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עמוד בית
Tue, 06.12.22

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February 2000
Ben Zion Garty MD, Yehudit Monselise PhD and Menahem Nitzan MD

Background: Inflammation is a major component in the pathogenesis of asthma. CD14 is an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) receptor, and is expressed mainly on monocytes and macrophages. Binding of LPS to CD14 activates the monocyte or macrophage and causes the release of different cytokines.  The soluble form of CD14 is present in serum, and its concentration increases in several clinical conditions, including infections, auto-immune disorders, allergic disorders, and lung diseases.  The possible role of CD14/sCD14 in asthma has been investigated in a few adult patients only.

Objectives: To measure serum concentrations of sCD14 in children with status asthmaticus.

Methods: We compared serum concentration of sCD14 in 10 children with status asthmaticus measured within 24 hours of admission and after recovery from the acute episode.

Results: Levels of sCD14 were significantly higher during acute asthma attacks than at recovery.

Conclusions: The elevated serum levels of sCD14 during status asthmaticus may be the result of the activation of monocytes, macrophages or other cells.  The influence of medications on serum sCD14 cannot be ruled out.  The possible use of sCD14 as a marker of lung inflammation in asthma warrants further investigation. 


LPS= lipopolysaccharide

SCD14= soluble form of CD14


Itamar Offer, MD, Shai Ashkenazi, MD, Gilat Livni, MD and Itamar Shalit, MD

Background: Bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus is one of the major causes of hospitalization in young children, especially during the winter.  Recent evidence has shown that pharmacological treatment, especially nebulized epinephrine, in addition to the traditional supportive treatment, can alleviate symptoms and shorten hospitalization, but this approach is not yet widespread.

Objectives: To determine whether the management of bronchiolitis in Israel is moving toward a stronger emphasis on pharmacological care.

Methods: A questionnaire on the diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis was completed by 27 heads of pediatric departments throughout Israel.  The questionnaire dealt with the frequency of usage of diagnostic and selected therapeutic procedures.

Results: Chest X-ray and arterial blood gases are commonly used as a diagnostic aid in more than 75% of the departments, and antibiotics are prescribed routinely in 24%.  Corticosteroids are still in use: 48% use systemic steroids, and 19% nebulized steroids.  Nebulized epinephrine is used in 22% of the departments, while nebulized beta-agonists are used frequently in two-thirds of the departments.

Conclusions: Despite convincing data that beta-agonists and steroids have no positive effect on the outcome of bronchiolitis on the one hand, and that nebulized epinephrine has advantages in children on the other, we found significant use of the former two agents and sparse use of the latter.  Greater awareness is needed among pediatricians, and measures should be introduced to incorporate the new recommendations, with further study of the effect of the old and new drugs on bronchiolitis.


Lutfi Jaber MD, Bella Eisenstein MD and Mordechai Shohat MD

Background: Hypertension is one of the most prevalent vascular diseases in the adult population. It is an important determinant of atherosclerosis in adolescents and young adults. There is to date no information on blood pressure in children of the Israeli Arab population.

Objectives: To study blood pressure in Israeli Arab children and adolescents.

Methods: Blood pressure measurements were taken in the supine position in 4,488 Israeli Arab children and adolescents of both sexes aged 6–17 years. Height and weight were also determined. Correlation was investigated between systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, gender, and age.

Results: The systolic and diastolic blood pressures were similar in both sexes for all age groups up to 14 years of age. Systolic blood pressure was significantly (P<0.001) higher in males aged 15–17 years  (120±13 vs. 111±12 mmHg, 123±13 vs. 113±14.0 mmHg, and 123±18 vs. 111±14 mmHg, respectively). Diastolic blood pressure was higher in males aged 15–17, with a statistically significant difference for age 17 only (75±12 vs. 69±13 mmHg). Blood pressure was elevated in 322 students in the initial screening (7.17%), with a decrease to 2.18% when this group was rescreened 2 weeks later. The systolic blood pressure in our group is higher than that in Jewish Israeli children of Asian and North African origin, and in American children. It is similar to the systolic blood pressure of European children and Jewish children born in Israel. The diastolic blood pressure in our group is higher than that in all groups of Israeli Jewish children and American children of different ethnic groups.

Conclusions: Israeli Arab children and adolescents have higher blood pressure levels than their Israeli Jewish counterparts. Further studies are required to confirm this observation.

