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עמוד בית
Sun, 19.05.24

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July 2002
Shmuel C. Shapira, MD and Joshua Shemer
January 2002
Manfred S. Green MD PhD, Tiberio Swartz MD MPH, Elana Mayshar JD, Boaz Lev MD, Alex Leventhal MD MPH, Paul E. Slater MD MPH and Joshua Shemer MD

Background: The large number of cases of West Nile fever diagnosed in Israel in 2000 once again brought into focus the confusion that frequently accompanies the use of the term “epidemic”.

Objective: To examine the different definitions of the term “epidemic” and to propose ways in which it can be used to both improve communication among professionals and provide the public with a better sense of the associated risks.

Methods: The literature wes reviewed for the various definitions of the terms “epidemic” and “outbreak”. Sources included popular and medical dictionaries, ancient documents, epidemiology texts, legal texts, and the medical literature.

Result: The term epidemic is variously defined. The broad definition given by epidemiologists - namely, more disease the is anticipated by previous experience - is less meaningful to the general public. In some ways it conflicts with the definitions found in the popular literature, which generally imply danger to the public and a very large number of victims.

Conclusions: The interpretation of the term epidemic may vary according to the context in which it is used. For risk communication, we suggest that every effort be made to add descriptive terms that characterize the epidemic.

January 2001
Pnina Langevitz MD, Avi Livneh MD, Lily Neumann PhD, Dan Buskila MD, Joshua Shemer MD, David Amolsky MD and Mordechi Pras MD

Background: Familial Mediterranean fever is a genetic disorder manifested by recurrent attacks of peritonitis, pleuritis and arthritis, and characterized by clinical, histological and laboratory evidence for localized and systemic inflammation. Colchicine treatment usually prevents the attacks and the associated inflammation. Inflammation of atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease.

Objective: To study the effect of inflammation and its prevention on occurrence of IHD, using FMF as a model.

Methods and Patients: We studied the presence of IHD and its risk factors in 290 FMF patients aged 40 years or more, and in two control groups – 233 spouses of the FMF patients’ and 126 patients with inflammatory diseases obtained from other outpatient clinics. FMF patients were also compared with age and gender-matched individuals from the population reference data of the Israel Ministry of Health.

Results: The prevalence of IHD in FMF patients was significantly lower than in the group of controls from other outpatient clinics (15.5% vs. 30.2% P< 0.05) and comparable with their spouses (11.2%) and with the matched general population in Israel (16%).

Conclusion: These findings suggest that despite the evidence of recurrent inflammation, colchicines-treated FMF patients are not more predisposed to IHD than the normal population.

March 2000
Joseph Meyerovitch MD, Trevor Waner BVSc PhD, Joseph Sack MD, Juri Kopolovic MD and Joshua Shemer MD

Background: Despite current treatment protocols, the long-term complications of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have prompted the investigation of strategies for the prevention of IDDM.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of oral vanadate in reducing diabetes type I in non-obese diabetic mice.

Methods: Sodium metavanadate, 3.92 mmol/L, was added to the drinking water of 8-week-old female NOD mice. Blood glucose levels, water consumption and body weight were measured, and the end point of the study was judged by the appearance of hyperglycemia in the mice.

Results: Treatment with vanadate did not significantly reduce the incidence of type I diabetes as compared to the control group. However, oral vanadate therapy significantly reduced the blood glucose levels after the fourth week of treatment compared to the control group (3.83±10.67 vs. 4.44±10.83 mmol/L, P<0.03). There was a consistent and significant increase in body weight of the vanadate-treated pre-diabetic NOD mice compared to the controls. Diabetic mice treated with vanadate had significantly lower levels of serum insulin as compared to control diabetic mice (104±27 vs. 151±36 mol/L, P<0.03). Histologically, no significant differences were found in inflammatory response of the islets of Langerhans between the control and treated groups.

Conclusions: This study suggests that the post-receptor insulin-like effect induced by vanadate is not sufficient to prevent the development of diabetes and insulitis in pre-diabetic NOD mice.

__________________________________

 

IDDM= insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

NOD= non-obese diabetic

November 1999
Ron Ben-Abraham MD, Michael Stein MD, Gideon Paret MD, Robert Cohen MD, Joshua Shemer MD, Avraham Rivkind MD and Yoram Kluger MD
Background: Since its introduction in Israel, more than 4,000 physicians from various specialties and diverse medical backgrounds have participated in the Advanced Trauma Life Support course.

Objectives: To analyze the factors that influence the success of physicians in the ATLS®1 written tests.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of 4,475 physicians participating in the Israeli ATLS® training program between 1990 and 1996. Several variables in the records of these physicians were related to their success or failure in the final written examination of the course.

Results: Age, the region of medical schooling, and the medical specialty were found to significantly influence the successful completion of the ATLS® course.

Conclusions: Physicians younger than 45 years of age or with a surgical specialty are more likely to graduate the ATLS® course. The success rate could be improved if the program’s text and questionnaires were translated into Hebrew. 

1ATLS® = Advanced Trauma Life Support

September 1999
Ron Ben-Abraham, MD, Michael Stein, MD, Gideon Paret, MD, Avishy Goldberg, MD, Joshua Shemer, MD and Yoram Kluger, MD.
 Background: In the military environment it is the medics who usually provide the initial care of mass casualties in the field.

Objectives: To determine the number of incidents of trauma encountered by medics in the Israel Defense Forces during peacetime, and to ascertain the role of these medics in providing primary trauma care to the victims.

Methods: A retrospective questionnaire, reviewing the activities of medics in treating injured trauma victims, was distributed to medics who were in service for at least 2 years after their professional training.

Results: Of the 128 responding medics, 87 (68%) had actively participated in the treatment of trauma victims under various circumstances. The average number of trauma events was 1.2 events over a period of 2 years per combat medic, and 0.7 for medics stationed in rear units. Their activities included insertion of numerous intravenous fluid lines (57% of medics), assistance in intubations (37%), tube thoracostomies (23%), insertions of central catheters (14%) or orogastric tubes (28%), and manual ventilations (41%).

Conclusion: Since it is difficult to increase the level of practical experience in dealing with trauma within the military framework, new techniques should be applied to improve the trauma training.

Michael Gdalevich, MD, Daniel Mimouni, MD, Isaac Ashkenazi, MD, and Joshua Shemer ,MD.
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