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עמוד בית
Sat, 02.03.24

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February 2014
Yoav Rosenthal, Amir Arami, Yona Kosashvili, Nir Cohen, Eli Sidon and Steven Velkes
Background: Bisphosphonates reduce the overall risk of fractures among patients with osteoporosis, and this beneficial effect is long-lasting. However, since bisphosphonates inhibit bone remodeling, they may enhance the formation and propagation of micro-cracks over time and patients may therefore be prone to atypical fatigue fractures, mainly in the subtrochanteric region and femoral shaft.

Objectives: To present two cases of subtrochanteric fractures related to bisphosphonate treatment and review of the current literature.

Conclusions: Despite the overall beneficial effect of bisphosphonates, further research is required to prevent this significant complication. 

Noam Rosen, Roy Gigi, Amir Haim, Moshe Salai and Ofir Chechik
Background: Above-the-knee amputations (AKA) and below-the-knee amputations (BKA) are commonly indicated in patients with ischemia, extensive tissue loss, or infection. AKA were previously reported to have better wound-healing rates but poorer rehabilitation rates than BKA.

Objectives: To compare the outcomes of AKA and BKA and to identify risk factors for poor outcome following leg amputation.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised 188 consecutive patients (mean age 72 years, range 25–103, 71% males) who underwent 198 amputations (91 AKA, 107 BKA, 10 bilateral procedures) between February 2007 and May 2010. Included were male and female adults who underwent amputations for ischemic, infected or gangrenotic foot. Excluded were patients whose surgery was performed for other indications (trauma, tumors). Mortality and reoperations (wound debridement or need for conversion to a higher level of amputation) were evaluated as outcomes. Patient- and surgery-related risk factors were studied in relation to these primary outcomes.

Results: The risk factors for mortality were dementia [hazard ratio (HR) 2.769], non-ambulatory status preoperatively (HR 2.281), heart failure (HR 2.013) and renal failure (HR 1.87). Resistant bacterial infection (HR 3.083) emerged as a risk factor for reoperation. Neither AKA nor BKA was found to be an independent predictor of mortality or reoperation.

Conclusions: Both AKA and BKA are associated with very high mortality rates. Mortality is most probably related to serious comorbidities (renal and heart disease) and to reduced functional status and dementia. Resistant bacterial infections are associated with high rates of reoperation. The risk factors identified can aid surgeons and patients to better anticipate and possibly prevent severe complications.

February 2013
R. Thein, S. Tenenbaum, O.Chechick, E. Leshem, A. Chechik and B. Liberman
 Background: Hematogenous osteomyelitis of long bones is rare in adults, especially in the immune competent host. Only a few cases have been described to date.

Objectives: To present a case series of femoral hematogenous osteomyelitis in adults, a rare condition that is difficult to diagnose and may cause major morbidity and mortality.

Methods: We reviewed three cases of femoral hematogenous osteomyelitis that occurred between 2007 and 2009. The course of the disease, physical findings, imaging modalities, laboratory analysis, culture results and functional outcomes were recorded.

Results: In all cases the diagnosis was delayed after symptoms were first attributed to radicular-like pain or lateral thigh pain due to an inflammatory non-infectious source. In all cases infection was caused by an unusual or fastidious bacterium. The pathogen was Haemophilus aphrophilus in one case, and Streptococcus specimens were found in the other two. Pathological fracture occurred in two of the cases despite culture-specific antibiotic treatment and a non-weight bearing treatment protocol. It took five surgical interventions on average to reach full recovery from infection, but residual disability was still noted at the last follow-up.

Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware that although femoral hematogenous osteomyelitis is a rare condition in adults, its ability to mimic other pathologies can result in delayed diagnosis and major morbidity. In our series the pathogen was different in each case and was cultured only from the infected site. Pathological fracture is a devastating complication but we do not recommend prophylactic stabilization at this point.    

July 2009
A. Toker, Z.H. Perry, E. Cohen and H. Krymko

Background: The rate of cesarean section is increasing and recently exceeded 30% of all deliveries in the United States. Birth injuries during CS[1] are relatively rare. Femur fractures have a very low incidence during both vaginal delivery and CS.

Objectives: To assess our 10 year experience (2008–1997) in managing fractured femur during CS, including a typical case.

Methods: We reviewed the prevalence of femur fractures in two tertiary, academic, level one trauma center hospitals in Israel (Hadassah in Jerusalem and Soroka in Beer Sheva).

Results: During the study period 221,939 deliveries occurred in both hospitals. Of these, 17.6% were cesarean sections (33,990 CS). Of the total number of deliveries, the incidence of femur fracture was 0.082 per 1000 deliveries (17 fractures), and the incidence of femur fracture during CS was 0.308 per 1000 CS (12 fractures).

Conclusions: Cesarean section increases the risk of femur fractures (P < 0.001) with an odds ratio of 11.26 (confidence interval 3.97–31.97).






[1] CS = cesarean section



 
January 2007
U. Givon, N. Sherr-Lurie, A. Schindler, A. Blankstein and A. Ganel

Background: Fractures of the femur in neonates are relatively uncommon. The infants feel pain and discomfort, causing parental distress, and the hospital stay is longer. Treatment of this specific fracture is problematic because of the small size of the baby.

Objectives: To review the results of the treatment of neonatal femoral fractures.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all neonatal fractures of the femur during a 12 year period. Thirteen fractures of the femur in 11 babies were treated with improvised Bryant skin traction of both legs. All the patients were re-examined after a mean follow-up period of 5.2 years.

Results: All fractures healed satisfactorily clinically and radiographically, with no residual deformity, no leg length discrepancy and no functional impairment.

Conclusions: Bryant’s traction for 2–3 weeks in hospital is a safe method for the treatment of femoral fractures in neonates, and the outcome is good.
 

March 2001
Tamy Shohat, MD, MPH, Orly Ramono-Zelekha and the Israel Network for Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Background: Charts of fetal measurements are widely used in the follow-up of pregnant women, however no charts have been constructed for the Israeli population.

Objectives: To establish growth charts for fetal femur size and biparietal diameter.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of 1,422 singleton pregnancies was conducted.

Results: A total of 1,143 pregnancies met the inclusion criteria. Femur length and biparietal diameter were measured. A linear cubic model was fitted to construct growth charts for the different centiles. The charts were compared with previously published data.

Conclusions: We have constructed new fetal measure­ment charts for femur length and biparietal diameter that are unique for the Israeli population. These charts have been found to be similar to those published for other Caucasian populations.
 

January 2001
Hani S. Shakhatreh MD

Background: Proximal femur fractures represent a challenging medical problem worldwide. In recent years numerous reports have documented. a progressive increase in the incidence of hip fractures. In Jordan, this problem has not received sufficient attention, and to my knowledge, this is the first study to address the problem.

Objective: To analyze the predisposing factors involved in the occurrence of proximal femur fractures seen at a major medical center in Jordan.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducts of all patient admitted with hip fractures to King Hussein Hospital and the Royal Jordanian Rehabilitation Center at the King Hussein Medical Center over a 2 year period (1 January 1995 to 31 December 1996). We determined the associated chronic diseases and medications, mechanisms of injury, types of fractures and other circumstances in order to suggest preventive measures to decrease the incidence of this clinical problem.

Results: We identified 216 cases of fracture: 43% occurred in people over the age of 80 years, 95% were due to low energy injuries (falls), and 69.5% occurred in females. Two or more co-morbid medical conditions were present in 70% of the cases.

Conclusion: Since fractures of the hip in the study population in Jordan occurred predominantly as low energy injuries in the elderly, preventive measures should focus on fall avoidance.
 

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