Amir Kimia MD, Ilan Zahavi MD, Rivka Shapiro MD, Yoram Rosenbach MD, Akiva Hirsh MD1, Tamara Druzd MD, Jacob Yahav MD and Gabriel Dinari MD

Background: Recurrent abdominal pain is a common pediatric diagnostic problem.  Endoscopy is sometimes performed as part of the evaluation. Although gastritis and/or Helicobacter pylori infection is often present, it is not known if they contribute to the symptomatology.

Objectives: To evaluate the role of either gastritis or H. pylori infection in the symptomatology of children with RAP.

Patients and Methods: We retrospectively studied two groups of patients, 70 children in each, who had undergone endoscopy. One group was evaluated endoscopically for RAP and the other was a heterogeneous group that underwent endoscopy for indications other than RAP. Biopsies were taken during endoscopy and Giemsa staining was performed for the presence of H. pylori. Triple therapy was given as indicated, and the children were followed for an average of 6 months.

Results: Microscopic gastritis was diagnosed in 39 patients (55.7%) of the RAP group and in 31 of the heterogeneous group (44.2%) (NS), and H. pylori was found in 32 patients of the RAP group and in 16 of the heterogeneous group (45.7% vs. 22.8%, P<0.01). All children with H. pylori, except one in the heterogeneous group, had accompanying gastritis. On the other hand, gastritis without H. pylori infection was seen in 7 children in the RAP group and in 15 of the other. Endoscopy revealed macroscopic abnormalities in 52 of the 70 children with microscopic gastritis. There was a clinical improvement after triple therapy in 28 of 33 children with H. pylori-associated gastritis (84.85%), in 4 of 8 children with gastritis unassociated with H. pylori (50%), and in 8 of 15 without gastritis or H. pylori (53.3%) (P<0.01 between the H. pylori-associated gastritis and each of the other groups).

Conclusions: H. pylori infection and gastritis may be associated with RAP in a selected subgroup of children. We recommend a complete work-up, including endoscopy and invasive or non-invasive diagnostic modalities for H. pylori, and treatment of the infection.



RAP = recurrent abdominal pain

Michael Schwarz MD, Gadi Horev MD, Enrique Freud MD, Nizza Ziv MD, Amir Blumenfeld MD, Ran Steinberg MD and Liora Kornreich MD

Background: Multiple organ injury in children is an increasingly frequent phenomenon in the modern emergency room. Adrenal hemorrhage associated with this type of trauma has received little attention in the past.

Objectives: Using computed tomography, we sought to determine the rate and nature of adrenal gland injury in children following blunt abdominal trauma due to motor vehicular accident.

Methods: A total of 121 children with blunt abdominal trauma were examined and total body CT was performed in cases of multi-organ trauma or severe neurological injury.

Results: Of all the children who presented with blunt abdominal trauma over a 51 month period, 6 (4.95%) had adrenal hemorrhage. In all cases only the right adrenal gland was affected. Coincidental injury to the chest and other abdominal organs was noted in 66.7% and 50% of patients, respectively.

Conclusions: Traumatic adrenal injury in the pediatric population may be more common than previously suspected. Widespread application of the more sophisticated imaging modalities available today will improve the detection of damage to the smaller organs in major collision injuries and will help in directing attention to the mechanism of trauma. 

Tal Eidlitz-Markus, MD, Avinoam Shuper, MD and Jacob Amir, MD

Background: In our experience, secondary enuresis nocturna is a common complaint among children after a motor vehicle accident.  However, as these children are often brought for examination as part of an insurance compensation claim, this complaint is not always reliable.

Objective: To describe a series of children in whom secondary enuresis occurred after a motor vehicle accident.

Methods and Results: Five children were brought to our clinic for evaluation of secondary nocturnal enuresis. Review of past history revealed a car accident preceding the onset of the enuresis. All but one had additional behavioral symptoms typical of post-traumatic stress disorder. Four children had evidence of head trauma, and one had psychological but no physical trauma. 

Conclusions: Nocturnal enuresis can occur after a motor vehicle accident due either to purely psychological trauma or organic head trauma. While nocturnal enuresis is generally attributed to organic causes, psychological mechanisms also play a significant role.

Ram Silfen MD, Michal Chemo-Lotan MD, Abraham Amir MD and Daniel J. Hauben MD

Background: Burn trauma occurs mostly in young children. Burn injury in the pediatric age group has multiple-aspect sequelae.

Objectives: To characterize the profile of the injured pediatric burn patient, thus targeting the most vulnerable pediatric group.

