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עמוד בית
Tue, 27.02.24

Original Articles

IMAJ | volume 12

Journal 6, June 2010
pages: 348-352

Peritonitis in a Pediatric Dialysis Unit: Local Profile and Implications

    Summary

    Background:

    Peritonitis is a major complication of chronic peritoneal dialysis therapy. It is recommended that each center monitor infection rates in order to define the local microbiological profile and implement an appropriate empiric antibiotic regimen.

    Objectives:

    To analyze the microbiological profile of peritonitis in our pediatric dialysis unit and identify local predisposing factors.

    Methods:

    In this retrospective study we reviewed the files of children treated with chronic PD[1] during the 10 year period 1997–2007.

    Results:

    Eighty peritonitis episodes were recorded in 29 children (20 male, 9 female) aged 0.1–18.5 years (median 11.75) treated with peritoneal dialysis for 6–69 months (median 19) for a total of 578 patient-months. The annual peritonitis rate was 1.66/patient. The main pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphyloccocus (32.5%) and Pseudomonas spp. (16%), which were also cultured in most cases (64–69%) from the exit site during the 3 months preceding peritonitis. No peritonitis occurred in 31% of the patients (median age 12.5 years). All patients less than 5 years old had at least one peritonitis episode. Contaminating conditions (gastrostomy, enuresis, diaper use), found in 44% of the study group, and first infection within 6 months from starting PD were significantly associated with an increased peritonitis rate (P = 0.01, P = 0.009, respectively). Recurrent peritonitis led to a switch to hemodialysis in 18% of patients. There were no deaths.

    Conclusions:

    The risk factors for peritonitis in our study were: first infection within less than 6 months from starting treatment, Pseudomonas exit-site colonization, and contaminating conditions (gastrostomies, diaper use, enuresis). These susceptible subgroups as well as very young age (< 5 years) at starting PD should be especially targeted during training of caregivers and follow-up to prevent later complications.
     

    [1] PD = peritoneal dialysis

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