with higher rates of cardiac co-morbidities, including heart failure, but not chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Higher BNP levels were related to one-year re-hospitalization and mortality. In addition, higher BNP levels were associated with higher rates of in-admission diagnosis change.

Conclusions: BNP levels during hospitalization in internal medicine wards are significantly related to cardiac illness, the existence of heart failure, and patient prognosis. Thus, BNP can be a useful tool in managing dyspneic patients in this setting.

November 2019
Agata Schlesinger MD, Avraham Weiss MD, Olga Nenaydenko MD, Nira Koren-Morag PhD, Abraham Adunsky MD and Yichayaou Beloosesky MD, MHA

Background: Statins and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have beneficial effects on health outcomes in the general population. Their effect on survival in debilitated nursing home residents is unknown.

Objectives: To assess the relationships between statins, SSRIs, and survival of nursing home residents.

Methods: Baseline patient characteristics, including chronic medications, were recorded. The association of 5-year survival with different variables was analyzed. A sub-group analysis of survival was performed according to baseline treatment with statins and/or SSRIs.

Results: The study comprised 993 residents from 6 nursing homes. Of them, 285 were males (29%), 750 (75%) were fully dependent, and 243 (25%) were mobile demented. Mean age was 85 ± 7.6 years (range 65–108). After 5 years follow-up, the mortality rate was 81%. Analysis by sub-groups showed longer survival among older adults treated with only statins (hazard ratio [HR] for death 0.68, 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 0.49–0.94) or only SSRIs (HR 0.6, 95%CI 0.45–0.81), with the longest survival among those taking both statins and SSRIs (HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.25–0.67) and shortest among residents not taking statins or SSRIs (P < 0.001). The survival benefit remained significant after adjusting for age and after conducting a multivariate analysis adjusted for sex, functional status, body mass index, mini-mental state examination, feeding status, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and hemato-oncological diagnosis.

Conclusion: Treatment with statins and/or SSRIs at baseline was associated with longer survival in debilitated nursing home residents and should not be deprived from these patients, if medically indicated. 

Ram Mazkereth MD, Ayala Maayan-Metzger MD, Leah Leibovitch MD, Irit Schushan-Eisen MD, Iris Morag MD and Tzipora Straus MD M.Sc

Background: The need for postnatal monitoring of infants exposed to intrauterine beta blockers (BBs) has not been clearly defined.

Objectives: To evaluate infants exposed to intrauterine BBs in order to estimate the need for postnatal monitoring.

Methods: This retrospective case-control study comprised 153 term infants born to mothers who had been treated with BBs during pregnancy. Treatment indications included hypertension 76 mothers (49.7%), cardiac arrhythmias 48 (31.4%), rheumatic heart disease 14 (9.1%), cardiomyopathy 11 (7.2%) and migraine 4 (2.6%). The controls were infants of mothers with hypertension not exposed to BBs who were born at the same gestational age and born closest (before or after) to the matched infant in the study group.

Results: Compared to the control group, the infants in the study group had a higher prevalence of early asymptomatic hypoglycemia (study 30.7% vs. control 18.3%, P = 0.016), short symptomatic bradycardia events, other cardiac manifestations (P = 0.016), and longer hospitalization (P < 0.001). No life-threatening medical conditions were documented. The birth weight was significantly lower for the high-dose subgroup compared to the low-dose subgroup (P = 0.03), and the high-dose subgroup had a higher incidence of small-for-gestational-age (P = 0.02).

Conclusions: No alarming or life-threatening medical conditions were observed among term infants born to BB treated mothers. These infants can be safely observed for 48 hours after birth close to their mothers in the maternity ward. Glucose follow-up is needed, especially in the first hours of life.

 

February 2019
Sol Jaworowski MBBS FRANZCP, Jean-Louis Golmard MD PhD, Morag Engelberg MD, Sarah Prijs, Lital Twizer, Cornelius Gropp MD and Joseph Mergui MD

Background: A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been linked to a variety of physical and psychiatric illnesses, including ischemic heart disease and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of past CSA and re-traumatization among hospital psychiatric consultations and to determine whether a CSA group in a hospital setting shared characteristics with community samples described in the literature.