Methods: Between 1 January and 31 December 1996, a total of 9,235 pediatric patients were admitted for various traumatic injuries (burns, lacerations, fractures, etc.) to the Emergency Medicine Department of Schneider Children’s Medical Center. We conducted a retrospective study of the patients’ charts, including demographic data, which were stored in a computerized database, for statistical evaluation. The characteristics of pediatric burn patients were examined and compared with other pediatric trauma patients.

Results: Of the total patient population, 282 (3.1%) suffered from burns (37% females, 63% males). The most frequent burn injury was scald burn (58%). The pediatric group that was most exposed to burns was 13–18 month old males.

Conclusions: Having identified the high risk group among the pediatric burn patients, we suggest that prevention programs be directed towards this group in order to reduce further risk of burn injury.

Yona Amitai MD, Yedidia Bentur MD, Matityahu Lifshitz MD, Pinhas Fainmesser MD, David Applebaum MD, Yehezkel Waisman MD, Nadine Cohen and Samuel D. Oman PhD

Background: Extensive cleaning of homes in Israel before Passover may result in increased exposure of children to cleaning substances.

Objectives: To evaluate the potential danger of Passover cleaning to children, and to study the risk factors in order to identify areas for prevention.

Methods: All cases of poison exposure in Jewish and Arab children under the age of 15 years reported to the Israel Poison Information Center during 1990–95 (n= 5,583) were analyzed for the 6 weeks before and 6 weeks after Passover. Poison exposures in Jewish children <15 years old were studied in seven pediatric emergency rooms for the 2 weeks before and 6 weeks after Passover (n=123).

Results: The IPIC data showed a highly significant 38% increase in the average weekly poison exposure rate for the 2 weeks before Passover compared with the remaining 10 weeks.  Data recorded by the pediatric emergency rooms showed a twofold increase in cleaning substance poisoning during the 2 weeks before Passover compared with the following 6 weeks. The rise in exposures to cleaning substances was observed among children from secular, religious and ultra-orthodox families. In these exposures, the substance was found in open containers in 70% of cases. 

Conclusions: The extensive cleaning of homes among Jewish families in preparation for Passover poses the danger to young children of cleaning substance poisoning. Increasing public awareness, closer observation of children, and keeping these substances in closed containers should increase children’s safety during this annual cleaning.    



IPIC = Israel Poison Information Center

Ben Zion Garty MD and Oded Poznanski MD

Background: Erythema nodosum, although uncommon in children, is the most frequent form of panniculitis in pediatrics.  EN has been associated with various infections and chronic inflammations, and its course varies with age, gender, and racial and geographic factors.  There is no information on EN in Israeli children.

Objectives: To examine the clinical course of EN and the conditions with which it is associated in Israeli children.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 24 children with a diagnosis of EN who presented at our Center over a 10 year period (1989–98).

Results: EN was more frequent in females than males (ratio 2:1) due to a cluster of adolescent girls. The mean duration of the skin manifestation was 18 days. The course was benign in all patients. Streptococcal infection was the most common cause (25%), followed by Epstein-Barr virus infection (18%) and inflammatory bowel disease (13%).  In one-third of cases, no specific cause could be identified. Tuberculosis, an important cause of EN in the past, was not found in our patients.

Conclusions: Most cases of EN in Israeli children are related to streptococcal and EBV infections or to chronic inflammatory conditions. Despite the increase in tuberculosis morbidity in Israel during recent years, we found no association of EN and tuberculosis in our study.



EN = erythema nodosum

EBV = Epstein-Barr virus

Ronit Neudorf-Grauss MD, Yoram Bujanover MD, Gabriel Dinari MD, Efrat Broide MD,Yehezkiel Neveh MD, Ilan Zahavi MD and Shimon Reif MD

Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of hepatitis B virus infection in Israeli children, and to evaluate their response and compliance to therapy.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 51 patients (34 males, 17 females), aged 2–18 years, from several medical centers in Israel.

Results: Of the 51 patients, 38 with elevated transaminase, positive hepatitis B e antigen and/or HBV DNA, and histologic evidence of liver inflammation were treated. Interferon was administered by subcutaneous injections three times a week for 3-12 months (dosage range 3–6 MU/m2). Only 16% were native Israelis, while 78% of the children were of USSR origin. A family history of HBV infection was recorded in 25 of the 51 patients (9 mothers, 16 fathers or siblings). Five children had a history of blood transfusion. The histological findings were normal in 3 patients, 24 had chronic persistent hepatitis, 14 had chronic active hepatitis and 2 had chronic lobular hepatitis. Five children also had anti-hepatitis D virus antibodies. Twelve of the 38 treated patients (31.5%) responded to IFN completely, with normalization of the transaminase levels and disappearance of HBeAg and HBV DNA. In no patient was there a loss of hepatitis B surface antigen. The main side effects of IFN were fever in 20 children, weakness in 10, headaches in 9, and anorexia in 6; nausea, abdominal pain, and leukopenia were present in 3 cases each. The response rate was not affected by age, country of origin, alanine/aspartate aminotransferase levels, or histological findings. However, a history of blood transfusion was a predictor of good response, 60% vs 27% (P<0.05).

