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עמוד בית
Thu, 18.07.24

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October 2023
Samuel N. Heyman MD, Yuri Gorelik MD, Mogher Khamaisi MD PhD, Zaid Abassi PhD

Recent studies using propensity score matching have clearly indicated that contrast nephropathy following computed tomography occurs in hospitalized patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2) and that this iatrogenic complication is likely underestimated because of concomitant renal functional recovery, unrelated to the imaging procedure. These findings should be considered regarding contrast-enhanced studies in such patients.

May 2023
Larisa Gorenstein MD, Shelly Soffer MD, Eyal Klang MD

Gallbladder metastasis is an extremely rare entity [1]. It is mainly secondary to melanoma but has also been reported as originating from breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and gastric cancer. Its diagnosis is often late in the advanced stage of the disease with the involvement of other organ systems [2].

We present a case of a patient who developed gastric cancer gallbladder metastasis. These findings are usually incidental on pathology of cholecystectomy specimens [1]. In our case, the metastatic lesion was demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery. Of note, the lesion had a similar enhancement pattern to the primary tumor.

December 2018
Maiya Goremykina MD PhD, Al'fiya Gerdt MPath, Yerlan Ibraev MD, Birzhan Kalmakbayev MD, Kirill Dyakonov MD, Olga Skinder MD and Sandro Vento MD
March 2018
Narin N. Carmel-Neiderman MD, Idan Goren MD, Yishay Wasserstrum MD, Tal Frenkel Rutenberg MD, Irina Barbarova MD, Avigal Rapoport MD, Dor Lotan MD, Erez Ramaty MD, Naama Peltz-Sinvani MD, Adi Brom MD, Michael Kogan MD, Yulia Panina MD, Maya Rosman MD, Carmel Friedrich MD, Irina Gringauz MD, Amir Dagan MD, Iris Kliers MD, Tomer Ziv-Baran PhD and Gad Segal MD

Background: Accurate pulse oximetry reading at hospital admission is of utmost importance, mainly for patients presenting with hypoxemia. Nevertheless, there is no accepted or evidence-based protocol for such structured measuring.

Objectives: To devise and assess a structured protocol intended to increase the accuracy of pulse oximetry measurement at hospital admission.

Methods: The authors performed a prospective comparison of protocol-based pulse-oximetry measurement with non-protocol based readings in consecutive patients at hospital admission. They also calculated the relative percentage of improvement for each patient (before and after protocol implementation) as a fraction of the change in peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) from 100%.

Results: A total of 460 patients were recruited during a 6 month period. Implementation of a structured measurement protocol significantly changed saturation values. The SpO2 values of 24.7% of all study participants increased after protocol implementation (ranging from 1% to 21% increase in SpO2 values). Among hypoxemic patients (initial SpO2 < 90%), protocol implementation had a greater impact on final SpO2 measurements, increasing their median SpO2 readings by 4% (3–8% interquartile range; P < 0.05). Among this study population, 50% of the cohort improved by 17% of their overall potential and 25% improved by 50% of their overall improvement potential. As for patients presenting with hypoxemia, the median improvement was 31% of their overall SpO2 potential.

Conclusions: Structured, protocol based pulse-oximetry may improve measurement accuracy and reliability. The authors suggest that implementation of such protocols may improve the management of hypoxemic patients.

January 2018
Raifa Ivanova MD PhD, Maya Goremykina MD PhD, Natalya Glushkova MD PhD and Sandro Vento MD
December 2013
Eduard Ling, Shachaf Ofer-Shiber, Or Goren and Yair Molad
 Background: Tight control of disease activity is the recommended target of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Objectives: To determine the outcome of RA with respect to disease activity and the rate of remission, as measured by the DAS-28, in a real-world inception cohort.

Methods: We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of a single-center real-world inception cohort of 101 consecutive patients being treated for RA in 2009–2010 in a rheumatology outpatient clinic. Patients were managed at the discretion of the attending rheumatologist with the goal of achieving remission. DAS-28 scores were calculated and analyzed by clinical and treatment variables derived from the medical files.

Results: Mean patient age was 58.6 ± 13.4 years and mean duration of disease 10.7 ± 7.9 years. Disease remission (DAS-28 < 2.6) was achieved in 26.7% of patients and low disease activity (> 2 .6 DAS-28 < 3.2) in 17%. Monotherapy with a conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (C-DMARD, 21% of patients at last follow-up) was associated with a significantly lower mean DAS-28 score and C-reactive protein level than combined C-DMARD treatment (79% of patients), and with shorter disease duration than combined treatment with C-DMARDs or C-DMARD(s)+biological DMARD (40% of patients). Rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide positivity had no effect on DAS-28 scores. Time from diagnosis was inversely correlated with DAS-28 scores.

Conclusions: The achievement of low disease activity and remission in a significant portion of our inception cohort of patients with RA suggests that the treat-to-target strategy is feasible and effective in routine clinical practice. 

