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עמוד בית
Thu, 30.05.24

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November 2022
Bar Pitaro Alter MD, Shmuel Tiosano MD, Yuval Kuntzman MD, Omer Gendelman MD, Guy Shalom MD, Abdulla Watad MD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Arnon D. Cohen MD MPH, Daniela Amital MD MHA

Backgrounds: Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic vasculitic multi-systemic disease of unknown etiology. BD is characterized by recurrent attacks of oral aphthae, genital ulcers, and uveitis. BD is a multisystemic disorder and as such it may provoke various psychiatric manifestations, including depression.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between BD and depression, adjusting for established risk factors for depression.

Methods: We executed a cross-sectional study based on the Clalit Health Services database, the largest healthcare organization in Israel, serving over 4.4 million members. For this study 873 BD patients were detected and matched with 4369 controls by age and sex.

Results: The rate of depression was higher among the BD patients compared with the control group (9.39% vs 5.49%, respectively, odds ratio [OR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.37–2.31, P < 0.001). An association between BD and depression was also observed on multivariable analysis (OR 1.83, 95%CI 1.39–2.39, P < 0.001). When stratifying the data, according to established risk factors, the association between BD and depression was prominent in the youngest age group (18–39 years of age), low and high socioeconomical status, and non-smokers.

Conclusions: Establishing the association between BD and depression should influence the attitude and the treatment of BD patients, as this relationship requires a more holistic approach and a multidisciplinary treatment regimen for all patient needs.

Adi Lichtenstein MD, Shmuel Tiosano MD, Doron Comaneshter MD, Arnon D. Cohen MD, Howard Amital MD

Background: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and tenderness with associated neuropsychological symptoms such as fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. Osteoporosis is defined as a reduction of bone density. Previous studies to determine an association of FMS with osteoporosis showed mixed results, partially due to small sample sizes and lack of statistical power.

Objectives: To evaluate the association of FMS with osteoporosis.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study utilizing the database from Israel’s largest health maintenance organization. FMS patients were compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t-tests. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed the association between osteoporosis and FMS. Spearman’s rho test was used for correlation.

Results: We utilized data from 14,296 FMS patients and 71,324 age- and sex-matched controls. Spearman's rho test showed a significant correlation between FMS and osteoporosis (correlation coefficient 0.55, P < 0.001). A logistic regression for osteoporosis showed an odds ratio [OR] of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.83–2.06, P < 0.001) for FMS compared to controls and found higher body mass index to be slight protective (OR 0.926, 95%CI 0.92–0.93, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between FMS and osteoporosis. Early detection of predisposing factors for osteoporosis in FMS patients and implementation of suitable treatments and prevention measures (such as dietary supplements, resistance or weight bearing exercise, and bone-mineral enhancing pharmacological therapy) may reduce both occurrence rate and severity of osteoporosis and its complications, such as fractures.

August 2022
Ido Tzanani MD MPH, Daniel Bendayan MD, Anat Jaffe MD PHD, and Zohar Mor MD MPH MHA

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the risk factors for progression from latent to active tuberculosis. However, the effect of DM on subsequent tuberculosis treatment is still inconclusive.

Objectives: To compare tuberculosis treatment outcomes and the rate of drug resistance of tuberculosis patients with or without DM.

Methods: This case-control study was conducted between 2005 and 2015 at the only tuberculosis ward in Israel. All 80 tuberculosis patients who had DM and were hospitalized during the study period were included in this study, as were a randomized sample of 213 tuberculosis patients without DM. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from patient files in the hospital and clinics after discharge.

Results: Tuberculosis patients with DM were more often older and more likely to be Israeli citizens with a lower socioeconomic status than patients without DM. No statistically significant differences were found in clinical presentation, radiological findings, and sputum smear tests between the two groups. Culture converting times were prolonged in patients with DM compared to normoglycemic patients. Multidrug drug resistance tuberculosis was more common among normoglycemic tuberculosis patients than tuberculosis patients with DM (9.2% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.12). Treatment success rates were 76.2% and 83.1% for tuberculosis patients with or without DM, respectively (P = 0.18). DM was not statistically significant in the multivariate analysis predicting treatment success, which controlled for age, citizenship, compliance, addictions, and chronic diseases.

Conclusions: The presence of DM does not necessarily affect tuberculosis treatment outcomes as long as treatment compliance is optimal.

July 2022
Amit Frenkel MD MHA, Victor Novack MD PhD, Yoav Bichovsky MD, Moti Klein MD MPH, and Jacob Dreiher MD PhD MPH

Background: Low serum albumin is known to be associated with mortality in sepsis, as it reflects effects of nutrition, catabolism, and edema.

Objectives: To examine the association of albumin levels with in-hospital mortality in adults with sepsis, stratified by age groups.

Methods: This nationwide retrospective cohort study comprised patients admitted with sepsis to intensive care units in seven tertiary hospitals during 2003–2011. Only patients with available serum albumin levels at hospital admission and one week after were included. Patients with an intra-abdominal source of sepsis were excluded. The association between sepsis and mortality was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models.

