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עמוד בית
Sat, 15.06.24

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May 2022
Nomy Dikman PhD, Rola Khamisy-Farah MD, Raymond Farah MD, Jumana Essa-Hadad PhD, Nataly Lipavski, and Izhar Ben Shlomo MD
April 2022
Mohammad Khatib PhD MPH, Ahmad Sheikh Muhammad MPH, Salam Hadid PhD, Izhar Ben Shlomo MD, and Malik Yousef PhD

Background: Hookah smoking is a common activity around the world and has recently become a trend among youth. Studies have indicated a relationship between hookah smoking and a high prevalence of chronic diseases, cancer, cardiovascular, and infectious diseases. In Israel, there has been a sharp increase in hookah smoking among the Arabs. Most studies have focused mainly on hookah smoking among young people.

Objectives: To examine the association between hookah smoking and socioeconomic characteristics, health status and behaviors, and knowledge in the adult Arab population and to build a prediction model using machine learning methods.

Methods: This quantitative study based is on data from the Health and Environment Survey conducted by the Galilee Society in 2015–2016. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 2046 adults aged 18 years and older.

Results: Using machine learning, a prediction model was built based on eight features. Of the total study population, 13.0% smoked hookah. In the 18–34 age group, 19.5% smoked. Men, people with lower level of health knowledge, heavy consumers of energy drinks and alcohol, and unemployed people were more likely to smoke hookah. Younger and more educated people were more likely to smoke hookah.

Conclusions: Hookah smoking is a widespread behavior among adult Arabs in Israel. The model generated by our study is intended to help health organizations reach people at risk for smoking hookah and to suggest different approaches to eliminate this phenomenon.

October 2019
Ayelet Shapira-Daniels MD, Orit Blumenfeld PhD, Amit Korach MD, Ehud Rudis MD, Uzi Izhar MD and Oz M. Shapira MD

Background: Recently, Israel established the first national-level adult cardiac surgery database, which was linked to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS).

Objectives: To validate and compare the STS predicted risk of mortality (PROM) to logistic EuroSCORE I (LESI) and EuroSCORE II (ESII) in Israeli patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 1279 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgeries with a calculable PROM. Data were prospectively entered into our database and used to calculate PROM, LESI, and ESII. Scores were normalized and correlated using linear regression and Pearson's test. To examine model calibration, we plotted the total observed versus expected mortality for each score and across five risk-score subgroups. Model discrimination was assessed by measuring the area under the receiver operating curves.

Results: The observed 30-day operative mortality was 1.95%. The median (IQ1; IQ3) PROM, LESI, and the ESII scores were 1.45% (0.69; 3.22), 4.54% (2.28; 9.27), and 1.88% (1.18; 3.54), respectively, with observed over expected ratios of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.42–0.93), 0.59 (95%CI 0.40–0.87), and 0.24 (95%CI 0.17–0.36), respectively, (STS vs. ESII P = 0.36, STS vs. LESI P = 0.0001). There was good correlation among all scores. All models overestimated mortality. Model discrimination was high and similar for all three scores. Model calibration of the STS, PROM, and ESII were more accurate than the LESI, particularly in higher risk subgroups.

Conclusions: All scores overestimated mortality. In Israeli patients, the STS, PROM, and ESII risk-scores were more reliable metrics than LESI, particularly in higher risk patients.

November 2015
Menachem Fisher MD, Izhar ben Shlomo MD, Ido Solt MD and Yechiel Z. Burke MD

We present an overview of the current sexual behavior of adolescents in Israel, including the related social and moral issues, and compare it to that in Western countries. An important factor is the existence of liberal versus conservative views regarding the use of contraception and termination of pregnancy in these young subjects. We describe the current situation where in most cases the medical providers do not provide adequate contraceptive advice to adolescent girls, resulting ultimately in a high rate of unintended pregnancy. In our opinion, it is essential to make effective contraception more accessible to this vulnerable group.

March 2014
Bernardo Melamud, Yoav Lurie, Eran Goldin, Izhar Levi and Yaacov Esayag
January 2010
Y. Anekstein, Y. Smorgick, R. Lotan, G. Agar, E. Shalmon, Y. Floman and Y. Mirovsky

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a multi-organ disorder affecting many types of connective tissues, including bone and cartilage. Certain skeletal changes are more prevalent in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic individuals. A possible association of diabetes mellitus and lumbar spinal stenosis has been raised.

