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עמוד בית
Tue, 28.05.24

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February 2024
Nadav Loebl MSc, Eytan Wirtheim MD, Leor Perl MD

Background: The field of artificial intelligence (AI) is poised to significantly influence the future of medicine. With the accumulation of vast databases and recent advancements in computer science methods, AI's capabilities have been demonstrated in numerous areas, from diagnosis and morbidity prediction to patient treatment. Establishing an AI research and development unit within a medical center offers multiple advantages, particularly in fostering research and tapping into the immediate potential of AI at the patient's bedside.

Objectives: To outline the steps taken to establish a center for AI and big data within an innovation center at a tertiary hospital in Israel.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of projects developed in the field of AI at the Artificial Intelligence Center at the Rabin Medical Center, examining trends, clinical domains, and the predominant sectors over a specific period.

Results: Between 2019 and 2023, data from 49 AI projects were gathered. A substantial and consistent growth in the number of projects was observed. Following the inauguration of the Artificial Intelligence Center we observed an increase of over 150% in the volume of activity. Dominant sectors included cardiology, gastroenterology, and anesthesia. Most projects (79.6%) were spearheaded by physicians, with the remainder by other hospital sectors. Approximately 59.2% of the projects were applied research. The remainder were research-based or a mix of both.

Conclusions: Developing technological projects based on in-hospital medical data, in collaboration with clinicians, is promising. We anticipate the establishment of more centers dedicated to medical innovation, particularly involving AI.

Leor Perl MD, Nadav Loebl MSc, Ran Kornowski MD

Artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a transformative group of technologies in the field of medicine. Specifically in cardiology, numerous applications have materialized, and these are developing exponentially. AI-based risk prediction models leverage machine learning algorithms and large datasets to probe multiple variables, aid in the identification of individuals at high risk for adverse events, facilitate early interventions, and enable personalized risk assessments. Unique algorithms analyze medical images, such as electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, and cardiac computed tomography scans to enable rapid detection of abnormalities and aid in the accurate identification of cardiac pathologies. AI has also shown promise in guiding treatment decisions during coronary catheterization. In addition, AI has revolutionized remote patient monitoring and disease management by means of wearable and implantable sensing technologies. In this review, we discussed the field of cardiovascular genetics and personalized medicine, where AI holds great promise. While the applications of AI in cardiology are promising, challenges such as data privacy, interpretability of the findings, and multiple matters regarding ethics need to be addressed. We presented a succinct overview of the applications of AI in cardiology, highlighting its potential to revolutionize risk prediction, diagnosis, treatment, and personalized patient care.

May 2019
Shmuel Schwartzenberg MD, Ran Kornowski MD, Yaron Shapira MD, Abid Assali MD, Mordehay Vatury MD, Leor Perl MD, Hana Vaknin-Assa MD and Alexander Sagie MD

Background: The MitraClip procedure is becoming an acceptable alternative for high-risk patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) due to functional (FMR) or degenerative (DMR) disease and suitable mitral anatomy.

Objectives: To evaluate the results of MitraClip at our institute in carefully selected patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records and echocardiography data from January 2012 to December 2017.

Results: A total of 39 MitraClip procedures in 37 patients (aged 75 ± 12 years, 9 women) was performed. Twenty-four patients presented with FMR, 12 with DMR, and 1 with combined pathology. One-day post-procedure MR was moderate to low in 86.1% of patients, with immediate device success in 88.8%. MR at 1 year was moderate to low in 79% at 1 year. Survival at 1 year was 86% and at 2 years 69.4%. Peri-procedural (< 1 week) death and MitraClip failure occurred in one and three patients, respectively. New York Heart Association score improved to class 1 or 2 in 37% of patients at 1 year vs. one patient at baseline. Post-procedural systolic pulmonary pressure was reduced from 53 (range 48–65) to 43 (range 36–52) mmHg at 1 month with a subsequent plateau at follow-up, to 41 (34–57) mmHg at 6 months, and to 47 (38–50) at 12 months.

