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עמוד בית
Mon, 26.02.24

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October 2022
Walid Shalata MD, Motaz Abo Abod MD, Sergei Tsaregorodtsev MD, Reem Abu Hamid-Salama MD, Liora Boehm Cohen MD, Michael Kassirer MD, Dana Potashner MD, Yael Raviv MD
Walid Shalata MD, Motaz Abo Abod MD, Liora Boehm Cohen MD, Michael Kassirer MD, Dana Potashner MD, Yael Raviv MD
Amir Shabtay MD, Ziv Rivak MD, Elena Schleffer MD, Leonid Barski MD
May 2022
Herman Avner Cohen MD, Maya Gerstein MD, Vered Shkalim Zemer MD, Sophia Heiman MD, Yael Richenberg MD, Eyal Jacobson MD, and Oren Berkowitz PhD PA-C

Background: On 18 March 2020, the Israeli Health Ministry issued lockdown orders to mitigate the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objectives: To assess the association of lockdown orders on telemedicine practice and the effect of social distancing on infectious diseases in a primary care community pediatric clinic as well as the rate of referrals to emergency departments (ED) and trends of hospitalization.

Methods: Investigators performed a retrospective secondary data analysis that screened for visits in a large pediatric center from 1 January to 31 May 2020. Total visits were compared from January to December 2020 during the same period in 2019. Visits were coded during the first lockdown as being via telemedicine or in-person, and whether they resulted in ED referral or hospitalization. Month-to-month comparisons were performed as well as percent change from the previous year.

Results: There was a sharp decline of in-person visits (24%) and an increase in telemedicine consultations (76%) during the first lockdown (p < 0.001). When the lockdown restrictions were eased, there was a rebound of 50% in-person visits (p < 0.05). There was a profound decrease of visits for common infectious diseases during the lockdown period. Substantial decreases were noted for overall visits, ED referrals, and hospitalizations in 2020 compared to 2019.

Conclusions: COVID-19 had a major impact on primary care clinics, resulting in fewer patient-doctor encounters, fewer overall visits, fewer ED referrals, and fewer hospitalizations

January 2021
Mathilda Mandel MD, Michael Gurevich PhD, Michal Mandelboim PhD, Howard Amital MD, and Anat Achiron MD PhD

Background: During the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak our blood bank developed protocols to guarantee accurate blood components to COVID-19 patients.

Objectives: To provide convalescent whole blood donor screening strategies for patients recovering from COVID-19.

Methods: We recruited COVID-19 recovering patients who met our defined inclusion criteria for whole blood donation. All blood units were screened for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and SARS-COV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the S1 domain.

Results: We screened 180 blood units from patients recovering from COVID-19. All results were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and 87.2% were positive for SARS-COV-2 IgG antibodies in the plasma.

Conclusions: Blood component units from recovering COVID-19 patients are safe. Plasma units with positive IgG antibodies could serve as an efficient passive immunization for COVID-19 patients. Moreover, in the face of increased transfusion demand for treatment of anemia and coagulation dysfunction in critical ill COVID-19 patients, red blood cells units and random platelets units from convalescent donors can be safely transfused.

June 2020
Yonit Wiener-Well MD, Mustafa Hadeedi MD, Yuval Schwartz MD, Amos M. Yinnon MD and Gabriel Munter MD

Background: Antibiotic stewardship programs are necessary to test the appropriateness of local guidelines for empirical antibiotic treatment by audits.

Objectives: To assess whether compliance to local guidelines achieved a higher rate of appropriate antibiotic treatment and reduced morbidity and mortality, and whether infectious disease counseling improved the rate of appropriate treatment.

Methods: Our cohort comprised 294 patients with proven bacteremia. Data were retrieved from medical records including diagnosis, empiric antibiotic treatment, and outcomes.

Results: The empirical treatment was consistent with bacterial susceptibility in 227 patients (77%), and matched in 64% of the time to the first line, and another 24% to the second line of institutional guidelines. A strong correlation was found between appropriate empiric treatment according to bacterial susceptibility and reduced mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.403, P = 0.007). A similar correlation was found with the choice of appropriate antibiotics according to local guidelines (OR 0.392, P = 0.005). Infectious disease consultation was related to an increase in the rate of appropriateness of treatment according to guidelines (85% vs.76%, P = 0.005). A tendency to increased appropriateness was related to microbial susceptibility (87% vs. 74%, P = 0.07).

