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עמוד בית
Wed, 29.05.24

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November 2023
Ibrahim Zvidi MD, Ram Dickman MD, Doron Boltin MBBS

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) prevalence varies according to both geographical region and ethnicity. The interplay between these two factors has been poorly studied.

Objectives: To determine the positivity rate of H. pylori infection among Jewish and Arab patients who live in a mixed urban center in Israel.

Methods: Between November 2009 and September 2014, dyspeptic patients referred to a gastroenterology clinic in Lod, Israel, were enrolled in a prospective study. For each patient, clinical and epidemiological data were collected and a noninvasive or endoscopy-based test for H. pylori was performed.

Results: A total of 429 consecutive patients (322 Jewish and 107 Arabs), mean age 45 years (range 15–91 years) were included; 130 males. Overall positivity for H. pylori was 42.4% (182/429). The positivity rate of H. pylori was 38.8% for Jews (125/322) and 53.2% for Arabs (57/107) in Lod (P < 0.01). When immigrants were excluded, the difference in H. pylori positivity did not reach statistical significance (45.0% [77/171] vs. 53.2% [57/107], P = 0.217, in Jews and Arabs, respectively).

Conclusions: H. pylori infection was more common in Arabs that Jews in the mixed city of Lod, Israel. This finding may suggest that non-environmental factors were responsible for the observed difference in H. pylori positivity.

March 2023
Eyal Leibovitz MD, Mona Boaz PhD, Israel Khanimov MD, Gary Mosiev MD, Mordechai Shimonov MD

Background: Despite its wide use, evidence is inconclusive regarding the effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in patients with chronic diseases and dementia among hospitalized patients with malnutrition.

Objectives: To examine the effect of PEG insertion on prognosis after the procedure.

Methods: This retrospective analysis of medical records included all adult patients who underwent PEG insertion between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 during their hospitalization. For each PEG patient, two controls similar in age, sex, referring department, and underlying condition were randomly selected from the entire dataset of patients admitted. The effect of PEG on mortality and repeated admissions was examined.

Results: The study comprised 154 patients, 49 referred for PEG insertion and 105 controls (mean age 74.8 ± 19.8 years; 72.7% females; 78.6% admitted to internal medicine units). Compared to controls, the PEG group had a higher 2-year mortality rate (59.2% vs. 17.1%, P < 0.001) but the 2-year readmission rate did not differ significantly (44.9% vs. 56.2% respectively, P = 0.191). Regression analysis showed PEG was  associated with increased risk of the composite endpoint of death or readmission (hazard ratio 1.514, 95% confidence interval 1.016–2.255, P = 0.041). No specific characteristic of admission was associated with increased likelihood of death or readmission. Among readmitted patients, reasons for admission and baseline laboratory data, including albumin and cholesterol, did not differ between the PEG patients and controls.

Conclusions: In-hospital PEG insertion was associated with increased mortality at 2 years but had no effect on readmissions.

May 2021
Eran Glikson MD, Adi Abbass, Eldar Carmel MD, Adi Primov-Fever MD, Eran E. Alon MD, and Michael Wolf MD

Background: Management of acquired laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is challenging and often requires recurrent procedures.

Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of balloon dilatation (BD) versus rigid dilatation (RD) in the treatment of LTS.

Methods: A retrospective study of patients undergoing endoscopic intervention for LTS was performed.

Results: The study included 69 balloon (BD) and 48 rigid dilations (RD). Most cases were grade 3 Cotton-Meyer stenosis. Mean time interval to recurrence after BD and RD were 27.9 and 19.6 weeks, respectively. Remission of over 8 weeks was achieved in 71% of BD compared to 31.2% of RD (P < 0.05). In the BD group, dilatation of subglottic stenosis showed higher rates of remission of over 8 weeks compared to upper and mid-tracheal stenosis (92% vs. 62% and 20%, respectively, P < 0.05). Complications were encountered in 4.2% of RD and 2.9% of BD.

Conclusions: BD and RD are effective and safe procedures. Overall, BD achieved slightly better long-term results compared to RD

May 2020
Anas Kadah MD, Tawfik Khoury MD, Wisam Sbeit MD

Background: Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) mostly occurs as a late complication after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) insertion; however, early BBS has been rarely reported, and the treatment of this condition is still unclear.

Objectives: To evaluate the Seldinger technique for treatment of early BBS after PEG insertion.

