Background: There is a lack of information regarding acute pancreatitis in Israel. However, the most prevalent worldwide etiologic causes of acute pancreatitis are biliary stones and alcohol abuse.
Objectives: To delineate the prevalence, main causes, rate of recurrence, mortality, and complications of acute pancreatitis in southern Israel.
Methods: In this retrospective study medical files of all hospitalized patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis during a 13-year period were reviewed.
Results: The study comprised 602 patients with acute pancreatitis (120/100,000 patients or 1.2/1000 admissions). The main causes were: biliary stones (41.5%), alcohol (8.8%), and drugs (8.3%). Disothiazide was the most common drug associated with acute pancreatitis followed by sitagliptin, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and simvastatin. Undetermined etiology made up 33.6% of the cases. Recurrence rate was 33.8% (alcohol 3.7%, hypertriglyceridemia 1.8%). This finding had no implications on mortality rate, which was stable at 4.3%. Bilateral pleural effusion, advanced computed tomography severity index (CTSI) grading, older age, and being single were found to be poor prognostic predictive factors.
Conclusions: Biliary pancreatitis is the main cause of acute pancreatitis in southern Israel, similar to the rest of the world, and constitutes a much more common etiology than alcohol. Furthermore, drug-induced pancreatitis is a common etiology, with disothiazide being the most common drug associated with pancreatitis followed by ACE-Inhibitors, sitagliptin, and simvastatin. Recurrence of pancreatitis is common in this geographic area, and older age, advanced CTSI grading, bilateral pleural effusion, and being single are all poor prognostic predictive factors.