Conclusions: MitraClip in severe MR resulted in modest improvement in functional status and pulmonary pressure with a small risk of immediate procedural complications. Outcomes are encouraging considering the natural course of MR and the risks of surgical intervention.

October 2014
Carlo Perricone MD, Shunit Rinkevich-Shop PhD, Miri Blank PhD, Natalie Landa-Rouben PhD, Cristiano Alessandri MD, Fabrizio Conti MD, PhD, Jonathan Leor MD, Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP and Guido Valesini MD
October 2013
L. Perl, M. Vaturi, A. Assali, Y. Shapira, E. Bruckheimer, T. Ben-Gal, H. Vaknin-Assa, A. Sagie and R. Kornowski
 Background: Mitral regurgitation (MR) causes increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure patients and is often associated with augmented surgical risk.

Objectives: To assess the preliminary results of transcatheter mitral valve leaflet repair (TMLR) in a single academic center.

Methods: Data were collected prospectively in the cardiology department of Rabin Medical Center in 2012. Ten consecutive patients (age 69.3 ± 15.9 years, ejection fraction 36.5 ± 9.4) who were poor surgical candidates with severe functional MR underwent general anesthesia, followed by trans-septal puncture and a TMLR procedure using the MitraClip device.

Results: All 10 patients were considered to have severe functional MR prior to TMLR treatment and were all symptomatic; the mean New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was 3.4 ± 0.5. The MR severity was 4 ± 0. There were no immediate complications or failures of the procedure. One patient died on day 5 due to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Immediately following TMLR all 10 patients showed a profound MR reduction to a mean severity grade of 1.6 ± 0.6. At one month after the procedure, NYHA had decreased to an average of 1.7 ± 1.0 and was at least grade 2 in all but one patient. After 6 months the MR remained ≤ 2 in six of eight patients, with a NYHA average of 1.4 ± 0.5.

Conclusions: The MitraClip procedure was shown to be relatively safe, providing significant clinical benefits to a relatively sick population with severe MR. It is therefore an important alternative to surgery in these high risk patients.


November 2010
I. Marai, M. Suleiman, M. Blich, T. Zeidan-Shwiri, L. Gepstien and M. Boulos

Background: For patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias, implantable cardioverter defibrillators are a mainstay of therapy to prevent sudden death. However, ICD[1] shocks are painful, can result in clinical depression, and do not offer complete protection against death from arrhythmia. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in the setting of ischemic cardiomyopathy has emerged recently as a useful adjunctive therapy to ICD.

Objectives: To assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of our initial experience in ablation of scar-related VT[2].

Methods: Eleven patients (all males, mean age 71 ± 8 years) with drug-refractory ischemic VT were referred to our center for scar mapping and ablation procedures using the CARTO navigation system.

Results: Eleven clinical VTs (mean cycle length 436 ± 93 ms) were induced in all patients. An endocardial circuit, identified by activation, entrainment and/or pace mapping, was found in eight patients with stable VT. These patients were mapped and ablated during VT. Three patients had predominantly unstable VT and linear ablation lesions were performed during sinus rhythm. Acute success, defined as termination of VT and or non-inducibility during programmed electrical stimulation, was found in 9 patients (82%). During follow-up, a significant reduction in tachyarrythmia burden was observed in all patients who had successful initial ablation, except for one who had recurrence of VT 2 days after the procedure and died 2 weeks later.

Conclusions: Ablation of ischemic VT using electroanatomic scar mapping is feasible, has an acceptable success rate and should be offered for ischemic patients with recurrent uncontrolled VT.