Methods: We divided 228 consecutive psychiatric consultations into two groups. One group comprised patients with a past history of CSA while the other group had no such history. Both groups were further divided into a subgroup that presented with features of re-traumatization.

Results: In the cohort, 38% described a history of CSA. Twenty patients were identified as presenting with features of re-traumatization. There were significant differences between the two groups. The patients with a history of CSA were more likely to have arrived at the emergency department (ED) during the preceding 12 months with a diagnosis of PTSD, personality disorder, and substance use disorder. There was a greater proportion of patients in the CSA group who had grown up in an ultra-Orthodox Jewish household and who currently identified as being secular.

Conclusions: The characteristics of the patients with past CSA in this study are similar to community-based samples, except for a significant gender difference. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate CSA history during hospital ED psychiatric consultations. A history of CSA should be considered during psychiatric consultations in a general hospital ED admission.

September 2017
Marianna Rachmiel MD, Larisa Naugolni MD, Kineret Mazor-Aronovitch MD, Nira Koren-Morag PhD and Tzvi Bistritzer MD

Background: Bone maturation is currently assessed by subjective and automated radiography. 

Objectives: To evaluate the concordance and reproducibility of a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) based device versus X-ray based methods.

Methods: The study population comprised 150 children, 76 males, 4–17 years of age. X-ray scans were evaluated according to wrist, carpal and phalanx areas for bone age. QUS was performed by the the BAUS™ device (SonicBone, Rishon Lezion, Israel), using speed-of-sound (SOS) and distance attenuation factor (ATN) in similar areas. Data from 100 subjects were used to establish the device conversion equation, and 50 measurements were assigned to assess inter-modality agreement. 

Results: BAUS showed high repeatability performance, 0.73% relative standard deviation for SOS and 3.5% for ATN. R2 for the conversion equation, including gender, SOS, and ATN, was 0.80 for all methods (P < 0.001). There was no significant bias in bone age assessments.

Conclusions: Bone age assessment by SonicBone is comparable to the assessment by X-ray based methods. 

 

April 2015
Dorit E. Zilberman MD, Uri Rimon MD, Roy Morag MD, Harry Z. Winkler MD, Jacob Ramon MD and Yoram Mor MD

Abstract

Background: Iatrogenic ureteral injury may be seen following abdominopelvic surgeries. While ureteral injuries identified during surgery should be immediately and surgically repaired, those that are postoperatively diagnosed may be treated non-surgically by draining the ipsilateral kidney. Data regarding the outcome of this approach are still missing.

Objectives: To evaluate the success rates of non-surgical management of ureteral injuries diagnosed following abdominopelvic surgeries.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the files of all patients treated for iatrogenic ureteral injuries diagnosed following abdominopelvic surgeries. Patients' ipsilateral kidney was percutaneously drained following diagnosis of injury by either nephrostomy tube (NT)/nephro-ureteral stent (NUS) or double-J stent (DJS) inserted retrogradely. The tube was left in place until a pyelogram confirmed healing or a conservative approach was abandoned due to failure.

Results: Twenty-nine patients were identified as having ureteral injury following abdominopelvic surgery. Median time from injury to renal drainage was 9 days, interquartile range (IQR) 4–17 days. Seven cases (24%) had surgical repair. Among the other 22 patients, in 2 oncology patients the conservative approach was maintained although renal drainage failed to resolve the injury. In the remaining 20, median drainage length was 60 days (IQR 43.5–85). Calculated overall success rates following renal drainage was 69% (18/29), and with NS approached 78.5%.

Conclusions: Ureteral injuries diagnosed following abdominopelvic surgeries can be treated conservatively. Ipsilateral renal drainage should be the first line of treatment before surgical repair, and NUS may be the preferred drainage to obtain spontaneous ureteral healing. 

