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עמוד בית
Fri, 19.07.24

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June 2024
Ran Ben David MD, Iftach Sagy MD PhD, Alan Jotkowitz MD, Leonid Barski MD

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute metabolic, life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus with a mortality rate that now stand at less than 1%. Although mortality is coupled with the etiology of DKA, literature on the influence of DKA etiology on patient outcome is scarce.

Objectives: To study different triggers for DKA and their effect on outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study that include 385 DKA patients from 2004 to 2017. The study compared demographics, clinical presentation, and mortality rates by different precipitating factors.

Results: Patients with DKA due to infections had a higher risk to develop in-hospital mortality after controlling for age and sex (odds ratio 4.40, 95% confidence interval 1.3514.30), had a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index score, a higher risk of being mechanical ventilated (14% vs. 3%, P < 0.01), and a longer duration of hospitalization (5 days vs. 3 days, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: It is crucial to find the triggers that precipitate DKA and start the treatment as early as possible in addition to the metabolic aspect of the treatment especially when the trigger is an infectious disease.

Milana Gelman MD, Tzipora Galperin MD, Esther Maor-Sagie MD, Yochai Yoeli MD, Mordechai Hallak MD, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv MD, Amir Naeh MD

Background: The prevalence of pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) in women of reproductive age has surged globally, contributing to increased rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a crucial marker for diagnosing and monitoring PGDM, with periconceptional levels influencing the risk of congenital anomalies and complications.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between periconceptional HbA1c levels and perinatal complications in pregnant women with poorly controlled PGDM.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of pregnancies between 2010 and 2019, HbA1c > 6% at 3 months prior to conception or during the first trimester. Outcomes of periconceptional HbA1c levels were compared.

Results: The cohort included 89 women: 49 with HbA1c 6–8%, 29 with HbA1c 8–10%, and 11 with HbA1c > 10%. Higher HbA1c levels were more prevalent in type 1 diabetics and were associated with increased end-organ damage risk. Women with elevated HbA1c levels tended toward unbalanced glucose levels during pregnancy. The cohort exhibited high rates of preterm delivery, hypertensive disorders, cesarean delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Overall live birth rate was 83%. While a significant correlation was found between HbA1c levels and preterm delivery, no consistent association was observed with other adverse outcomes.

Conclusions: Periconceptional glycemic control in PGDM pregnancies is important. Elevated HbA1c levels are associated with increased risks of adverse outcomes. Beyond a certain HbA1c level, risks of complications may not proportionally escalate.

June 2023
Dorit Ravid MD, Michal Kovo MD PhD, Sophia Leytes MD, Yael Yagur MD, Maty Fakterman MD, Omer Weitzner MD

Background: Treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been shown to improve both maternal and neonatal outcomes. For women with GDM who require glucose-lowering medication, insulin is regarded as the drug of choice by most medical societies. Oral therapy, with metformin or glibenclamide, is a reasonable alternative in certain medical circumstances.

Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of insulin detemir (IDet) vs. glibenclamide for GDM when glycemic control cannot be achieved through lifestyle modification and diet.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 115 women with singleton pregnancy and GDM treated with IDet or glibenclamide. GDM was diagnosed via the two-step oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) of 50 grams glucose, followed by 100 grams. Maternal characteristics and outcomes (preeclampsia and weight gain) and neonatal outcomes (birth weight and percentile, hypoglycemia, jaundice, and respiratory morbidity) were compared between groups.

Results: In total, 67 women received IDet and 48 glibenclamide. Maternal characteristics, weight gain, and the incidence of preeclampsia were similar in both groups. Neonatal outcomes were also similar. The proportion of large for gestational age (LGA) infants was 20.8% in the glibenclamide group compared to 14.9% in the IDet group (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: In pregnant women with GDM, glucose control on IDet yielded comparable results as on glibenclamide, except for a significantly lower rate of LGA neonates.

April 2023
George M. Weisz MD FRACS BA MA, Andrew Gal MBBS FRCPA

The health of survivors of the Shoah has been investigated, both at early and late stages in their lives. There have been findings of multiple morbidities, but survivors have enjoyed slightly prolonged longevity when compared to the general population [1]. Less attention has been granted to investigations and descriptions of illnesses that presented inside the ghettos and the Nazi camps. Some of the surviving records from those sites have yet to be interpreted. Documented diagnoses of both insulin dependent and mature onset diabetes mellitus and of malignancy has been conspicuously absent. We present our meta-analysis and interpretations of surviving medical documents covering a large population of prisoners from a range of ghettos and concentration camps and specifically note the absence of recorded incidence of malignancy and a relatively low incidence of diabetes mellitus.