[1] ICD = implantable cardioverter defibrillator

[2] VT = ventricular tachycardia

August 2010
A. Weissler, L. Perl, Y. Neuman, Y.A. Mekori and A. Mor

The features of infective endocarditis include both cardiac and non-cardiac manifestations. Neurologic complications are seen in up to 40% of patients with infective endocarditis and are the presenting symptom in a substantial percentage. We describe in detail the clinical scenarios of three patients admitted to our hospital, compare their characteristics and review the recent literature describing neurologic manifestations of infective endocarditis. Our patients demonstrate that infective endocarditis can develop without comorbidity or a valvular defect. Moreover, our patients were young and lacked the most common symptom of endocarditis: fever. The most common neurologic manifestations were focal neurologic deficits and confusion. We conclude that infective endocarditis should always be considered in patients presenting with new-onset neurologic complaints, especially in those without comorbidities or other risk factors. A prompt diagnosis should be reached and antibiotic treatment initiated as soon as possible.

February 2010
L. Perl, A. Weissler, Y.A. Mekori and A. Mor
Stem cell therapy has developed extensively in recent years, leading to several new clinical fields. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells sparks special interest, as it reveals the importance of the paracrine and immunomodulatory effects of these supporting cells, in disease and in cure. This review discusses our current understanding of the basic clinical principles of stem cell therapy and demonstrates the broad range of this treatment modality by examining two relatively new therapeutic niches – autoimmune and cardiac diseases.
November 2009
Leor Perl, MD, Yoseph A. Mekori, MD and Adam Mor, MD.
March 2008
E. Avivi, H. Arzi, Paz L. I. Caspi and A. Chechik
April 2007
M. Garty, A. Shotan, S. Gottlieb, M. Mittelman, A. Porath, B.S. Lewis, E. Grossman, S. Behar, J. Leor, M. S. Green, R. Zimlichman and A. Caspi

Background: Despite improved management of heart failure patients, their prognosis remains poor.

Objectives: To characterize hospitalized HF[1] patients and to identify factors that may affect their short and long-term outcome in a national prospective survey.

Methods: We recorded stages B-D according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association definition of HF patients hospitalized in internal medicine and cardiology departments in all 25 public hospitals in Israel.

Results: During March-April 2003, 4102 consecutive patients were recorded. Their mean age was 73 ± 12 years and 57% were males; 75.3% were hypertensive, 50% diabetic and 59% dyslipidemic; 82% had coronary artery disease, 33% atrial fibrillation, 41% renal failure (creatinine ³ 1.5 mg/dl), and 49% anemia (hemoglobin £ 12 g/dl). Mortality rates were 4.7% in-hospital, 7.6% at 30 days, 18.7% at 6 months and 28.1% at 12 months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased 1 year mortality rate was associated with New York Heart Association III–IV (odds ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.78–2.41), age (for 10 year increment) (OR[2] 1.41, 95% CI[3] 1.31–1.52), renal failure (1.79, 1.53–2.09), anemia (1.50, 1.29–1.75), stroke (1.50, 1.21–1.85), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.25, 1.04–1.50) and atrial fibrillation (1.20, 1.02–1.40).

Conclusions: This nationwide heart failure survey indicates a high risk of long-term mortality and the urgent need for the development of more effective management strategies for patients with heart failure discharged from hospitals.


[1] HF = heart failure

[2] OR = odds ratio

[3] CI = confidence interval

B. S. Lewis, A. Shotan, S. Gottlieb, S. Behar, D. A. Halon, V. Boyko, J. Leor, E. Grossman, R. Zimlichman, A. Porath, M. Mittelman, A. Caspi and M. Garty

Background: Heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function is a major cause of cardiac disability.

Objectives: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and late clinical outcome of patients hospitalized with HF-PSF[1] on a nationwide basis in Israel.

Methods: The Israel nationwide HF survey examined prospectively 4102 consecutive HF patients admitted to 93 internal medicine and 24 cardiology departments in all 25 public hospitals in the country. Echocardiographic LV function measurements were available in 2845 patients (69%). The present report relates to the 1364 patients who had HF-PSF (LV ejection fraction ≥ 40%).