Objectives: To compare the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with spinal stenosis, degenerative disk disease or osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed of 395 consecutive patients diagnosed with spinal stenosis, degenerative disk disease or osteoporotic vertebral fractures. All the patients were examined by one senior author in the outpatient orthopedic clinic of a large general hospital between June 2004 and January 2006 and diagnosed as having either lumbar spinal stenosis (n=225), degenerative disk disease (n=124) or osteoporotic vertebral fractures (n=46).

Results: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the three groups (spinal stenosis, osteoporotic fracture, degenerative disk disease) was 28%, 6.5% and 12.1%, respectively, revealing a significantly higher prevalence in the spinal stenosis group compared with the others (P = 0.001). The higher prevalence of diabetes in the stenotic patients was unrelated to the presence of degenerative spondylolisthesis.

Conclusions: There is an association between diabetes and lumbar spinal stenosis. Diabetes mellitus may be a predisposing factor for the development of lumbar spinal stenosis.

February 2008
M. Chanimov, I. Ben-Shlomo, B. Chayen, V. Gurovich, M. Friedland, M.L. Cohen and M. Bahar
March 2006
M.I. Besser. A.J. Treves. O. Itzhaki, I. Hardan, A. Nagler, M.Z. Papa, R. Catane, E. Winkler, B. Shalmon-Sifroni and J. Schachter

Background: Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive and highly malignant cancer. The 5 year survival rate of patients with metastatic disease is less than 5% with a median survival of only 6–10 months. Drugs like dacarbazin (DTIC) as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapy agents have a response rate of 15–30%, but the duration of response is usually short with no impact on survival. Interleukin-2-based immunotherapy has shown more promising results. The National Institutes of Health recently reported that lymphodepleting chemotherapy, followed by an adoptive transfer of large numbers of anti-tumor specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, resulted in an objective regression in 51% of patients.

Objectives: To introduce the TIL[1] technology to advanced metastatic melanoma patients in Israel.

Methods: We generated TIL cultures from tumor tissue, choosing those with specific activity against melanoma and expanding them to large numbers.

Results: TIL cultures from nine patients were established and examined for their specific activity against the patients' autologous tumor cells. Twelve TIL cultures derived from 5 different patients showed the desired anti-tumor activity, making those 5 patients potential candidates for the therapy.

Conclusions: Pre-clinical studies of the TIL technology in a clinical laboratory set-up were performed successfully and this modality is ready for treating metastatic melanoma patients at the Sheba Medical Center's Ella Institute.

[1] TIL = tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes 

October 2003
R. Gerrah, U. Izhar, A. Elami, El Milgalter, E. Rudis and G. Merin

Background: Cardiac surgery is being performed with increasing frequency in patients aged 80 years and older.

Objectives: To examine the long and short-term results of surgery in this age group.

Methods: We retrospectively investigated 202 consecutive patients aged 80 years or older who underwent cardiac surgery between 1991 and 1999. Ninety-six operations (48%) were urgent.

Results: The study group comprised 140 men (69%) and 62 women (31%) with a mean age of 82.1 years (range 80–89). Preoperatively, 120 patients (59%) had unstable angina, 37 (18%) had left main coronary artery disease, 22 (11%) had renal failure, 17 (8.5%) had a history of stroke, and 13 (6.5%) had previous cardiac surgery. Hospital mortality for the whole group was 7.4%. Postoperative complications included: re-exploration for bleeding in 15 (7.4%), stroke in 8 (4%), sternal wound infection in 3 (1.5%), low cardiac output in 17 (8.4%), new Q wave myocardial infarction in 5 (2.5%), renal failure in 17 (8.5%), and atrial fibrillation in 71 (35%). The actuarial survival for patients discharged from the hospital was 66% at 5 years and 46% at 8 years. The type of surgical procedure was significantly associated with increased early mortality (coronary artery bypass grafting only in 2.9%, CABG[1] + valve in 16.1%, valve only in 16.7%; P = 0.01). Significant predictors (P < 0.05) for late mortality included type of surgical procedure, congestive heart failure, and postoperative low cardiac output.

Conclusions: When appropriately applied in selected octogenarians, cardiac surgery can be performed with acceptable mortality and good long-term results.