August 2009
G. Rajz, D. Simon, M. Bakon, O. Goren, J. Zauberman, Z. Zibly, E. Zimlichman and S. Harnof
December 2008
A. Reshef, I. Leibovich, A. Goren

Hereditary angioedema is a rare genetic disorder, manifested by recurrent edema leading to disfigurement, organ dysfunction and life-threatening respiratory impairment that may become fatal. The hallmark of HAE is a C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, but recent evidence points at bradykinin as the main mediator that causes hyperpermeability of small vasculature, leading to accumulation of edema fluid. Current therapeutic options for HAE[1] are limited, and consist of drugs, replacement therapy, and supportive treatment. In view of many disadvantages of the current therapeutic modalities new approaches to the treatment of HAE are now being offered. This review summarizes our experience with a new line of medications developed for the treatment of acute exacerbations and prophylaxis of HAE – icatibant: bradykinin receptor antagonist, ecallantide: kallikrein inhibitor, and two C1 INH[2] preparations: Berinert-P, human plasma-derived concentrate, and Rhucin: novel recombinant C1-INH produced in transgenic rabbits. Preliminary results of these studies are encouraging and may bring new hope to the patients with this distressing condition. The exact number of HAE patients in Israel is unknown and because patients are treated individually and comprehensive laboratory assessment is partial, many cases might be missed or not treated according to accepted guidelines. We offer a new specialty center for HAE patients, addressing the medical and psychosocial needs of patients and their families.


[1] HAE = hereditary angioedema

[2] C1-INH = C1 esterase inhibitor

November 2008
Yoram Finkelstein, MD PhD, Na Zhang, PhD, Vanessa A. Fitsanakis, PhD, Malcolm J. Avison, PhD, John C. Gore, PhD and Michael Aschner, PhD

Background: Manganism is a central nervous system disorder caused by toxic exposure to manganese. Manganism has been related to occupational exposures, liver diseases, prolonged parenteral nutrition, and abuse of illicit drugs. Initially manifested by a reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome (locura manganica), the main symptoms and signs of manganism are emotional lability, compulsive behavior and visual hallucinations. Locura manganica is followed by an irreversible extrapyramidal syndrome, the onset of which occurs years after chronic exposure.

Objectives: To characterize the regional distribution of Mn[1] in the rat brain after subchronic exposure to Mn. This animal model holds special clinical relevance, reflecting the earlier clinical stages of manganism before chronic exposure to Mn exerts its irreversible effects.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously injected with MnCl2 weekly, for a total of 14 weeks – approximately 1/10 of the lifetime of the rat. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used to detect the distribution of Mn deposition in brain tissues, as evidenced by areas of T1-weighted hyperintense signals.

Results: A consistent region-specific pattern of T1-weighted hyperintensities was observed in the brains of Mn-treated rats. Cortical hyperintensities were prominent in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus. Hyperintensities were also observed in the olfactory bulbs, pituitary gland, optic nerves and chiasma, pons, midbrain tegmentum, habenula, lentiform and caudate nuclei, thalamus, chorioid plexus and cerebellar hemispheres.

Conclusions: Prominent Mn depositions, evidenced by T1-weighted hyperintensities in the hippocampus after subacute exposure to Mn, are compatible with the clinical picture of manganism during its early stages; and may explain its pathophysiology 

[1] Mn = manganese

April 2008
F. Serour, A. Gorenstein and M. Boaz

Background: Reports of burn injuries in children are usually made by highly specialized burn units. Our facility admits children with burns < 20% total body surface area, while those with major burns are transferred to burn units at tertiary care facilities.

Objectives: To review our experience with thermal burns.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all thermal burns admitted to our hospital during a 5 year period.

Results: Among 266 patients (69.2% boys) aged 3.5 ± 3.6 years, children < 3 years old were the most frequently injured (64.7%). Scalds (71.4%) were the most common type of burn. Partial thickness burns were sustained by 96.6% of children and TBSA[1] burned was 4.2 ± 3.6%. The mean hospital stay was 3.8 ± 4.5 days, and was significantly prolonged in girls (4.6 ± 4.8 vs. 3.5 ± 4.3 days, P = 0.01). Percent TBSA burned was correlated with patient age (r = 0.12, P = 0.04) and length of hospital stay (r = 0.6, P < 0.0001). Six patients (2.3%) (mean age 3.4 ± 2.3 years) were hospitalized in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit due to toxin-mediated illness.

Conclusions: Children under the age of 3 years are at increased risk for burn injury, but older children sustain more extensive injuries. Prevention and awareness are needed for child safety.

[1] TBSA = total body surface area

April 2007
M. Gorenberg and A. Marmor

Background: Electrocardiography has a very low sensitivity in detecting dobutamine-induced myocardial ischemia.

Objectives: To assess the added diagnostic value of a new cardiac performance index (dP/dtejc) measurement, based on brachial artery flow changes, as compared to standard 12-lead ECG, for detecting dobutamine-nduced myocardial ischemia, using Tc99m-Sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography as the gold standard of comparison to assess the presence or absence of ischemia.

