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עמוד בית
Wed, 19.06.24

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September 2005
S. Schwartz, A.I. Eidelman, A. Zeidan, D. Applebaum and D. Raveh
Background: Large family size may be a risk factor for childhood accidents. A possible association with quality of child supervision and rapidity of seeking medical care has not been fully evaluated.

Objectives: To determine whether children with multiple siblings are at increased risk for accidents, to assess whether quality of child supervision varies with family size, and to evaluate the relationship of family size with the rapidity of seeking medical care after an accident.

Methods: We prospectively studied 333 childhood accidents treated at TEREM (emergency care station) or Shaare Zedek Medical Center. Details on family composition and the accident were obtained through parental interview. Family size of the study population was compared with that of the Jerusalem population. Families with one to three children (Group 1) and four or more children (Group 2) were compared with regard to type of supervision and different "Gap times" – the time interval from when the accident occurred until medical assistance was sought ("Gap 1"), the time from that medical contact until arrival at Shaare Zedek ("Gap 2"), and the time from the accident until arrival at Shaare Zedek for those children for whom interim medical assistance either was ("Gap 3A") or was not ("Gap 3B") sought.

Results: Children from families with 1, 2, 3, 4 and ≥5 children comprised 7.2%, 18.3%, 14.4%, 18.6% and 41.4% of our sample compared to 20.4%, 21.8%, 18.4%, 14.7% and 24.7% in the general population respectively. Children from Group 2 were less often attended to by an adult (44.5% vs. 62.0%) and more often were in the presence only of other children at the time of the accident (27.0% vs. 10.5%). Gaps 1, 2 and 3A in Group 2 (6.3 hours, 16.5 hours, 27.8 hours respectively) were longer than for Group 1 (2.7, 10.7, 13.3 hours respectively).

Conclusions: The risk for accidents is increased among children from families with four or more children. The adequacy of child supervision in large families is impaired. There is a relative delay from the time of the accident until these children are brought for treatment. 

June 2005
Z. Laron, H. Lewy, I. Wilderman, A. Casu, J. Willis, M.J. Redondo, I. Libman, N. White and M. Craig
 Background: Type 1 childhood-onset diabetes mellitus has a multifactorial origin involving an interplay between genetic and environmental factors. We have previously shown that many children who subsequently develop T1DM[1] have a different seasonality of birth than the total live births of the same population, supporting the hypothesis that perinatal viral infection during the yearly epidemics are a major trigger for the autoimmune process of T1DM.

Objectives: To compare the seasonality of children with T1DM in different populations around the world for which data were available.

Methods: We analyzed large cohorts of T1DM patients with a clinical disease onset before age 14 or 18 years.

Results: We found a seasonality pattern only in ethnically homogenous populations (such as Ashkenazi Jews, Israeli Arabs, individuals in Sardinia and Canterbury, New Zealand, and Afro-Americans) but not in heterogeneous populations (such as in Sydney, Pittsburgh and Denver).

Conclusions: Our findings attempt to explain the controversial data in the literature by showing that ethnically heterogeneous populations with a mixture of patients with various genetic backgrounds and environmental exposures mask the different seasonality pattern of month of birth that many children with diabetes present when compared to the general population.


 





[1] T1DM = type 1 childhood-onset diabetes mellitus


November 2004
T. Eidlitz Markus, M. Mimouni, A. Zeharia, M. Nussinovitch and J. Amir

Background: An estimated 10% of all children are subject to recurrent attacks of abdominal pain of unknown origin. When no organic cause is found, the working diagnosis is usually functional abdominal pain.

Objectives: To investigate the possible causative role of occult constipation.

Methods: We defined occult constipation as the absence of complaints of constipation on initial medical history or of symptoms to indicate the presence of constipation. The diagnosis was made by rectal examination and/or plain abdominal X-ray.