July 2014
Michael Arad MD, Tamar Nussbaum MD, Ido Blechman BA, Micha S. Feinberg MD, Nira Koren-Morag PhD,Yael Peled MD and Dov Freimark MD

Background: Contemporary therapies improve prognosis and may restore left ventricular (LV) size and function.

Objectives: To examine the prevalence, clinical features and therapies associated with reverse remodeling (RR) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Methods: The study group comprised 188 DCM patients who had undergone two echo examinations at least 6 months apart. RR was defined as increased LV ejection fraction (LVEF) by ≥ 10% concomitant with ≥ 10% decreased LV end-diastolic dimension.

Results: RR occurred in 50 patients (26%) and was associated with significantly reduced end-systolic dimension, left atrial size, grade of mitral regurgitation, and pulmonary artery pressure. NYHA class improved in the RR group. RR was less common in familial DCM and a long-standing disease and was more prevalent in patients with prior exposure to chemotherapy. Recent-onset disease, lower initial LVEF and normal electrocardiogram were identified as independent predictors of RR. Beta-blocker dose was related to improved LVEF but not to RR. Over a mean follow-up of 23 months, 16 patients (12%) from the 'no-RR' group died or underwent heart transplantation compared to none from the RR group (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Contemporary therapies led to an an improvement in the condition of a considerable number of DCM patients. A period of close observation while optimizing medical therapy should be considered before deciding on invasive procedures. 

March 2010
M. Stein, H. Roisin, B. Morag, S. Ringel, D. Tasher, M. Vohl, A. Mizrahi, M. Raz and E. Somekh

Background: While the burden of rotavirus infection with regard to hospitalizations has been extensively investigated, there are sparse data regarding the impact and the cost of this infection on the ambulatory part of the health system in Israel.

Objectives: To investigate the burden of rotavirus infection on the ambulatory system in Israel.

Methods: Infants younger than 3 years old examined for acute gastrointestinal symptoms in four pediatric clinics had their stool tested for rotavirus. The parents were contacted 7–10 days later and questioned about the symptoms of illness, medications given, use of diapers, consumption of formula, and any loss of parents' workdays.

Results: Rotavirus was detected in 71 of the 145 stool samples tested (49%). A total of 51 parents responded to the telephonic survey. Patients' mean age was 15.4 months. Three patients were hospitalized due to the illness. The mean duration of fever was 1.7 days. Infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis had on average 2.25 days of vomiting and 7.5 days of diarrhea. The average number of workdays lost was 2.65 days per RVGE[1] case. The cost of the average case of RVGE in Israel is 257 euros; 69.64% of this cost (179 euros) is due to parental work loss.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the economic impact of the ambulatory cases in Israel is quite significant.

 






[1] RVGE = rotavirus gastroenteritis


October 2009
N. Koren-Morag, D. Tanne and U. Goldbourt

Background: The incidence of stroke varies among ethnically and culturally diverse groups.

Objectives: To examine the ethnic-geographic patterns of stroke incidence in men and women with coronary heart disease in Israel, focusing on the extent to which this variability can be explained by known differences in risk factors for stroke.

Methods: Patients with documented coronary heart disease were followed for 6–8 years for incident cerebrovascular events. Baseline medical evaluation included assessment of vascular risk factors and measures of blood lipids. Among 15,052 patients, a total of 1110 were identified with any incident ischemic cerebrovascular event by ICD-9 codes, of whom 613 had confirmed ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Results: A major excess of ischemic cerebrovascular events among Israeli Arab women as compared to males, and an inverse finding among Israeli born Jews, were noted. The high risk in the Arab population in Israel reflected an unfavorable risk profile, since predicted rates by multivariate analysis and observed rates were 69 and 68 per 1000, respectively. High ischemic cerebrovascular event rates were identified among patients born in the Balkan countries and North Africa (89 and 90 per 1000) but unfavorable risk factor levels of these individuals did not explain them. Most trends appeared similar in male and female patients. A comparison of observed and accepted-according-to-risk-profile rates of ischemic cerebrovascular events yielded significant differences (P = 0.04), consistent with an additional role of geographic/ethnic origin, resulting from factors that remain unrecognized,or with variables unassessed in this study.