February 2023
Nizar Horrany MD, Wadie Abu Dahoud MD, Yara Moallem MD, Taleb Hajouj MD, Merna Zreik MD, Arnon Blum MD

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Metformin is an old, relatively safe, first line therapy for T2DM; however, it has been associated with stroke.

Objectives: To study the effects of metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency on stroke rate among patients with T2DM.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study of patients admitted with ischemic stroke within 12 months (starting March 2020). We studied the clinical impact of metformin on vitamin B12 deficiency and stroke evolution. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare the groups of patients and to determine whether there was any direct or indirect effect of metformin use on vitamin B12 deficiency and stroke.

Results: In total, 80 patients were admitted with ischemic stroke. Clinical status and biochemical data were collected and compared with healthy volunteers. There were 39 diabetic patients, 16 took metformin for at least 1 year. Among those who took metformin for at least 1 year, 9 had vitamin B12 level < 240 pg/ml (56.2%); 23 diabetic patients did not get metformin and only 4 had vitamin B12 level < 240 pg/ml (17.4%) (P = 0.014).

Conclusions: T2DM is a significant risk factor to the development of ischemic stroke. We found an association between metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency and an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and stroke risk in patients with T2DM. Diabetic patients who are taking metformin should monitor their vitamin B12 level.

Yarden Tenenbaum Weiss MD, Michael Friger PhD, Alon Haim MD, Eli Hershkovitz MD

Background: Pediatric patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are commonly treated with daily multiple insulin injections or an insulin pump. They tend to have higher body mass index-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) than non-diabetic children.

Objectives: To identify patterns in the changes in BMI in the 3 years after T1DM diagnosis, and to discover factors that relate to excessive weight gain.

Methods: This retrospective study included clinical and laboratory data for 194 boys and girls aged 2–18 years at the time of diagnosis and at 1, 2, and 3 years after. Their BMI values were compared to non-diabetic children using BMI percentile and z-score (standard deviation) based on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts.

Results: Both males and females had low mean BMI-SDS at diagnosis (-0.4499 ± 1.38743 male, 0.3050 ± 1.29887 female) that increased after 1 year (-0.0449 ± 1.14772 male, 0.1451 ± 0.98893 female). Lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 1 year correlated with higher BMI-SDS (r = -0.215, P = 0.011). No such correlation was found in the following 2 years. The daily dose of basal insulin correlated with higher BMI-SDS at 1 year (r = 0.183, P = 0.026) and 3 years (r = 0.297, P < 0.01). No association was found between the use of an insulin pump or continuous glucose monitoring and higher BMI-SDS.

Conclusions: BMI-SDS of children with T1DM was lower than average at the time of diagnosis and rose higher than average in the 3 years following. Higher BMI-SDS was not significantly associated with sex or ethnicity. The most prominent increase happened in the first year.

Dante Antonelli MD, Youri Rabkin MD, Yoav Turgeman MD, Mohamed Jabaren MD

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA) are new antidiabetic drugs that are recommended by current guidelines as a class I novel glucose-lowering treatment that improves cardiovascular outcome in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), particularly in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Objectives: To evaluate adherence to the current guidelines for treatment with SGLT2i and GLP1-RA drugs in patients referred to ambulatory consultant cardiology clinics with pre-existing T2DM.

Methods: We studied consecutive new patients with a pre-existing diagnosis of T2DM who were referred to the Clalit Health Services ambulatory consultant cardiology clinic over a 6-month period. The recorded information included demographics, co-morbidities, and prescribed drugs at patient admission.

Results: During the study period, 1782 patients visited our outpatient cardiology clinic. At screening, T2DM was present in 428 patients (24%); 77 (18%) were being treated with SGLT2i, and 39 (9.1%) with GLP1-RA. Patients receiving SGLT2i and GLP1-RA were younger and had more coronary artery disease, lower mean left ventricular ejection fraction, and higher mean estimated glomerular filtration rates than those who were not receiving these drugs. HbA1C was > 7 in 205 (47.9%) patients and > 7.5 in 136 patients (31.8%). Body mass index was > 30 kg/m2 in 231 (54%) patients.

Conclusions: GLP1-RA and SGLT2i drugs were found to be administered more frequently than previously reported, but they are not yet satisfactorily prescribed.