Results: Mortality of HF-PSF patients was high (in-hospital 3.5%, 6 months 14.2%, 12 months 22.0%), but lower than in patients with reduced systolic function (all P < 0.01). Mortality was higher in patients with HF as the primary hospitalization diagnosis (16.0% vs. 12.5% at 6 months, P = 0.07 and 26.2% vs. 18.0% at 12 months, P = 0.0002). Patients with HF-PSF who died were older (78 ± 10 vs. 71 ± 12 years, P < 0.001), more often female (P = 0.05) and had atrial fibrillation more frequently (44% vs. 33%, P < 0.01). There was also a relationship between mortality and pharmacotherapy: after adjustment for age and co-morbid conditions, mortality was lower in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (P = 0.0003) and angiotensin receptor blockers (P = 0.002) and higher in those receiving digoxin (P = 0.003) and diuretic therapy (P = 0.009).

Conclusions: This nationwide survey highlights the very high late mortality rates in patients hospitalized for HF without a decrease in systolic function. The findings mandate a focus on better evidence-based treatment strategies to improve outcome in HF-PSF patients.


[1] HF-PSF = heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function

April 2006
I.M. Barbash and J. Leor

Ventricular remodeling and heart failure are the inevitable consequences of myocardial infarction. Current options to cure myocardial infarction and subsequent heart failure suffer from specific limitations. Thus, alternative, additional long-term therapeutic strategies are needed to cure this costly and deadly disease. Cardiac regeneration is a promising new therapeutic option. Through cellular and molecular therapies, the concept of in situ "growing" heart muscle, vascular tissue and manipulating the extracellular matrix environment promises to revolutionize the approach of treating heart disease. Recent studies have suggested that stem cells resident within the bone marrow or peripheral blood can be recruited to the injured heart. The regeneration of damaged heart tissue may include the mobilization of progenitor or stem cells to the damaged area or stimulation of a regenerative program within the organ. There is now evidence accumulating that the heart contains resident stem cells that can be induced to develop into cardiac muscle and vascular tissue. The present review aims to describe the potential, the current status and the future challenges of myocardial regeneration by adult stem cells.


April 2003
S. Behar, A. Battler, A. Porath, J. Leor, E. Grossman, Y. Hasin, M. Mittelman, Z. Feigenberg, C. Rahima-Maoz, M. Green, A. Caspi, B. Rabinowitz and M. Garty

Background: Little information is available on the clinical practice and implementation of guidelines in treating acute myocardial infarction patients in Israel.

Objective: To assess patient characteristics, hospital course, management, and 30 day clinical outcome of all AMI[1] patients hospitalized in Israel during a 2 month period in 2000.

Method: We conducted a prospective 2 month survey of consecutive AMI patients admitted to 82 of 96 internal medicine departments and all 26 cardiac departments operating in Israel in 2000. Data were collected uniformly by means of a hospital and 30 day follow-up form.

Results: During the survey 1,683 consecutive patients with a discharge diagnosis of AMI were included. Their mean age was 66 years; 73% were male. The electrocardiographic pattern on admission revealed ST elevation, non-ST elevation and an undetermined ECG[2] in 63%, 34% and 4% of patients respectively. Aspirin and heparin were given to 95% of patients. Beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were given to 76% and 65% of patients respectively. Among hospital survivors, 45% received lipid-lowering drugs. Thrombolytic therapy was administered in 28% of patients, coronary angiography was used in 45%, and 7% of patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The 7 and 30 day mortality rates were 7% and 11% respectively.

Conclusions: This nationwide survey shows that one-third of the AMI patients in Israel are elderly (≥ 75 years). The survey suggests that clinical guidelines for the management of patients with AMI are partially implemented in the community. Data from large surveys representing the "real world" practice are of utmost importance for the evaluation of clinical guidelines, research and educational purposes.

[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction

[2] ECG = electrocardiogram

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