Methods: The study group comprised 40 patients undergoing Sestamibi-SPECT[1]/dobutamine stress test. Simultaneous measurements of ECG and brachial artery dP/dtejc were performed at each dobutamine level. In 19 of the 40 patients perfusion defects compatible with ischemia were detected on SPECT. The increase in dP/dtejc during infusion of dobutamine in this group was severely impaired as compared to the non-ischemic group. dP/dtejc outcome was combined with the ECG results, giving an ECG-enhanced value, and compared to ECG alone.

Results: The sensitivity improved dramatically from 16% to 79%, positive predictive value increased from 60% to 68% and negative predictive value from 54% to 78%, and specificity decreased from 90% to 67%.
Conclusions: If ECG alone is used for specificity, the combination with dP/dtejc improved the sensitivity of the test and could be a cost-savings alternative to cardiac imaging or perfusion studies to detect myocardial ischemia, especially in patients unable to exercise

[1] SPECT = single-photon emission computed tomography

August 2005
D. Leibovici, A. Cooper, A. Lindner, R. Ostrowsky, J. Kleinmann, S. Velikanov, H. Cipele, E. Goren and Y.I. Siegel
 Background: Stents offer a simple and effective drainage method for the upper urinary tract. However, ureteral stents are associated with frequent side effects, including irritative voiding symptoms and hematuria.

Objectives: To determine the side effects associated with ureteral stents and their impact on sexual function and quality of life.

Methods: Symptom questionnaires were administered to 135 consecutive patients with unilateral ureteral stents. The questionnaire addressed irritative voiding symptoms, flank pain, hematuria, fever, loss of labor days, anxiety, sleep impairment, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, dyspareunia, painful ejaculation, and a subjective overall impact on quality of life. The items were graded from 1 (minimal or no symptoms) to 5 (maximal symptoms). The patients were seen and questionnaires filled at 2 weekly intervals following stent insertion until stent extraction. Following removal of the stent, stent patency, impaction and migration rates were determined. Admissions to hospital and ancillary procedures to retreive stents were noted.

Results: The findings presented refer to questionnaire items scoring 3 or more. Dysuria, urinary frequency and urgency were reported by 40%, 50% and 55% of the patients, respectively. Flank pain, gross hematuria or fever was reported by 32%, 42% and 15% respectively. Among working patients, 45% lost at least 2 labor days during the first 14 days, and 32% were still absent from work by day 30. A total of 435 labor days were lost in the first month. Anxiety and sleep disturbance were reported by 24% and 20% respectively, and 45% of patients reported impairment in their quality of life. Decreased libido was reported by 45%, and sexual dysfunction by 42% of men and 86% of women. Stent removal necessitated ureteroscpoy in 14 patients (10.5%), due to upward migration in 11 (8.2%) and incrustration and impaction in 3. Spontaneous stent expulsion occurred in one patient. Forty-six (34%) stents were obstructed at the time of removal. Obstructed stents were associated with a longer mean dwell time as compared to the whole population, 75 versus 62 days respectively (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Ureteral stents are associated with frequent side effects and significantly impact on patient quality of life. Our findings should be considered when deciding on ureteral stent insertion and dwell time.

August 2004
K. Stav, D. Leibovici, E. Goren, A. Livshitz, Y.I. Siegel, A. Lindner and A. Zisman

Background: Cystoscopy, the principal means of diagnosis and surveillance of bladder tumors, is invasive and associated with unpleasant side effects

Objectives: To determine the early complications of rigid cystoscopy and the impact on patients' quality of life and sexual performance.

Methods: One hundred consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic rigid cystoscopy filled in questionnaires including anxiety and pain levels (0–5 visual analogue scale), adverse events, short-form health survey, International Prostate Symptom Score, and functional sexual performance. Questionnaires were administered before, immediately after, and 1, 2 days, 2 and 4 weeks following cystoscopy.

Results: The pre-cystoscopy anxiety level was 2.01. The average pain during the examination was 1.41. SF-36[1] score was not affected by cystoscopy. The subjective impact on patients' quality of life was 0.51. The mean IPSS[2] increased following cystoscopy (6.75 vs. 5.43, P = 0.001) and returned to baseline 2 weeks later. A decline in libido was reported by 55.6% (25/45) and 50% (3/6) of the sexually active men and women, respectively. Cystoscopy was associated with a decreased Erectile Dysfunction Intensity Score, from 15.6 to 9.26 during the first 2 weeks (P = 0.04). The overall complication rate was 15% and included urethrorrhagia and dysuria. None of the patients had fever or urinary retention and none was hospitalized. The complication rate was higher in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (24% vs. 9.7%, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Rigid cystoscopy is well tolerated by most patients and has only a minor impact on quality of life. However, cystoscopy transiently impairs sexual performance and libido. The early complications are mild and correlate with a diagnosis of BPH[3].

[1] SF-36 = short-form health survey

[2] IPSS = International Prostate Symptom Score

[3] BPH = benign prostatic hyperplasia

December 2003
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