Conclusions: In this study, initiation of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy, according to the hospital's guidelines, was found associated with reduced mortality in patients with bacteremia.

April 2020
Maria Infantino, Arianna Damiani, Francesca Li Gobbi, Valentina Grossi, Barbara Lari, Donatella Macchia, Patrizia Casprini, Francesca Veneziani, Danilo Villalta, Nicola Bizzaro, Piero Cappelletti, Martina Fabris, Luca Quartuccio, Maurizio Benucci and Mariangela Manfredi
March 2019
Mariano Martini PhD, Naim Mahroum MD, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi MD PhD and Alessandra Parodi PhD
August 2017
Shir Azrielant and Yehuda Shoenfeld
October 2011
D. Shaham, N.R. Bogot, G. Aviram, L. Guralnik, S. Lieberman, L. Copel, J. Sosna, A.E. Moses, I. Grotto and D. Engelhard



Background:
An outbreak of respiratory illness caused by a novel swine-origin influenza virus (influenza A/H1N1 2009) that began in Mexico was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in June 2009. The pandemic affected many countries, including Israel.

Objectives: To compare the course of chest radiographic and computed tomography findings in patients who survived and those who died following admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) or intubation due to severe laboratory-confirmed swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 2009.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the patient records (267 radiographs, 8 CTs) of 22 patients (10 males, 12 females) aged 3.5–66 years (median 34) with confirmed influenza A/H1N1 2009, admitted to the ICU and/or intubated in five major Israeli medical centers during the period July–November 2009. We recorded demographic, clinical, and imaging findings –including pattern of opacification, extent, laterality, distribution, zone of findings, and presence/absence of nodular opacities– at initial radiography and during the course of disease, and compared the findings of survivors and non-survivors. Statistical significance was calculated using the Wilcoxon (continuous variables) and Fisher's exact tests (categorical variables).

Results: The most common findings on the initial chest radiography were airspace opacities, which were multifocal in 17patients (77%) and bilateral in 16 (73%), in the lower or lower and middle lung zones in 19 patients (86%). Large airspace nodules with indistinct margins were seen in 8 patients (36%). Twelve patients survived, 10 died. Patients who died had multiple background illnesses and were significantly older than survivors (P = 0.006). Radiologic findings for the two groups were not significantly different.

Conclusion: Airspace opacities, often with nodular appearance, were the most common findings among patients with severeinfluenza A/H1N1 2009. The course of radiologic findings was similar in patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 2009 whosurvived and those who died.

February 2009
N. Agmon-Levin, B. Porat Katz and Y. Shoenfeld

Primary biliary cirrhosis is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by humoral and cellular response directed at mitochondrial autoantigens, mainly the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The etiology of PBC[1], like most polygenic autoimmune diseases, belongs to the "complex" category, including genetic elements and environmental factors. Many environmental factors, such as xenobiotics, smoking, hormonal therapy, toxins, oxidative stress and recurrent urinary tract infections, are associated with PBC. Infectious agents can trigger autoimmunity via several mechanisms and are associated with various autoimmune diseases. A relationship between PBC and several infectious agents, and a possible role for Escherichia coli in the pathogenesis of PBC has been suggested. The identification of a culprit agent that induces or exacerbates PBC might have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This review evaluates the evidence for an infectious agent role in the pathogenesis of PBC.






[1] PBC = primary biliary cirrhosis


December 2005
Z. Tellier

Intravenous immunoglobulins have been used as therapeutic proteins since the early 1980s.

July 2002
Manfred S. Green, MD, PhD and Zalman Kaufman, MSc

The appearance of “new” infectious diseases, the reemergence of “old” infectious diseases, and the deliberate introduction of infectious diseases through bioterrorism has highlighted the need for improved and innovative infectious disease surveillance systems. A review of publications reveals that traditional current surveillance systems are generally based on the recognition of a clear increase in diagnosed cases before an outbreak can be identified. For early detection of bioterrorist-initiated outbreaks, the sensitivity and timeliness of the systems need to be improved. Systems based on syndromic surveillance are being developed using technologies such as electronic reporting and the internet. The reporting sources include community physicians, public health laboratories, emergency rooms, intensive care units, district health offices, and hospital admission and discharge systems. The acid test of any system will be the ability to provide analyses and interpretations of the data that will serve the goals of the system. Such analytical methods are still in the early stages of development.

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