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עמוד בית
Tue, 16.07.24

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August 2002
Raanan Shamir, MD, Rami Eliakim, MD, Nitza Lahat, PhD, Esther Sobel, MSc and Aaron Lerner, MD, MHA

Background: Celiac disease is common in both children and adults. Small intestinal biopsy is mandatory for establishing a diagnosis. Anti-endomysial antibodies, detected by immunofluorescence, have a sensitivity and specificity close to 100% in the diagnosis of CD[1]. Recently, tissue transglutaminase has been identified as the target autoantigen of antibodies against endomysium, and TTG[2] antibodies are comparable to EMA-IMF[3] in the diagnosis of CD.

Objective: To evaluate a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for EMA, compared to EMA-IMF and TTG antibodies in the diagnosis of CD.

Methods: Our study population included all subjects with positive EMA-IMF who underwent intestinal biopsy (n=21). From the same sera, TTG antibodies and EMA-ELISA[4] were determined, and all antibody results were compared to the biopsy findings.

Results: EMA-IMF was able to predict biopsy findings of CD in 19 of 21 cases (90.5%). When patients with biopsy findings compatible with CD and positive EMA-IMF (n=19) were tested for EMA-ELISA and TTG antibodies, 18 of the 19 were positive for both EMA-ELISA and TTG antibodies. A significant correlation was found between EMA-ELISA and TTG antibody titers (r = 0.74, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that EMA-ELISA is comparable to TTG antibodies in the diagnosis of CD, and supports the use of EMA-ELISA as a serologic marker for this disease.


CD = celiac disease

[2] TTG = tissue transglutaminase

[3] EMA-IMF = anti-endomysial antibodies measured by immunofluorescence

[4] ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

August 2001
Irit Chermesh, MD, Ofer Ben-Izhak, MD and Rami Eliakim, MD
February 2000
Dan Nemet, MD, Baruch Wolach, MD, Joanne Yacobovich, MD and Alon Eliakim, MD
October 1999
Shmuel Epstein MSc and Alon Eliakim MD
 Background: The use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes, in particular anabolic steroids, is probably one of the major problems in sports today. During the early 1990s the Israeli Sports Federation and Olympic Committee established the Israeli Sports Anti-Doping Committee.

Objectives: To present a follow-up on tests for use of performance-enhancing drugs among elite Israeli athletes from 1993 until the present.

Methods: Since 1993, 273 drug tests (urine samples) were performed in elite Israeli athletes. These tests were done during major competitions, and at random during the regular training season without prior notice to the athletes. The urine samples were sent for analysis to an official drug laboratory of the Olympic Committee in Cologne, Germany.

Results: Since 1993, seven (2.7%) male Israeli elite athletes (5 weight lifters, a javelin thrower, and a sprinter) tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs — all of them for anabolic steroids, and two for diuretics as well.

Discussion: These findings suggest that the phenomenon of performance-enhancing drug use by elite athletes has also entered Israeli sports, and probably represent the tip of the iceberg among Israeli sportsmen.  Therefore, more drug tests should be performed, especially at random without prior notice and during the regular season. Athletes in the most popular sports such as soccer and basketball should also be tested.  The concern over the use of these agents is both medical and ethical.

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