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עמוד בית
Fri, 19.04.24

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April 2023
Maali Abu-Omer, Gilad Chayen, Ron Jacob

Background: Children with forearm fractures who present to the emergency department (ED) often need a closed reduction. In our institution, until 2017, pediatric trauma patients presented to the general trauma ED (GTED) where no sedation services for pediatric patients were available. From 2017, patients presented to the pediatric emergency department (PED) where closed reductions were performed under sedation when appropriate.

Objectives: To compare GTED and PED with regard to length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization rates of pediatric patients with forearm fractures who needed a closed reduction.

Methods: Our retrospective observational study was conducted at a regional hospital. The study population consisted of all patients younger than 18 years of age who presented to the ED with a forearm fracture that needed a closed reduction. The primary outcome measure was the hospitalization rate. The secondary outcome measure was LOS in the ED.

Results: The study comprised 165 patients with forearm fractures who needed a closed reduction; 79 presented to the GTED, and 96 presented to the PED. Hospitalization rates were lower for patients undergoing closed reduction under sedation in the PED compared to the GTED (6.3% and 21.5%, respectively; P = 0.003). Median ED LOS was longer among patients undergoing sedation in the PED compared to the GTED (237 vs. 168 minutes respectively, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Sedation for forearm fracture reduction in a hospital’s PED was associated with a decrease of more than three times in hospitalization rate. Despite the need for more resources, PED LOS was only mildly increased.

November 2022
Raymond Farah MD, Nicola Makhoul MD, Alexander Samohvalov MD, William Nseir MD

Background: An increased serum glucose level is a common finding among patients admitted to hospital with acute illness, including the intensive care unit (ICU), even without a history of previous diabetes mellitus (DM). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is not only a diagnostic tool for DM but may also has prognostic value for diabetic and non-diabetic populations.

Objectives: To assess the relationship between HbA1c level on admission and clinical outcome among patients admitted to the ICU due to cardiopulmonary disorders with hyperglycemia.

Methods: Patients consecutively admitted to the ICU due to cardiopulmonary disorders who presented with hyperglycemia at admission were evaluated during a 6-month period. HbA1c and serum glucose levels were tested on admission and during the first 24–48 hours of hospitalization. Patients were divided according to HbA1c and compared in term of demographics. We evaluated the effect of HbA1c levels at admission on the clinical outcomes.

Results: Of patients with cardiopulmonary disorders who presented with hyperglycemia at admission to the ICU, 73 had HbA1c levels ≥ 6%, 92 had HbA1c levels < 6%: 63/165 (38.2%) known as diabetic patients. The 30-day all-cause mortality was higher in the group with high HbA1c levels; 38/73 vs. 32/98 (P = 0.02). Increased length of stay in the ICU and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score were associated with HbA1c ≥ 6% (P < 0.022 and P < 0.026), respectively

Conclusions: HbA1c ≥ 6% has an important clinical prognostic value among diabetic and non-diabetic patients with cardiopulmonary disorders and hyperglycemia.

November 2021
Nir Kugelman MD, Ofer Lavie MD, Nadav Cohen MD, Meirav Schmidt MD, Amit Reuveni MD, Ludmila Ostrovsky MD, Hawida Dabah MA, and Yakir Segev MSc MD

Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols are evidence-based protocols designed to standardize medical care, improve outcomes, and lower healthcare costs.

Objectives: To evaluate the implementation of the ERAS protocol and the effect on recovery during the hospitalization period after gynecological laparotomy surgeries.

Methods: We compared demographic and clinical data of consecutive patients at a single institute who underwent open gynecological surgeries before (August 2017 to December 2018) and after (January 2019 to March 2020) the implementation of the ERAS protocol. Eighty women were included in each group.

Results: The clinical and demographic characteristics were similar among the women operated before and after implementation of the ERAS protocol. Following implementation of the protocol, decreases were observed in post-surgical hospitalization (from 4.89 ± 2.56 to 4.09 ± 1.65 days, P = 0.01), in patients reporting nausea symptoms (from 18 (22.5%) to 7 (8.8%), P = 0.017), and in the use of postoperative opioids (from 77 (96.3%) to 47 (58.8%), P < 0.001). No significant changes were identified between the two periods regarding vomiting, 30-day re-hospitalization, and postoperative minor and major complications.