Conclusions: We identified an ethnic diversity in stroke risk among Israeli born in different parts of the world beyond what could be expected on the basis of differences in known risk factors. These findings call for detailed research aimed at identifying additional differences in the risk profile of patients with atherothrombotic disease exposed to an increased risk of stroke.
 

July 2009
D. Freimark, M. Arad, S. Matetzky, I. DeNeen, L. Gershovitz, N. Koren Morag, N. Hochberg, Y. Makmal and M. Shechter

Background: Chronic heart failure is associated with excessive hospitalizations and poor prognosis.

Objectives: To summarize the 5 year experience of a single-center CHF[1] day care service, detect the cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular events, and evaluate the safety of the treatments provided.

Methods: We retrospectively studied all patients admitted to the CHF day care service of the Sheba Medical Center between September 2000 and September 2005.

Results: Advanced (New York Heart Association class III-IV) CHF patients (n=190), mean age 65 ± 12 years and left ventricular ejection fraction 25 ± 11%, were treated for 6 hourly biweekly visits; 77% had ischemic and 23% had non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Treatment included: intravenous diuretic combinations (91%), intermittent low dose (≤ 5 mg/kg/min) dobutamine (87%), low dose (≤ 3 mg/kg/min) dopamine (38%), intravenous iron preparation and/or blood (47%), and intravenous nitropruside (36%). Follow-up of at least 1 year from initiation of therapy was completed in 158 of 190 patients (83%). Forty-six (29.3%) died: 23% due to CHF exacerbation, 5.7% from infection, 4.4% from sudden cardiac death, 3.8% from malignancy, 2.5% from malignant arrhythmias, 1.9% from renal failure, 1.3% from stroke, and 0.6% from myocardial infarction. There were only 0.68 rehospitalizations/patient/year; the most frequent cause being CHF exacerbation (16.5%).

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the safety and potential benefits of a supportive day care service for advanced CHF patients. Multidrug intravenous treatment, accompanied by monitoring of electrolytes, hemoglobin and cardiac rhythm, along with education and psychological support, appear to reduce morbidity in advanced CHF patients and may have contributed to the lower than expected mortality/hospitalization rate.






[1] CHF = chronic heart failure



 
July 2008
A. Mager, N. Koren-Morag, M. Shohat, A. Dadashev, R. Kornowski, A. Battler and D. Hasdai

Background: The C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is associated with early onset of coronary artery disease in some populations with certain ethnic backgrounds. However, data on its effect on CAD[1] development in women are limited and conflicting.

Objectives: To investigate the effects of the MTHFR C677T mutation and ethnicity on the development and age at onset of CAD in women in Israel.

Methods: The sample included 135 Jewish women with well-documented CAD (62 Ashkenazi, 44 Oriental and 29 of other origins) in whom CAD symptoms first developed at age ≤ 65 years. DNA samples from 235 women served as the control.

Results: CAD symptoms developed later in Ashkenazi than in Oriental women or women of other origins (51.0 ± 7.0 years vs. 48.3 ± 7.5 and 46.3 ± 7.7 years, respectively, P = 0.024). Among Ashkenazi women, the T/T genotype was less common in patients in whom CAD symptoms appeared after age 50 (6.4%) than in patients with earlier CAD symptoms (25.8%, P = 0.037) and Ashkenazi control subjects (23.3%, P = 0.045). Among women from other origins, these differences were not significant. On logistic regression analysis, the T/T genotype was associated with a nearly fourfold increase in the risk of early onset (age < 50 years) of CAD (odds ratio 3.87, 95% confidence interval 1.12–13.45, adjusted for risk factors and origin) and a trend towards an influence of ethnicity (P = 0.08). Compared to Ashkenazi women, the risk of early development of CAD associated with the T/T genotype among Oriental ones was 0.46 (95%CI[2] 0.189–1.114) and in women of other origins, 5.84 (95%CI 1.76–19.34). Each additional risk factor increased the risk of earlier onset of CAD by 42% (OR[3] 1.42, 95%CI 1.06–1.89).