Results: The study included 3967 patients (58.7% male, median age 69 years). Mean serum albumin levels were 3.1 ± 0.7 g/dl at admission and 2.4 ± 0.6 g/dl one week later. In a multivariate logistic regression model, serum albumin one week after admission was inversely associated with in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.55–0.73 per 1 g/dl). In an age-stratified analysis, the association was stronger with younger age (OR 0.44 for patients aged < 45 years, 0.60 for patients aged 45–65 years, and 0.67 for patients aged > 65 years). Serum albumin on admission was not associated with in-hospital mortality.

Conclusions: The decline in serum albumin one week after admission is a stronger predictor of mortality in younger patients. Older patients might have other reasons for low serum albumin, which reflect chronic co-morbidity rather than acuity of disease.

August 2021
Omer Marom MD, Eyal Yaacobi MD, Pnina Shitrit MD, Yaron Brin MD, Shimon Cohen MD, David Segal MD, and Nissim Ohana MD

Background: Proximal femoral fractures (PFF) are among the most common injuries in the elderly population treated by orthopedic surgeons. Postoperative complications, especially infections, are of great importance due to their effect on patient mortality and morbidity and healthcare costs.

Objectives: To assess the main causes for postoperative infection among PFF patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of PFF patients in our medical center between 2015 and 2017. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether there was postoperative infection during immediate hospitalization and 30 days after surgery. Factors such as time from admission to surgery, duration of surgery, and length of stay were analyzed. Groups were analyzed and compared using a t-test, chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests.

Results: Of 1276 patients, 859 (67%) underwent closed reduction internal fixation, 67 (5%) underwent total hip arthroplasty, and 350 (28%) underwent hemiarthroplasty. Of the total, 38 patients (3%) were diagnosed with postoperative infection. The demographics and co-morbidities were similar between the two study groups. The incident of infection was the highest among patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty (6%, P < 0.0001). Length of hospitalization (15 vs. 8 days, P = 0.0001) and operative time (117 vs. 77 minutes, P = 0.0001) were found to be the most significant risk factors for postoperative infection.

Conclusions: Predisposition to postoperative infections in PPF patients was associated with prolonged length of surgery and longer hospitalization. We recommend optimizing fast discharge, selecting the appropriate type of surgery, and improving surgical planning to reduce intraoperative delays and length of surgery.

September 2019
Yael Shachor-Meyouhas MD, Amir Hadash MD, Zipi Kra-Oz PhD, Einat Shafran MS, Moran Szwarcwort-Cohen PhD and Imad Kassis MD

Background: Adenovirus is responsible for 2–7% of childhood viral respiratory infections, 5–11% of viral pneumonia and bronchiolitis. Most are self-limited but may cause severe respiratory infection.

Objectives: To describe adenovirus respiratory infection in immunocompetent children in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Methods: Children with adenovirus respiratory infection in our PICU from 2007 to 2016 were included. Data were retrospectively retrieved, including background, clinical manifestation, and treatment. Adenovirus was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction, immune fluorescence, or both.

Results: Of 9397 samples, 956 were positive for adenovirus in children hospitalized during the study period. In total, 49 patients (aged 2 months–11.5 years) were admitted to our PICU, five were immunocompromised and excluded from the study, 19/44 (43%) were referred from other hospitals. Twenty-eight (64%) had underlying conditions, 66% had fever and cough, 11% had conjunctivitis, and 34% received antibiotics before admission. White blood cell counts ranged from 790 to 34,300 (mean 14,600) and 36% had counts above 15,000. Chest X-ray was consistent with viral infection in 77% of patients and normal in three (13.6%). Viral co-infection was found in 9 patients, 7 had presumed bacterial super-infection, and 27 (61.4%) needed mechanical ventilation. Two patients received cidofovir, 33 (75%) steroids, and 37 (84 %) antibiotics. Four patients died.

Conclusions: Adenovirus respiratory infection may cause severe disease necessitating PICU admission and mechanical ventilation, mostly in patients with underlying conditions. Many patients received steroids and antibiotics, which may be unnecessary. Mortality was 9%, mainly among young infants and those with underlying conditions.

 

December 2004
R. Ness-Abramof, D. Nabriski and C.M. Apovian

The prevalence of obesity worldwide has risen sharply during the last four decades. The etiology of obesity is complex and includes a host of genetic influences in addition to the overconsumption of energy coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. Obesity is known to cause or exacerbate many co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, certain cancers, arthritis and obstructive sleep apnea. Modest weight losses of 5–10% of actual weight are related to significant improvements in co-morbid conditions, but unfortunately the rate of recidivism with short-term therapy for obesity is high. The recent recognition of obesity as a chronic disease that should be treated with long-term programs and possibly with polypharmacy, and the alarming increase in its prevalence, have prompted extensive research and the development of new pharmacotherapy.

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