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עמוד בית
Sat, 25.05.24

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November 2013
M. Dotan, L. Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Z. Samra, G. Livni, H. Yarden-Bilavsky, J.b Amir and E. Bilavsky
 Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract disease and hospitalization in infants and young children. Infants of multiple births, which are often premature, might be more susceptible to developing a more severe RSV infection than singletons.

Objective: To assess the impact of multiple births on the severity of RSV infection and define risk factors for acquiring RSV infection in infants of multiple birth.

Methods: Clinical data on infants hospitalized with RSV infection between 2008 and 2010 were retrospectively collected.

Results: Twins comprised 7.6% (66/875) of hospitalized infants with RSV bronchiolitis during the study period. Infants in the twin group were younger (122.4 ± 131.7 vs. 204.5 ± 278.8 days, P = 0.014), had a lower mean gestational age (35.3 ± 2.6 vs. 38.6 ± 2.5 weeks, P < 0.001), and were more likely to have been born prematurely compared with singleton infants (65.6% vs. 13%, P < 0.001). On a multivariable logistic regression analysis, young age, early gestational age and male gender were the only variables identified as risk factors for pediatric intensive care unit admission (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). In contrast, the mere fact of a child being a twin was not found to be a significant risk factor for disease severity. In addition, if one twin is hospitalized due to RSV infection, the other has a 34% chance of also being hospitalized with bronchiolitis. Young age was a significant risk factor for hospitalization of the second twin (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that twins hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis do not have an increased risk for severe infection as compared to singletons. However, a twin of an infant hospitalized with RSV infection has a considerable risk of also being hospitalized with bronchiolitis, thus close monitoring is recommended. 

October 2011
D.S. Shouval, Z. Samra, I. Shalit, G. Livni, E. Bilvasky, O. Ofir, R. Gadba and J. Amir

Background: Staphylococcus aureus infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Clindamycin is widely used in the treatment of staphylococcal infections; however, it is our impression that in the last few years, inducible clindamycin resistance (ICR) has become more prevalent.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of ICR[1] in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections among pediatric patients in Israel.

Methods: We reviewed the files of children diagnosed with MSSA[2] infections during the period January 2006 to June 2007 for full antibiogram (including the D-test for ICR), phage typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.

Results: Altogether, 240 MSSA isolates were recovered, mainly from wounds and abscesses. ICR was detected in 62 of 68 erythromycin-resistant/clindamycin-sensitive strains (91%); the ICR rate for the total number of isolates was 26% (62/240). Phage type analysis demonstrated that 38 of 61 ICR isolates

(62%) were sensitive to group 2, compared to 42 of 172 isolates (24%) that did not express ICR (P < 0.01). On randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, phage type 2 isolates expressing ICR belonged to the same clone, which was different from ICR isolates sensitive to other phages and from isolates not expressing ICR.

Conclusions: Inducible clindamycin resistance is common among methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in Israeli children. The D-test should be performed routinely in all isolates of MSSA.






[1] ICR = inducible clindamycin resistance



[2] MSSA = methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus



 
April 2011
June 2010
R. Cleper, M. Davidovits, Y. Kovalski, D. Samsonov, J. Amir and I. Krause

Background: Peritonitis is a major complication of chronic peritoneal dialysis therapy. It is recommended that each center monitor infection rates in order to define the local microbiological profile and implement an appropriate empiric antibiotic regimen.

Objectives: To analyze the microbiological profile of peritonitis in our pediatric dialysis unit and identify local predisposing factors.

Methods: In this retrospective study we reviewed the files of children treated with chronic PD[1] during the 10 year period 1997–2007.

Results: Eighty peritonitis episodes were recorded in 29 children (20 male, 9 female) aged 0.1–18.5 years (median 11.75) treated with peritoneal dialysis for 6–69 months (median 19) for a total of 578 patient-months. The annual peritonitis rate was 1.66/patient. The main pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphyloccocus (32.5%) and Pseudomonas spp. (16%), which were also cultured in most cases (64–69%) from the exit site during the 3 months preceding peritonitis. No peritonitis occurred in 31% of the patients (median age 12.5 years). All patients less than 5 years old had at least one peritonitis episode. Contaminating conditions (gastrostomy, enuresis, diaper use), found in 44% of the study group, and first infection within 6 months from starting PD were significantly associated with an increased peritonitis rate (P = 0.01, P = 0.009, respectively). Recurrent peritonitis led to a switch to hemodialysis in 18% of patients. There were no deaths.

Conclusions: The risk factors for peritonitis in our study were: first infection within less than 6 months from starting treatment, Pseudomonas exit-site colonization, and contaminating conditions (gastrostomies, diaper use, enuresis). These susceptible subgroups as well as very young age (< 5 years) at starting PD should be especially targeted during training of caregivers and follow-up to prevent later complications.
 

[1] PD = peritoneal dialysis

April 2010
T. Eidlitz-Markus, M. Mukamel, Y. Haimi-Cohen, J. Amir and A. Zeharia

Background: Pathologic breast conditions are rare in childhood and adolescence. The spectrum of breast disease in the pediatric age group is different from that in adults, and most lesions are benign

Objectives: To describe the causes and characteristics of breast asymmetry in adolescents with normal endocrine profiles and sexual development.