Conclusions: Implementation of the ERAS protocol is feasible and was found to result in less postoperative opioid use, a faster return to normal feeding, and a shorter postoperative hospital stay. Implementation of the protocol implementation was not associated with an increased rate of complications or with re-admissions

August 2021
Shai Shemesh MD, Alex Bebin MD, Nadav Niego MD, and Tal Frenkel Rutenberg MD

Background: Hip fractures in elderly patients are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Variability in length of hospital stay (LOS) was evident in this population. The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to prompt discharge of effected patients in order to reduce contagion risk. LOS and discharge destination in COVID-19 negative patients has not been studied.

Objectives: To evaluate the LOS and discharge destination during the COVID-19 outbreak and compare it with a similar cohort in preceding years.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted comparing a total of 182 consecutive fragility hip fracture patients operated on during the first COVID-19 outbreak to patients operated on in 2 preceding years. Data regarding demographic, co-morbidities, surgical management, hospitalization, as well as surgical and medical complications were retrieved from electronic charts.

Results: During the pandemic 67 fragility hip fracture patients were admitted (COVID group); 55 and 60 patients were admitted during the same time periods in 2017 and 2018, respectively (control groups). All groups were of similar age and gender. Patients in the COVID group had significantly shorter LOS (7.2 ± 3.3 vs. 8.9 ± 4.9 days, P = 0.008) and waiting time for a rehabilitation facility (7.2 ± 3.1 vs. 9.3 ± 4.9 days, P = 0.003), but greater prevalence of delirium (17.9% vs. 7% of patients, P = 0.028). In hospital mortality did not differ among groups.

Conclusions: LOS and time to rehabilitation were significantly shorter in the COVID group. Delirium was more common in this group, possibly due to negative effects of social distancing.

August 2009
L. Shema, L. Ore, R. Geron and B. Kristal

Background: Radiological procedures utilizing intravascular contrast media are being widely applied for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This has resulted in increasing incidence of procedure-related contrast-induced nephropathy. In Israel, data on the incidence of CIN[1] and its consequences are lacking.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of CIN among hospitalized patients in the Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya (northern Israel), and to explore the impact of CIN on mortality and length of stay.

Methods: The study group was a historical cohort of 1111 patients hospitalized during the year 2006 who underwent contrast procedure and whose serum creatinine level was measured before and after the procedure. Data were electronically extracted from different computerized medical databases and merged into a uniform platform using visual basic application.

Results: The occurrence of CIN among hospitalized patients was 4.6%. Different CIN rates were noticed among various high risk subgroups such as patients with renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus (14.1%–44%). Average in-hospital length of stay was almost twice as long among patients with CIN compared to subjects without this condition. Furthermore, the in-hospital death rate among CIN patients was 10 times higher. A direct association was observed between severity of CIN based on the RIFLE classification and risk of mortality.

Conclusions: Low CIN occurrence was demonstrated in the general hospitalized patients (4.6%), and high rates (44%) in selected high risk subgroups of patients (with renal insufficiency or diabetes mellitus). Furthermore, prolonged length of stay and high in-hospital mortality were directly related to CIN severity.






[1] CIN = contrast-induced nephropathy



 
May 2009
L. Shema, L. Ore, R. Geron and B. Kristal

Background: Acute kidney injury remains a common significant clinical problem. Yet there are scant data in Israel on the incidence of hospital-acquired AKI[1] and on diagnosis validity.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of AKI among hospitalized patients in the Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya, compare discharge summaries to laboratory diagnosis, and investigate the impact of AKI on mortality and length of stay.

Methods: Computerized medical and laboratory data of 34,802 hospitalized subjects were collected. AKI was diagnosed according to three different definitions. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of AKI based on ICD-9 diagnosis compared to patient's laboratory data as the gold standard.

Results: The overall AKI annual incidence rate was 1–5.1%, depending on the AKI definition used. The incidence of AKI based on ICD-9 diagnosis was significantly lower compared to the laboratory-based diagnosis. Average in-hospital length of stay was 2.4 times longer among patients with AKI compared to subjects without this condition. Furthermore, the in-hospital death rate among AKI patients was 14 times higher than among non-AKI hospitalized subjects, with a positive association between AKI severity and risk of death.