Methods: We report two cases of early BBS in two consecutive patients who underwent PEG insertion to maintain oral intake. The first patient was an 83-year-old woman showing Alzheimer type dementia, while the other one was a 76-year-old man who presented with maxillary cancer and treated with radiotherapy followed by left maxillectomy. Post-surgery, he developed progressive difficulty of swallowing due to mouth deformation and treatment related nerve toxicity. The first patient presented with fever and purulent discharge from the gastrostomy insertion site, without ability to rotate or slide the tube through the stoma 10 days after the PEG insertion. The man was admitted to the hospital 5 days following PEG insertion due to a fever of 38°C and peritubal swelling with purulent discharge. In addition, the tube could not rotate or slide through the stoma.

Results: Buried bumper syndrome was demonstrated by computed tomography scan. Gastroscopy and gastrostomy tube replacement was performed successfully according to the Seldinger technique (replacement over guidewire) in both cases. Correct intragastric tube positioning was demonstrated radiographically before resuming tube feeding. The two patients were discharged in good physical condition several days later.

Conclusions: External replacement over guide wire should be considered in such cases.

 

January 2020
Roy Lauterbach MD, Emad Matanes MD, Amnon Amit MD, Zeev Wiener MD MHA and Lior Lowenstein MD MS MHA MBA

Background: During Transvaginal Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (vNOTES) the surgeon operates exclusively through a single vaginal entry point, leaving no external scarring.

Objectives: To evaluate the learning curve of vNOTES hysterectomy by experienced gynecologists based on surgical times and short-term outcomes.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of the first 25 vNOTES hysterectomy surgeries performed from July to December 2018 at Rambam Health Care Campus by a single surgeon. The primary outcome was hysterectomy time. Secondary outcomes included intra-operative bleeding, length of hospitalization, postoperative pain, and need for analgesia. Socio-demographic and clinical data were retrieved from patient electronic medical charts.

Results: Median age was 64.5 years (range 40–79). Median hysterectomy time was 38 minutes (range 30–49) from the first cut until completion. Comparisons between median hysterectomy time in the first 10 hysterectomies and in the 15 subsequent procedures demonstrated a significant decrease in median total time: 45 minutes (range 41–49) vs. 32 minutes (range 30–38), respectively (P = 0.024). The median estimated intraoperative blood loss decreased from 100 ml (range 70–200) in the first 10 hysterectomies to 40 ml (range 20–100) in the subsequent procedures (P = 0.011)

Conclusions: vNOTES hysterectomy is feasible by an experienced gynecologist, with an exponential improvement in surgical performance in a short period as expressed by the improvement in hysterectomy time, low complication rates, negligible blood loss, minimal post-surgical pain, fast recovery, and short hospitalization. vNOTES allows easier and safer access to adnexal removal compared to conventional vaginal surgery.

November 2019
Omar Hakrush MD, Yochai Adir MD, Sonia Schneer MD, and Amir Abramovic MD

Background: Transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration using a bronchoscope (EUS-B-FNA) allows clinicians to determine mediastinal staging and lung mass evaluation of lesions not accessible by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or where endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration might not be safe.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety, diagnostic accuracy, and feasibility of EUS-B-FNA.

Methods: The study comprised patients who underwent a pulmonologist-performed EUS-B-FNA of mediastinal lymph nodes and parenchymal lung lesions between June 2015 and September 2017 at the Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Results: EUS-B-FNA was performed in 81 patients. The transesophageal procedure was performed for easier accessibility (49.4%) and in high-risk patients (43.3%). The most frequently sampled mediastinal stations were left paratracheal and sub-carinal lymph nodes or masses (38.3% and 56.7%, respectively). There were no complications (e.g., acute respiratory distress, esophageal perforation, or bleeding). An accurate diagnosis was determined in 91.3% of cases.

Conclusions: Pulmonologist-performed EUS-B-FNA is safe and accurate for evaluating mediastinal and parenchymal lung lesions and lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic accuracy is high. EUS-B-FNA may allow access to sites not amenable to other forms of bronchoscopic sampling, or may increase diagnostic accuracy in patients where anatomic position predicts a low diagnostic yield.

May 2019
Mahmud Mahamid MD, Amir Mari MD, Tawfik Khoury MD, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi MD PhD, Majeed Ghantous MD, Omar Abu-Elhija MD and Abdulla Watad MD

Background: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori varies geographically by age, race, and socioeconomic status (SES). However, the impact of ethnicity on endoscopic outcomes in infected individuals is not well known.

Objectives: To assess the impact of ethnicity among Israelis with biopsy-proven H. pylori infection.

