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October 2023
Zach Rozenbaum MD FACC FSCAI

Infectious endocarditis (IE) remains challenging to treat, with substantial morbidity and mortality rates. Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment; however, patients with large vegetations often do not respond to antibiotics. Moreover, large vegetations carry an increased risk of embolization. In such cases, guidelines recommend considering surgical treatment [1]. Surgery itself introduces potential complications and high mortality rates [2], and if performed during active infection, the technical possibilities are hindered by a catastrophic recurrence on prosthetic material. Emerging percutaneous solutions to large IE vegetations have been described in recent years to overcome the surgical limitations. Currently, several devices are available. The different debulking mechanisms are based on percutaneous mechanical, either motor or manual aspiration. While becoming more available, percutaneous treatment options are not mentioned in guidelines and data are limited. This report describes a case of percutaneous tricuspid valve (TV) vegetation aspiration using Inari Flowtriever (Inari Medical, Irvine, CA, USA). The case is followed by a review of the literature.

August 2017
Liron Hofstetter MD, Sagit Ben Zekry MD, Naama Pelz-Sinvani MD, Michael Kogan MD, Vladislav Litachevsky MD, Avi Sabbag MD and Gad Segal MD
July 2016
Marina Leitman MD, Eli Peleg MD, Ruthie Shmueli and Zvi Vered MD FACC FESC

Background: The search for the presence of vegetations in patients with suspected infective endocarditis is a major indication for trans-esophageal echocardiographic (TEE) examinations. Advances in harmonic imaging and ongoing improvement in modern echocardiographic systems allow adequate quality of diagnostic images in most patients.

Objectives: To investigate whether TEE examinations are always necessary for the assessment of patients with suspected infective endocarditis. 

Methods: During 2012–2014 230 trans-thoracic echo (TTE) exams in patients with suspected infective endocarditis were performed at our center. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical and echocardiographic data were collected and analyzed, and the final clinical diagnosis and outcome were determined. 

Results: Of 230 patients, 24 had definite infective endocarditis by clinical assessment. TEE examination was undertaken in 76 of the 230 patients based on the clinical decision of the attending physician. All TTE exams were classified as: (i) positive, i.e., vegetations present; (ii) clearly negative; or (iii) non-conclusive. Of the 92 with clearly negative TTE exams, 20 underwent TEE and all were negative. All clearly negative patients had native valves, adequate quality images, and in all 92 the final diagnosis was not infective endocarditis. Thus, the negative predictive value of a clearly negative TTE examination was 100%.

Conclusions: In patients with native cardiac valves referred for evaluation for infective endocarditis, an adequate quality TTE with clearly negative examination may be sufficient for the diagnosis.

 

October 2015
Idit Yedidya MD, Elad Goldberg MD, Ram Sharoni MD, Alex Sagie MD and Mordehay Vaturi MD
December 2014
Alessandra Soriano MD, Ribhi Mansour MD, Yuval Horovitz MD and Howard Amital MD MHA
May 2014
Eyal Lotan MD MSc, David Orion MD, Mati Bakon MD, Rafael Kuperstein MD and Gahl Greenberg MD
August 2010
A. Weissler, L. Perl, Y. Neuman, Y.A. Mekori and A. Mor

The features of infective endocarditis include both cardiac and non-cardiac manifestations. Neurologic complications are seen in up to 40% of patients with infective endocarditis and are the presenting symptom in a substantial percentage. We describe in detail the clinical scenarios of three patients admitted to our hospital, compare their characteristics and review the recent literature describing neurologic manifestations of infective endocarditis. Our patients demonstrate that infective endocarditis can develop without comorbidity or a valvular defect. Moreover, our patients were young and lacked the most common symptom of endocarditis: fever. The most common neurologic manifestations were focal neurologic deficits and confusion. We conclude that infective endocarditis should always be considered in patients presenting with new-onset neurologic complaints, especially in those without comorbidities or other risk factors. A prompt diagnosis should be reached and antibiotic treatment initiated as soon as possible.

June 2010
Y.R. Lawrence, R. Pokroy, D. Berlowitz, D. Aharoni, D. Hain and G.S. Breuer

Background: Osler taught that splenic infarction presents with left upper abdominal quadrant pain, tenderness and swelling accompanied by a peritoneal friction rub. Splenic infarction is classically associated with bacterial endocarditis and sickle cell disease.