Conclusions: The age at onset of CAD in Israeli women is influenced by the MTHFR genotype, ethnic origin and coronary risk factors.






[1] CAD = coronary artery disease

[2] CI = confidence interval

[3] OR = odds ratio


April 2007
A. Eisen, A. Tenenbaum, N. Koren-Morag, D. Tanne, J. Shemesh, A. Golan, E. Z. Fisman, M. Motro, E. Schwammenthal and Y. Adler

Background: Coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in adults, and cerebrovascular disease is associated with the presence of symptomatic and asymptomatic CHD[1]. Several studies noted an association between coronary calcification and thoracic aorta calcification by several imaging techniques, but this association has not yet been examined in stable angina pectoris patients with the use of spiral computed tomography.

Objectives: To examine by spiral CT the association between the presence and severity of CC[2] and thoracic aorta calcification in patients with stable angina pectoris.

Methods: The patients were enrolled in ACTION (A Coronary Disease Trial Investigating Outcome with Nifedipine GITS) in Israel. The 432 patients (371 men and 61 women aged 40–89 years) underwent chest CT and were evaluated for CC and aortic calcification.

Results: CC was documented in 90% of the patients (n=392) and aortic calcification in 70% (n=303). A significant association (P < 0.05) was found between severity of CC and severity of aortic calcification (as measured by area, volume and slices of calcification). We also found an association between the number of coronary vessels calcified and the presence of aortic calcification: 90% of patients with triple-vessel disease (n=157) were also positive for aortic calcification (P < 0.05). Age also had an effect: 87% of patients ≥ 65 years (n=219) were positive for both coronary and aortic calcification (P = 0.005) while only 57% ≤ 65 (n=209) were positive for both (P = 0.081).

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a strong association between the presence and severity of CC and the presence and severity of calcification of thoracic aorta in patients with stable angina pectoris as detected by spiral CT.

 






[1] CHD = coronary heart disease



[2] CC = coronary calcification


January 2007
I. Morag, M. Goldman, J. Kuint, E. Heyman

Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis is a common progressive gastrointestinal disease affecting more than 5% of very low birth weight infants and associated with a high mortality rate.

Objectives: To determine whether excessive weight gain in preterm infants is an early sign of NEC[1].

Methods: Seventeen preterm infants with perforated NEC were identified and matched with 17 control subjects for birth weight and gestational age. The postnatal age (days) at diagnosis of NEC was identified, and weight changes as well as clinical and laboratory data were recorded and compared for 7 days prior through 7 days post-diagnosis.

Results: A significant difference in weight gain was noticed between D-1 and D 0. The NEC and control groups gained 5.1% and 1.2%, respectively (P = 0.002). None of the sick infants lost weight on days -1 to D 0.

Conclusions: Excessive weight gain was observed in premature infants who subsequently developed NEC. Daily evaluation of weight changes should be considered part of a strategy for early identification of infants at risk for developing NEC. Future studies are needed to confirm this finding in a prospective manner and to investigate its pathogenesis.






[1] NEC = necrotizing enterocolitis


January 2006
D. Tanne, U. Goldbourt, S. Koton, E. Grossman, N. Koren-Morag, M. S. Green and N. M. Bornstein

Background: There are no national data on the burden and management of acute cerebrovascular disease in Israel.

Objectives: To delineate the burden, characteristics, management and outcomes of hospitalized patients with acute cerebrovascular disease in Israel, and to examine adherence to current guidelines.

Methods: We prospectively performed a national survey in all 28 hospitals in Israel admitting patients with acute cerebrovascular events (stroke or transient ischemic attacks) during February and March 2004.