Methods: A retrospective study, including patients who underwent gastroscopy and were diagnosed histologically with H. pylori infection, was conducted. Information on demographics, SES, medications, and co-morbidities were extracted from medical records. Univariate (Student's t-test, chi-square test) and multivariate (multinomial and logistic) regression analysis were conducted to examine the predictors of the clinical outcome.

Results: The study included 100 Israeli Jews and 100 Israeli Arabs diagnosed with biopsy-proven H. pylori infection. At univariate analysis, the number of households was higher among Arabs (P < 0.001), whose family income and parental education were lower than among Jews (P < 0.001 for both variables). The response to amoxicillin and clarithromycin differed between the two groups, being higher among Jews (P < 0.001).In clinical outcomes (gastritis severity, gastric and duodenal ulcer, intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis, and MALT), no statistically significant differences could be detected between Jews and Arabs. Concerning intestinal metaplasia, lack of consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs resulted a statistically significant protective factor (odds ratio 0.128, 95% confidence interval 0.024–0.685, P = 0.016).

Conclusions: Although in the literature ethnicity seems to be a risk factor for H. pylori colonization, no statistical significance was detected in various endoscopic and histological findings related to H. Pylori infection between Israeli Arabs and Jews.

June 2018
Wisam Sbeit MD, Anas Kadah MD, Moaad Farraj MD and Moshe Shiller MD
December 2017
Udit Gibor MD, Zvi Perry MD, Dan Tirosh MD, Uri Netz MD, Alex Rosental MD, Alex Fich MD, Sofie Man MD, Samuel Ariad MD and Boris Kirshtein MD

Background: Self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) insertion is an alternative to emergency surgery in malignant colonic obstruction. However, the long-term oncological outcome of stents as a bridge to surgery is limited and controversial.

Objectives: To determine the long-term oncological outcome of stents as a bridge to surgery.

Methods: Data of patients who underwent emergency surgery and endoscopic stent insertion as a bridge to surgery due to obstructing colon cancer at Soroka Medical Center during a 14 year period were collected retrospectively. Preoperative data, tumor staging, and oncological outcomes in terms of local recurrence, metastatic spread, and overall survival of the patients were compared.

Results: Sixty-four patients (56% female, mean age 72 years) were included in the study: 43 (67%) following emergency surgery, 21 stent inserted prior to surgery. A stent was inserted within 24–48 hours of hospital admission. The mean time between SEMS insertion and surgery was 15 days (range 0–30). Most of the patients had stage II (41%) and stage III (34%) colonic cancer. There was no difference in tumor staging and localization between groups. There was no significant difference in disease recurrence between SEMS and surgery groups, 24% and 32%, respectively. Disease-free survival rates were similar between the SEMS group (23.8%) and surgery group (22%). Four year and overall survival rates were 52.4% vs. 47.6%, 33.3% vs. 39.5%, respectively.

Conclusions: SEMS as a bridge to surgery in patients with obstructing colon cancer provide an equivalent long-term oncological outcome to surgery alone.

 

May 2017
Narin N. Carmel-Neiderman MD, Boaz Sagi MD, Daniel Zikk MD and Yael Oestreicher-Kedem MD
May 2016
Dan Meir Livovsky MD, Orit Pappo MD, Galina Skarzhinsky PhD, Asaf Peretz MD AGAF, Elliot Turvall MSc and Zvi Ackerman MD

Background: Recently we observed patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) or chronic reflux symptoms (CRS) who developed gastric polyps (GPs) while undergoing surveillance gastroscopies for the detection of either esophageal varices or Barrett's esophagus, respectively.

Objectives: To identify risk factors for GP growth and estimate the gastric polyp growth rate (GPGR).

Methods: GPGR was defined as the number of days since the first gastroscopy (without polyps) in the surveillance program, until the gastroscopy when a GP was discovered.

Results: Gastric polyp growth rates in CLD and CRS patients were similar. However, hyperplastic gastric polyps (HGPs) were detected more often (87.5% vs. 60.5%, P = 0.051) and at a higher number (2.57 ± 1.33 vs. 1.65 ± 0.93, P = 0.021) in the CLD patients. Subgroup analysis revealed the following findings only in CLD patients with HGPs: (i) a positive correlation between the GPGR and the patient's age; the older the patient, the longer the GPGR (r = 0.7, P = 0.004). (ii) A negative correlation between the patient's age and the Ki-67 proliferation index value; the older the patient, the lower the Ki-67 value (r = -0.64, P = 0.02). No correlation was detected between Ki-67 values of HGPs in CLD patients and the presence of portal hypertension, infection with Helicobacter pylori, or proton pump inhibitor use.