Methods: The files of patients with a diagnosis of breast asymmetry referred to a tertiary pediatric center from 1990 to 2007 were reviewed for history and findings on physical examination with or without imaging, treatment and outcome.

Results: Eleven patients aged 12.5 to 18 years were identified. The cause of the breast asymmetry was traced to unpreventable medical factors in eight patients (physiologic, Poland anomaly, scleroderma), preventable/iatrogenic factors in two patients (chest tissue biopsy, thoracic drain), and possible combined medical-iatrogenic factors in one patient (scoliosis treated by a body brace). All patients were referred for breast reconstruction after full breast development.

Conclusions: Severe breast asymmetry in adolescence may be due to congenital factors, diseases involving the breast tissue, or to the effects of medical treatment, and may have severe adverse psychological and social implications. To prevent iatrogenic breast asymmetry, physicians should be made aware of the sensitivity of the breast tissue and should avoid unnecessary tests/procedures that involve the chest wall. In most cases a precise medical history and physical examination can differentiate between physiologic and non-physiologic causes.

O. Waisbourd-Zinman, E. Bilavsky, N. Tirosh, Z. Samra and J. Amir

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is now the predominant pathogen causing meningitis. The resistance of S. pneumoniae to penicillin and third-generation cephalosporins has grown steadily.

Objectives: To assess the antibiotic susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis, and determine the antibiotic regimen appropriate for suspected bacterial meningitis in Israel.

Methods:  The study group included 31 children with 35 episodes of meningitis hospitalized from 1998 to 2006. S. pneumoniae isolates from the cerebrospinal fluid were tested for susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone.

Results: Of the 35 isolates, 17 (48.6%) showed resistance to penicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 0.12 µg/ml). Only 3 isolates (8.6%) showed intermediate resistance to ceftriaxone (≥ 0.5 and < 2 μg/ml), and none showed complete resistance (MIC[1] ≥ 2 μg/ml). The rates of antibiotic resistance were higher in children who were treated with antibiotics prior to admission (penicillin 88.9% vs. 34.6%, P = 0.007; ceftriaxone 22.2% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.156).

Conclusions:  The rate of penicillin resistance is high in children with S. pneumoniae meningitis in Israel, especially in those treated with oral antibiotics prior to admission. Resistance to ceftriaxone is infrequent though not negligible. On the basis of these findings, current recommendations to empirically treat all children with suspected bacterial meningitis with ceftriaxone in addition to vancomycin until the bacterial susceptibility results become available are justified also in Israel.






[1] MIC = minimum inhibitory concentration


January 2010
E. Bilavsky, H. Yarden-Bilavsky D.S. Shouval, N. Fisch, B-Z. Garty, S. Ashkenazi and J. Amir

Background: Secondary thrombocytosis is associated with a variety of clinical conditions, one of which is lower respiratory tract infection. However, reports on thrombocytosis induced by viral infections are scarce.

Objectives: To assess the rate of thrombocytosis (platelet count > 500 x 109/L) in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis and to investigate its potential role as an early marker of respiratory syncytial virus infection.

Methods: Clinical data on 469 infants aged ≤ 4 months who were hospitalized for bronchiolitis were collected prospectively and compared between RSV[1]-positive and RSV-negative infants.

Results: The rate of thrombocytosis was significantly higher in RSV-positive than RSV-negative infants (41.3% vs. 29.2%, P = 0.031). The odds ratio of an infant with bronchiolitis and thrombocytosis to have a positive RSV infection compared to an infant with bronchiolitis and a normal platelet count was 1.7 (P = 0.023, 95% confidence interval 1.07–2.72). There was no significant difference in mean platelet count between the two groups.

Conclusions: RSV-positive bronchiolitis in hospitalized young infants is associated with thrombocytosis.






[1] RSV = respiratory syncytial virus



 
J. Amir

Lymphadenitis is the most common manifestation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection in children. Its frequency has increased over the past few decades. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, purified protein derivative skin test, and bacterial isolation. Management options are surgery, antibiotics, or "observation only"; however, the optimal therapy for this condition is still controversial.

November 2007
November 2004
T. Eidlitz Markus, M. Mimouni, A. Zeharia, M. Nussinovitch and J. Amir

Background: An estimated 10% of all children are subject to recurrent attacks of abdominal pain of unknown origin. When no organic cause is found, the working diagnosis is usually functional abdominal pain.

Objectives: To investigate the possible causative role of occult constipation.

Methods: We defined occult constipation as the absence of complaints of constipation on initial medical history or of symptoms to indicate the presence of constipation. The diagnosis was made by rectal examination and/or plain abdominal X-ray.

Results: Occult constipation was found to be the cause of RAP[1] in 42.6% of children examined. Treatment consisted of paraffin oil and phosphate enema. In 82.84% of cases the abdominal pain subsided considerably or disappeared within 2 weeks to 3 months of treatment. On telephone interview of the parents at 1–1.5 years after discharge, 96.5% reported that both the abdominal pain and constipation had subsided or disappeared.

Conclusions: Occult constipation can be easily identified and treated in a large number of children with RAP who were diagnosed as having functional abdominal pain.






[1] RAP = recurrent abdominal pain



 
September 2004
K. Elishkewitz, R. Shapiro, J. Amir and M. Nussinovitch
July 2001
Moshe Nussinovitch, MD, Sylvia Grozovski, MD, Benjamin Volovitz, MD and Jacob Amir, MD
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