Results: During the survey period 2,174 patients were admitted with acute cerebrovascular disease (mean age 71 ± 13 years, 47% women; 89% ischemic stroke or TIA[1], 7% intracerebral hemorrhage and 4% undetermined stroke). Sixty-two percent of patients were admitted to departments of Medicine and a third to Neurology, of which only 7% were admitted to departments with a designated stroke unit. Head computed tomography was performed during hospitalization in 93% of patients. The overall rate of urgent thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke was 0.5%. Among patients with ischemic stroke or TIA, 94% were prescribed an antithrombotic medication at hospital discharge, and among those with atrial fibrillation about half were prescribed warfarin. Carotid duplex was performed in 30% and any vascular imaging study in 36% of patients with ischemic events. The mean length of hospital stay was 12 ± 27 days for ICH[2] and 8 ± 11 days for ischemic stroke. Among patients with ICH, 28% died and 66% died or had severe disability at hospital discharge, and for ischemic stroke the corresponding rates were 7% and 41% respectively. Mortality rates within 3 months were 34% for ICH and 14% for ischemic stroke.

Conclusions: This national survey demonstrates the high burden of acute stroke in Israel and reveals discordance between existing guidelines and current practice. The findings highlight important areas for which reorganization is imperative for patients afflicted with acute stroke.






[1] TIA = transient ischemic attack

[2] ICH = intracerebral hemorrhage


May 2002
Michael Eckstein, MSc, Iris Vered, MD, Sophia Ish-Shalom, MD, Anat Ben Shlomo, MD, Avraham Shtriker, MD, Nira Koren-Morag, PhD and Eitan Friedman, MD, PhD

Background: Genetic factors have been shown to play a major role in the development of peak bone mass, with hereditability accounting for about 50-85% of the variance in bone mass. Numerous candidate genes were proposed to be involved in osteoporosis, but the precise genes and their relative contribution remain unknown.

Objectives: To gain insight into the genetic basis of idiopathic low bone mineral density in Israeli patients by analyzing the impact of two candidate genes: polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor gene and polymorphism A986s in the calcium-sensing receptor gene.

Methods: We analyzed 86 Jewish Israeli patients with LBMD[1]: 38 premenopausal women and 48 men, and compared the allelic pattern distribution with that of the general population (126 men and 112 women). Genotyping of the VDR[2] gene was performed in three polymorphic sites using restriction enzymes, and allelic analysis of A986s polymorphism in the CaSR[3] gene was performed using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique.  

Reaults: In LBMD women the distributions of VDR alleres in Apal polymorphism were AA=7/28, Aa=16/28 and aa=5/28; in TaqI polymorphism TT=10/31, Tt=16/31 and tt=5/31; and in BsmI polymorphism BB=7/32, Bb=14/32 and 11/32. In LBMD men the distributions were AA=17/39, Aa=21/39 and aa=1/39; in TaqI polymorphism TT=12/42, Tt=23/42 and tt=7/42; and in BsmI polymorphism BB=12/41 Bb=18/41 and bb=11/41. The distributions of all these polymorphisms in the control groups were not significantly different. Adjusting for the independent age and gender parameters confirmed that these three polymorphisms of the VDR gene did not have a significant effect on bone mineral density. Thirty percent (24/79) of LBMD patients of either sex displayed heterozygosity of the CaSR A986s polymorphism, compared with 40 of 203 controls (19.7%) (P=0.059). Adjusting for age and gender in these patients revealed a significant difference in the femoral neck BMD[4] between homozygotes and heterozygotes (P=0.002). The age at menarche of the LBMD women was found to predict 61% of the variance of femoral neck BMD.

Conclusions: In Israeli Jewish men and premenopausal women VDR gene alleles do not seem to be associated with lower lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD. A trend towards heterozygosity for a CaSR polymorphism missense mutation was noted in the LBMD patients. Age at menarche in the LBMD women was found to be an important predictor of BMD. A significant difference was found between LBMD women and healthy control women towards heterozygosity for a CaSR polymorphism, as well between homozygotes and heterozygotes for a CaSR polymorphism in BMD. The significance of these findings and their applicability to a larger population awaits further studies.

_____________________________________


[1] LBMD = low bone mineral density


[2] VDR = vitamin D receptor


[3] CaSR = calcium-sensing receptor


[4] BMD = bone mineral density




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