Conclusions: In comparison with CRS patients, CLD patients developed HGPs more often and at a greater number. Young CLD patients may have a tendency to develop HGPs at a faster rate than elderly CLD patients.

July 2015
Igor Jeroukhimov MD, Itai Zoarets MD, Itay Wiser MD, Zahar Shapira MD, Dov Abramovich MD, Vladimir Nesterenko MD and Ariel Halevy MD

Background: Trauma patients diagnosed with pancreatic duct injury (PDI) have a high complication rate and prolonged hospital stay. The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the diagnosis of PDI remains unclear. During the last decade, our trauma unit incorporated ERCP into the management protocol for suspected PDI cases. 

Objectives: To determine whether ERCP is a sensitive tool to detect PDI. 

Methods: This retrospective trauma patient series study assessed the diagnostic yield of ERCP in trauma cases with suspected PDI on computed tomography (CT) or intraoperatively. Between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2011, 13 patients admitted to our medical center underwent ERCP for suspected PDI. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), time from injury to ERCP, and ERCP-related complications were documented and assessed. 

Results: Of the 13 patients included in the analysis, 8 stable patients with suspected PDI on CT had no leak from the main pancreatic duct on ERCP. Two of them underwent surgery for suspected pancreatic transection. ERCP confirmed a main pancreatic duct leak in three patients. Two patients underwent ERCP for suspected PDI after “damage control” surgery. No leak from the pancreatic ducts was diagnosed. No pancreas-related complications or ERCP-related complications were observed.

Conclusions: ERCP is a sensitive and relatively safe tool for the diagnosis of PDI, and its use might prevent unnecessary surgical interventions in selected trauma cases.

 

April 2015
Nir Gal-or MD, Tamir Gil MD, Issa Metanes MD, Munir Nashshibi MD, Leonid Bryzgalin MD, Aharon Amir MD and Yaron Har-Shai MD
June 2014
Ephraim Eviatar MD, Koby Pitaro MD, Haim Gavriel MD and Daniel Krakovsky MD

Background: Over the past 20 years, advances in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) techniques have led to widespread applications of this technology in both adult and pediatric populations with better results and lower morbidity.

Objectives: To update data regarding the rate of minor and major complications following ESS procedures that used powered instrumentation.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients who, with general anesthesia, underwent ESS utilizing powered instrumentation between January 1996 and December 2006. Age, gender, indication for surgery, length of hospitalization, and type and rate of surgical complications were recorded.

Results: A total of 1190 patients were included in our study (1309 surgeries). The male:female ratio was 1.7:1.0 and the average age was 39 years (range 4–86 years). The most common indication for surgery was chronic rhinosinusitis. The rate of major complications was 0.31% and that of minor complications 1.37%. The only major complication that occurred was cerebrospinal fluid leak. The minor complications included epistaxis, periorbital emphysema, ecchymosis and mucocele formation.

Conclusions: Compared to previously published series, the rate of major and minor complications in our study was low. The results indicate that the use of powered instruments during ESS is safe.

March 2014
Lela Migirov, Gahl Greenberg, Ana Eyal and Michael Wolf
Cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that is characterized by independent and progressive growth with destruction of adjacent tissues, especially the bone tissue, and tendency to recurrence. Treatment of cholesteatoma is essentially surgical. The choice of surgical technique depends on the extension of the disease, and preoperative otoscopic and radiological findings can be decisive in planning the optimal surgical approach. Cholesteatoma confined to the middle ear cavity and its extensions can be eradicated by use of the minimally invasive transmeatal endoscopic approach. Computerized tomography of the temporal bones fails to distinguish a cholesteatoma from the inflammatory tissue, granulations, fibrosis or mucoid secretions in 20–70% of cases showing opacification of the middle ear and mastoid. Using the turbo-spin echo (TSE), also known as non-echo planar imaging (non-EPI) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging, cholesteatoma can be distinguished from other tissues and from mucosal reactions in the middle ear and mastoid. Current MRI sequences can support the clinical diagnosis of cholesteatoma and ascertain the extent of the disease more readily than CT scans. The size determined by the TSE/HASTE (half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin echo) DW sequences correlated well with intraoperative findings, with error margins lying within 1 mm. Our experience with more than 150 endoscopic surgeries showed that lesions smaller than 8 mm confined to the middle ear and its extension, as depicted by the non-EPI images, can be managed with transmeatal endoscopic approach solely. We call upon our otolaryngologist and radiologist colleagues to use the newest MRI modalities in the preoperative evaluation of candidates for cholesteatoma surgery.

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