[1] CABG = coronary artery bypass grafting

September 2003
R. Gerrah, E. Rudis, A. Elami, E. Milgalter, U. Izhar and G. Merin

Background: About 40% of patients with infective endocarditis will require surgical treatment. The guidelines for such treatment were formulated by the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association in 1998.

Objectives: To examine our experience with surgical treatment of infective endocarditis in light of these guidelines.

Methods: Surgery was performed in 59 patients with infective endocarditis between 1990 and 1999. The patients' mean age was 48 years (range 13–80). The indications for surgery were hemodynamic instability, uncontrolled infection, and peripheral embolic events. The surgical treatment was based on elimination of infection foci and correction of the hemodynamic derangement. These objectives were met with valve replacement in the majority of patients. Whenever conservative surgery was possible, resection of vegetation and subsequent valve repair were performed and the native valve was preserved.

Results: Six patients (10%) died perioperatively from overwhelming sepsis (n=3), low cardiac output (n=2) and multiorgan failure (n=1). The mean hospital stay was 15.6 days. Of 59 patients, 47 (80%) underwent valve replacement and in 11 (19%) the surgical treatment was based on valve repair. After 1 year of follow up, there was no re-infection.

Conclusion: The new guidelines for surgical treatment of infective endocarditis allow better selection of patients and timing of surgery for this aggressive disease, which consequently decreases the mortality rate. Valve repair is feasible and is preferred whenever possible. According to the new guidelines, patients with neurologic deficit in our series would not have been operated upon, potentially decreasing the operative mortality to 7%.

May 2002
Adi Friedman, MD, Yizhar Floman, MD, Shabtai Sabatto, MD, Ori Safran, MD and Rami Mosheiff, MD

Background: As air travel increases and the number of commercial and non-commercial flights rises so does the number of aircraft accidents. The improved safety standards of the aviation industry result in a growing number of survivors of aircraft crashes, but there are no management guidelines for the treatment of aircraft crash survivors.

Objectives: To present our experience in treating five survivors of a light aircraft crash that occurred in August 1995 near Jerusalem.

Results: All five survivors sustained vertebral column injuries, which was the only injury in most of the survivors. We discuss the mechanism of injury.

Conclusions: Investigation of injuries’ pattern in survivors of aircraft crash is important for establishing management protocols in trauma centers.

December 2001
Zohar Nachum MD, Izhar Ben-Shlomo MD, Ehud Weiner MD, Moshe Ben-Ami MD and Eliezer Shalev MD

Background: Pregnant diabetic women are often subjected to frequent and prolonged hospitalizations to assure tight glycemic control, but in recent years attempts have been made at ambulatory control. The financial and social advantages of ambulatory management are obvious, but no report to date has prospectively compared its efficacy with that of hospitalization.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and cost of ambulatory care as compared to repeated hospitalizations for management of diabetes in pregnancy.

Methods: We conducted an 8 year prospective controlled study that included 681 diabetic women, experiencing 801 singleton pregnancies, with commencement of therapy prior to 34 gestational weeks. During 1986–1989, 394 pregnancies (60 pre-gestational diabetes mellitus and 334 gestational diabetes mellitus) were managed by hospitalization, and for the period 1990–1993, 407 pregnancies (61 PGDM and 346 GDM) were managed ambulatorily. Glycemic control, maternal complications, perinatal mortality, neonatal morbidity and hospital cost were analyzed.

Results: There was no difference in metabolic control and pregnancy outcome in women with PGDM between the hospitalized and the ambulatory groups. Patients with GDM who were managed ambulatorily had significantly lower mean capillary glucose levels, later delivery and higher gestational age at induction of labor as compared to their hospitalized counterparts. In this group there were also lower rates of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, phototherapy and intensive care unit admissions and stay. The saved hospital cost (in Israeli prices) in the ambulatory group was $6,000 and $15,000 per GDM and PGDM pregnancy, respectively.

Conclusions: Ambulatory care is as effective as hospitalization among PGDM patients and more effective among GDM patients with regard to glycemic control and neonatal morbidity. This is not only more convenient for the pregnant diabetic patient, but significantly reduces treatment costs.

September 1999
Hertzel Salman, MD, Pearl I. Herskovitz, MD, Simcha Brandis, MD, Michael Bergman, MD, Dror Dicker, MD, and Izhar Zahavi, MD.
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