Objectives: To describe the contemporary experience of splenic infarction.

Methods: We conducted a chart review of inpatients diagnosed with splenic infarction in a Jerusalem hospital between 1990 and 2003.

Results: We identified 26 cases with a mean age of 52 years. Common causes were hematologic malignancy (six cases) and intracardiac thrombus (five cases). Only three cases were associated with bacterial endocarditis. In 21 cases the splenic infarction brought a previously undiagnosed underlying disease to attention. Only half the subjects complained of localized left-sided abdominal pain, 36% had left-sided abdominal tenderness 31% had no signs or symptoms localized to the splenic area, 36% had fever, 56% had leukocytosis and 71% had elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels. One splenectomy was performed and all patients survived to discharge. A post hoc analysis demonstrated that single infarcts were more likely to be associated with fever (20% vs. 63%, p < 0.05) and leukocytosis (75% vs. 33%, p = 0.06)

Conclusions: The clinical presentation of splenic infarction in the modern era differs greatly from the classical teaching, regarding etiology, signs and symptoms. In patients with unexplained splenic infarction, investigation frequently uncovers a new underlying diagnosis.
 

May 2007
I. Gotsman, A. Meirovitz, N. Meizlish, M. Gotsman, C. Lotan and D. Gilon

Background: Infective endocarditis is a common disease with significant morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To define clinical and echocardiographic parameters predicting morbidity and in-hospital mortality in patients with infective endocarditis hospitalized in a tertiary hospital from 1991 to 2000.

Methods: All patients with definite IE diagnosed according to the Duke criteria were included. We examined relevant clinical features that might influence outcome.

Results: The study group comprised 100 consecutive patients, 77 with native valve and 23 with prosthetic valve endocarditis. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 8%. There was a higher mortality in the PVE[1] group compared to the NVE[2] group (13% vs. 7%, P = 0.07). The mortality rate in each group, with or without surgery, was not significantly different. Clinical predictors of mortality were older age and hospital-acquired endocarditis. The presence of vegetations and their size were significant predictors of major embolic events and mortality. Staphylococcus aureus was a predictor of mortality (25% vs. 5%, P < 0.005) and abscess formation. Multivariate logistic analysis identified vegetation size and S. aureus as independent predictors of mortality.

Conclusions: Mortality is higher in older hospitalized patients. S. aureus is associated with a poor outcome. Vegetation size is an independent predictor of embolic events and of a higher mortality.







[1]PVE = prosthetic valve endocarditis

[2]NVE = native valve endocarditis


April 2007
Y. Shapira, D. E. Weisenberg, M. Vaturi, E. Sharoni, E. Raanani, G. Sahar, B. A. Vidne, A. Battler and A. Sagie

Backgound: The use of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram in patients with infective endocarditis is usually reserved for cases of inadequate preoperative testing or suspected extension to perivalvular tissue.

Objectives: To explore the impact of routine intraoperative TEE[1] in patients with infective endocarditis.

Methods: The impact of intraoperative TEE on the operative plan, anatomic-physiologic results, and hemodynamic assessment or de-airing was analyzed in 59 patients (38 males, 21 females, mean age 57.7 ± 16.8 years, range 20–82) operated for active infective endocarditis over 56 months.

Results: Immediate pre-pump echocardiography was available in 52 operations (86.7%), and changed the operative plan in 6 of them (11.5%). Immediate post-pump study was available in 59 patients (98.3%) and accounted for second pump-run in 6 (10.2%): perivalvular leak (3 cases), and immobilized leaflet, significant mitral regurgitation following vegetectomy, and failing right ventricle requiring addition of vein graft (1 case each). Prolonged de-airing was necessary in 6 patients (10.2%). In 5 patients (8.5%) the postoperative study aided in the evaluation and treatment of difficult weaning from the cardiopulmonary bypass pump. In 21 patients (35.6%) the application of intraoperative TEE affected at least one of the four pre-specified parameters.
Conclusions: Intraoperative TEE has an important role in surgery for infective endocarditis and should be routinely implemented







[1] TEE = transesophageal echocardiogram


December 2006
June 2006
K. Mahlab, M. Katz, S. Shimoni, M. Zborovsky and Z.M. Sthoeger
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