Conclusions: We found IFN to be a safe and adequate mode of treatment in children with chronic HBV infection, regardless of their liver histology and transaminase levels. Therefore, in view of the transient side effects associated with this drug, we recommend considering its use in all children with chronic hepatitis B. 


HBV = hepatitis B virus

IFN = interferon

HBeAg = hepatitis B e antigen

November 1999
Gideon Paret MD, Tamar Ziv MD, Arie Augarten MD, Asher Barzilai MD, Ron Ben-Abraham MD, Amir Vardi MD, Yossi Manisterski MD and Zohar Barzilay MD, FCCM

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a well-recognized condition resulting in high permeability pulmonary edema associated with a high morbidity.

Objectives: To examine a 10 year experience of predisposing factors, describe the clinical course, and assess predictors of mortality in children with this syndrome.

Methods: The medical records of all admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit over a 10 year period were evaluated to identify children with ARDS1. Patients were considered to have ARDS if they met all of the following criteria: acute onset of diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates of non-cardiac origin and severe hypoxemia defined by <200 partial pressure of oxygen during ³6 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure for a minimum of 24 hours. The medical records were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and physiologic information including PaO22 /forced expiratory O2, alveolar–arterial O2 difference, and ventilation index.

Results: We identified 39 children with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Mean age was 7.4 years (range 50 days to 16 years) and the male:female ratio was 24:15. Predisposing insults included sepsis, pneumonias, malignancy, major trauma, shock, aspiration, near drowning, burns, and envenomation. The mortality rate was 61.5%. Predictors of death included the PaO2/FIO2, ventilation index and A-aDO23 on the second day after diagnosis. Non-survivors had significantly lower PaO2/FIO2 (116±12 vs. 175±8.3, P<0.001), and higher A-aDO2 (368±28.9 vs. 228.0±15.5, P<0.001) and ventilation index (43.3±2.9 vs. 53.1±18.0, P<0.001) than survivors.

Conclusions: Local mortality outcome for ARDS is comparable to those in tertiary referral institutions in the United States and Western Europe. The PaO2/FIO2, A-aDO2 and ventilation index are valuable for predicting outcome in ARDS by the second day of conventional therapy. The development of a local risk profile may allow early application of innovative therapies in this population. 


1ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome

2 PaO2 = partial pressure of oxygen

3A-aDO2 = alveolar–arterial O2 difference

Nehama Linder MD, Lea Sirota MD, Amir Snapir MD, Irit Eisen MD, Nadav Davidovitch MD, Giora Kaplan MSc and Asher Barzilai MD

Background: Although the onset of fever in children often prompts parents to seek immediate treatment, the general level of parental knowledge on pediatric fever and administration of antipyretic medications is unknown. Parents without a basic understanding of treatment principles may give their children incorrect doses of medication. Overdosing may cause drug toxicity, while underdosing may lead to unnecessary, repeated clinic and/or emergency room visits.

Objectives: To assess parental decision-making with regard to treating fever in children, and its effectiveness, and to suggest methods for improving the level of treatment.

Methods: In this cross-sectional self-reported survey, questionnaires were completed by 650 parents who sought medical assistance for a child under the age of 10 years. Parents represented various socioeconomic levels, educational backgrounds and religious affiliations.

Results: Ninety-six percent of parents treated fevers that reached 38.5°C, and 77.6% treated fevers of only 38°C. Acetaminophen was the treatment of choice for 96% and dipyrone for 4%. Parental sources of information for managing and administering antipyretic drugs were medical personnel (40.7%), mother's or grandmother's experience (30%), and the enclosed leaflet or instructions on the bottle (29.3%). Forty-three percent of the parents administered the recommended dosage (10–20 mg/kg), whereas 24.3% used less and 32.7% used more; 11% exceeded a daily dosage of 120 mg/kg. 

Conclusions: A total of 57% of parents treated children with incorrect doses of antipyretic drugs. In 11% of the children treated, the daily dose was at a level that could cause severe toxicity. Parental knowledge of the treatment of fever must be improved.

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