Conclusions: Using AKI laboratory diagnosis as the gold standard revealed ICD-9 diagnosis to be 9.1% sensitive and 99.4% specific. Hospital-acquired AKI is a major contributor to prolonged length of stay and high mortality rates; therefore, interventions to reduce in-hospital disease incidence are required.






[1] AKI = acute kidney injury


December 2005
M. Shani

In the last few decades there has been a tendency towards reinstitutionalization.

October 2004
E. Greenberg, I. Treger and H. Ring

Background: Follow-up examinations in a rehabilitation center clinic after stroke are essential for coordinating post-acute services and monitoring patient progress. Of first-stroke patients discharged from our rehabilitation ward to the community 92% are invited for ambulatory check-up once every 6 months.

Objectives: To review patient complaints at follow-up and the recommendations issued by the attending physical medicine and rehabilitation specialist at the outpatient clinic.

Methods: We extracted relevant data from the records, and assessed the relationship between functional status on admission and discharge (measured by FIM[1]), length of stay, and number of complaints. Patients were divided according to the side of neurologic damage, etiology, whether the stroke was a first or recurrent event, and main clinical syndrome (neglect or aphasia).

Results: Patients' complaints included: decreased hand function (40%), general functional deterioration (20%), difficulty walking (11%), speech dysfunction (10%), various pains (especially in plegic shoulder) (8%), urine control (2%), sexual dysfunction (3%), swallowing difficulties (2%), and cognitive disturbances (2%). Patients received the following recommendations: physiotherapy (52.5%), occupational therapy (37.5%), speech therapy (12.5%), different bracing techniques (22.5%), pain clinic treatment (12.5%), changing medication prescriptions (7.5%), psychological treatment (10%), sexual rehabilitation (5%), vocational counseling (2.5%), counseling by social workers (2.5%), and recurrent neuropsychological diagnosis (2.5%). A reverse correlation was found between the number of complaints and FIM at admission (P = 0.0001) and discharge (P = 0.0003), and between LOS[2] and FIM at admission (P = 0.0001) and discharge (P = 0.004). A direct correlation was found between the number of complaints and LOS (P = 0.029). No relation was found between age, type of stroke, first and recurrent event, and clinical syndromes and patient complaints in the outpatient rehabilitation. Community rehabilitation services met 58% of all recommendations in 62% of patients, mainly physiotherapy and occupational therapy, with 34% of patients waiting for implementation of the recommendations and 4% not available for follow-up.

Conclusions: Follow-up examinations should be an integral part of post-stroke rehabilitation. Rehabilitation treatment in the community must be strengthened.






[1] FIM = Functional Independence Measure

[2] LOS = length of stay


March 2002
Zeev Rotstein, MD, MHA, Rachel Wilf-Miron, MD, MPH, Bruno Lavi BA, Daniel S. Seidman, MD, MMSc, Poriah Shahaf, MD, MBA, Amir Shahar, MD, MPH, Uri Gabay, MD, MPH and Shlomo Noy, MD, MBA

Background: The emergency department is one of the hospital’s busiest facilities and is frequently described as a bottleneck. Management by constraint is a managerial methodology that helps to focus on the most critical issues by identifying such bottlenecks. Based on this theory, the benefit of adding medical staff may depend on whether or not physician availability is the bottleneck in the system.

Objective: To formulate a dynamic statistical model to forecast the need for allocating additional medical staff to improve the efficacy of work in the emergency department, taking into account patient volume.

Methods: The daily number of non-trauma admissions to the general ED[1] was assessed for the period 1 January 1992 to 1 December 1995 using the hospital computerized database. The marginal benefit to shortening patient length of stay in the ED by adding a physician during the evening shift was examined for different patient volumes. Data were analyzed with the SAS software package using a Gross Linear Model.

Results: The addition of a physician to the ED staff from noon to midnight significantly shortened patient LOS[2]: an average decrease of 6.61 minutes for 80–119 admissions (P<0.001). However, for less than 80 or more than 120 admissions, adding a physician did not have a significant effect on LOS in the ED.

Conclusions: The dynamic model formulated in this study shows that patient volume determines the effectiveness of investing manpower in the ED. Identifying bottleneck critical factors, as suggested by the theory of constraints, may be useful for planning and coordinating emergency services that operate under stressful and unpredictable conditions. Consideration of patient volume may also provide ED managers with a logical basis for staffing and resource allocation.






[1] ED = emergency department



[2] LOS = length of stay


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