January 2023
Aaron Sulkes MD, Daniel Reinhorn MD, Tzeela Cohen MD, Tatiana Peysakhovich MD, Victoria Neiman MD, Baruch Brenner MD

Docetaxel (Taxotere®), obtained from the European yew Taxus baccata, is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent active against a variety of solid tumors including breast, lung, ovarian, gastric, head and neck, and prostate cancers. The drug is administered intravenously on a weekly or three-weekly schedule. Its main side effects include myelosuppression, fatigue, myalgias, arthralgias, fluid retention, peripheral neuropathy, paronychia, and lacrimation [1]. Myositis, however, has rarely been reported.

We describe a breast cancer patient who developed severe acute myositis while on treatment with docetaxel.

November 2022
Raymond Farah MD, Nicola Makhoul MD, Alexander Samohvalov MD, William Nseir MD

Background: An increased serum glucose level is a common finding among patients admitted to hospital with acute illness, including the intensive care unit (ICU), even without a history of previous diabetes mellitus (DM). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is not only a diagnostic tool for DM but may also has prognostic value for diabetic and non-diabetic populations.

Objectives: To assess the relationship between HbA1c level on admission and clinical outcome among patients admitted to the ICU due to cardiopulmonary disorders with hyperglycemia.

Methods: Patients consecutively admitted to the ICU due to cardiopulmonary disorders who presented with hyperglycemia at admission were evaluated during a 6-month period. HbA1c and serum glucose levels were tested on admission and during the first 24–48 hours of hospitalization. Patients were divided according to HbA1c and compared in term of demographics. We evaluated the effect of HbA1c levels at admission on the clinical outcomes.

Results: Of patients with cardiopulmonary disorders who presented with hyperglycemia at admission to the ICU, 73 had HbA1c levels ≥ 6%, 92 had HbA1c levels < 6%: 63/165 (38.2%) known as diabetic patients. The 30-day all-cause mortality was higher in the group with high HbA1c levels; 38/73 vs. 32/98 (P = 0.02). Increased length of stay in the ICU and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score were associated with HbA1c ≥ 6% (P < 0.022 and P < 0.026), respectively

Conclusions: HbA1c ≥ 6% has an important clinical prognostic value among diabetic and non-diabetic patients with cardiopulmonary disorders and hyperglycemia.

August 2022
Ido Tzanani MD MPH, Daniel Bendayan MD, Anat Jaffe MD PHD, and Zohar Mor MD MPH MHA

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the risk factors for progression from latent to active tuberculosis. However, the effect of DM on subsequent tuberculosis treatment is still inconclusive.

Objectives: To compare tuberculosis treatment outcomes and the rate of drug resistance of tuberculosis patients with or without DM.

Methods: This case-control study was conducted between 2005 and 2015 at the only tuberculosis ward in Israel. All 80 tuberculosis patients who had DM and were hospitalized during the study period were included in this study, as were a randomized sample of 213 tuberculosis patients without DM. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from patient files in the hospital and clinics after discharge.

Results: Tuberculosis patients with DM were more often older and more likely to be Israeli citizens with a lower socioeconomic status than patients without DM. No statistically significant differences were found in clinical presentation, radiological findings, and sputum smear tests between the two groups. Culture converting times were prolonged in patients with DM compared to normoglycemic patients. Multidrug drug resistance tuberculosis was more common among normoglycemic tuberculosis patients than tuberculosis patients with DM (9.2% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.12). Treatment success rates were 76.2% and 83.1% for tuberculosis patients with or without DM, respectively (P = 0.18). DM was not statistically significant in the multivariate analysis predicting treatment success, which controlled for age, citizenship, compliance, addictions, and chronic diseases.

Conclusions: The presence of DM does not necessarily affect tuberculosis treatment outcomes as long as treatment compliance is optimal.

Yulia Zinchenko MD PhD, Anna Malkova MD, and Anna Starshinova Prof
July 2022
Eran Beit Ner MD, Guy Ron MD, Ahmad Essa MD, Almog Levy MD, Aharon S. Finestone MD MHA, and Eran Tamir MD

Background: Lower extremity amputation related to diabetes is a serious outcome, which can have devastating effects on the patient and family. The epidemiology of amputations has recently been used as a possible measure of the adequacy of medical prevention and treatment of diabetes and diabetic foot complications.

Objectives: To report on patients undergoing amputations at one medical center in Israel, their co-morbidities, and the outcomes.

Methods: A retrospective chart study was conducted of amputees operated between 1 September 2017 and 30 September 2018.

Results: The study population comprised 72 patients who had major amputations for diabetes and/or ischemia, mean age 72 ± 10 years, 74% males, 93% with type 2 diabetes. Mean age corrected Charlson Comorbidity Index was 8.2 ± 2.1 with 90% (65 patients) presenting with a score of 6 or higher. Before the recent deterioration, fewer than 20% of the patients exited their home routinely and 24% had an official diagnosis of dementia. There were 31 below knee amputations (BKA) and 41 above knee amputations (AKA). The 30-day, 3-month, 1-year, and 2-year mortality rates were 15.3%, 27.8%, 43.1%, and 54.2% respectively. Median survival period was 20 months. Survival after AKA was 13.4 ± 20, which was significantly less than after BKA (25.4 ± 2.7, P = 0.097).

Conclusions: Factors other than the quality of management of patients with diabetes and complications may contribute to amputation rates; thus, making speculations from international comparisons of raw amputation rates problematic. This population was less healthy than reported in most studies.

April 2022
George M. Weisz MD FRACS BA MA

Extermination via starvation was described in detail as an alternative or precursor to the final solution during the Holocaust in World War II. The main causes of death in the ghettos were exhaustion, environmental conditions (inadequate protection in extreme climates), infectious diseases, or starvation. In previous studies on the Lodz Ghetto, the causes of death via typhus exantematicus, tuberculosis, and heart failure were investigated [1,2]. In this article, we introduce the topic of diabetes in the presence of starvation and assess the incidence of malignancies in the years 1941–1944. The findings from the Lodz Ghetto would retroactively support the Warburg theory

December 2021
Sâmara Paula Ferreira Mota Colares MSc, Guilherme Moura Colares MD, Jozélio Freire de Carvalho MD PhD, and Carlos Ewerton Maia Rodrigues MD PhD

Background: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a narrowing of the lumbar canal causing lower back pain, gluteal pain, and neurogenic claudication. LSS has been associated with cardiovascular co-morbidities. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a pro-inflammatory condition involving a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is increasingly prevalent worldwide.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of MetS in patients with LSS, compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and to explore potential associations between MetS and LSS-related clinical parameters and cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 64 patients diagnosed as symptomatic LSS (NASS criteria) and 32 controls. MetS was diagnosed using the 2009 Harmonizing criteria adjusted for South Americans. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for MetS. The level of statistical significance was set at 5%.

Results: The prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in the LSS group than in the control group (76.6% vs. 31.3%; P < 0.001). LSS patients displayed greater waist circumference (P = 0.003), blood glucose levels (P = 0.009) and arterial pressure (P < 0.001) than controls. The variables with independent influence on MetS in the logistic regression model were: diabetes (P = 0.008), blood glucose (P = 0.004), and body mass index (P = 0.005).

Conclusions: MetS was significantly more prevalent among LSS patients, and diabetes and elevated body mass index were found to be risk factors for MetS in these LSS patients

November 2021
Andrei Braester MD, Alexander Shturman MD, Bennidor Raviv MD, Lev Dorosinsky MD, Eyal Rosenthal MD, and Shaul Atar MD

Background: Mean platelet volume (MPV), an essential component of the complete blood count (CBC) indices, is underutilized in common practice. In recent years, MPV has drawn strong interest, especially in clinical research. During inflammation, the MPV has a higher value because of platelet activation.

Objectives: To verify whether high MPV values discovered incidentally in healthy naïve patients indicates the development or the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly metabolic syndrome and pre-diabetes.

Methods: A cohort study was used to assess the diagnostic value of high MPV discovered incidentally, in naïve patients (without any known cause of an abnormal high MPV, greater than  upper limit of the normal range, such as active cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome).

Results: The mean MPV value in the patient group was 12.3 femtoliter. There was a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome in our research group than in the general population and a non-significant tendency of pre-diabetes. Family doctors more frequently meet naïve patients with high MPV than a hospital doctor. The results of our study are more relevant for him, who should know the relevance of such a finding and search for a hidden pre-diabetes or metabolic syndrome.

Conclusions: High MPV values discovered incidentally in healthy naïve subjects suggest the development or the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly metabolic syndrome and pre-diabetes. No statistically significant association was found between MPV and the presence of cardiovascular disease

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