Results: Occult constipation was found to be the cause of RAP[1] in 42.6% of children examined. Treatment consisted of paraffin oil and phosphate enema. In 82.84% of cases the abdominal pain subsided considerably or disappeared within 2 weeks to 3 months of treatment. On telephone interview of the parents at 1–1.5 years after discharge, 96.5% reported that both the abdominal pain and constipation had subsided or disappeared.

Conclusions: Occult constipation can be easily identified and treated in a large number of children with RAP who were diagnosed as having functional abdominal pain.






[1] RAP = recurrent abdominal pain



 
July 2003
C. Hartman, Z. Hochberg and R. Shamir
April 2003
A. Kugelman, Y. Grief, R. Gerhoni-Baruch, D. Berkowitz, L. Anthon Best, L. Guralnik and L. Bentur
November 2002
David G. Motto, MD, PhD, James A. Williams, MD and Laurence A. Boxer, MD

Background: Chronic childhood autoimmune hemolytic anemia is an uncommon disorder that is associated with significant morbidity. Treatment with high dose steroids, splenectomy and frequent blood transfusions results in a myriad of complications including growth failure, bone demineralization, Cushing’s syndrome, immunosuppression, and transfusional hemosiderosis.

Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody, rituximab, in treating children with AIHA[1].

Methods: Four children with chronic AIHA, including two with prior splenectomy, who were dependent on high dose steroids and refractory to other immunosuppressive regimens were treated with four to six weekly doses of rituximab at a dose of 375 mg/m2.

Results: All four patients became transfusion-independent and were taken off prednisone completely. Adverse effects included infusion-related reactions that were mild, and infectious complications of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and varicella pneumonia.

Conclusions: Treatment with rituximab appears promising for refractory AIHA; it may obviate the need for prednisone and may result in sustained disease remissions in some patients.






[1] AIHA = autoimmune hemolytic anemia


Avinoam Shuper, MD, Batia Stark, MD, Liora Kornreich, MD, Ian J. Cohen, MBChB, Gali Avrahami, MD and Isaac Yaniv, MD

The addition of methotrexate to treatment protocols in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia has been found beneficial in preventing central nervous system relapse. However, MTX[1] itself may be associated with neurologic morbidities, the most significant of which is leukoencephalopathy. The present study describes the clinical spectrum of leukoencephalopathy, which ranges from a subclinical disease manifested only radiologically to a progressive, devastating encephalopathy. The interaction of MTX with other components of the treatment protocol is discussed, as is the effect of leucovorin. A summary is presented of the metabolic pathways that may be involved in the development of MTX toxicity. Researchers are still seeking a biochemical marker to aid in the determination of the amount of MTX that may be safely administered.

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[1] MTX = methotrexate


March 2002
Alfred Drukker, MD, PhD

Recent data have shed significant new light on the structural and functional development of the kidneys, as well as on a rare congenital form of bilateral renal hypoplasia called congenital oligomeganephronia. In this renal disorder, few greatly enlarged and hard-working nephrons are found that will ultimately sclerose and lead to end-stage renal failure during early childhood. At the same time it has been recognized that the number of nephrons in the kidneys of various animal species and humans is correlated to renal mass. Therefore, premature babies and/or infants small for gestational age due to intrauterine malnutrition will be born with relatively small kidneys and a certain nephron deficit, a condition called congenital oligonephropathy. Extensive worldwide epidemiologic studies have now shown that these premature or SGA[1] infants have a high incidence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and renal failure in adulthood. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for these complications of premature birth are not entirely understood, it has become clear that the described association may pose a possible health problem in the adult population. This review describes the background of COMN[2] and CON[3] as well as the evidence that has accumulated on the adult complications of the latter. In addition, some thoughts are presented on the importance of identifying subjects possibly affected by CON, such that early recognition may alter the ultimate outcome.

_______________________________



[1] SGA = small for gestational age

[2] COMN = congenital oligomeganephronia

[3] CON = congenital oligonephropathy


November 2001
Baruch Klin, MD, Lev Zlotkevich, MD, Tifha Horne, MD, Yigal Efrati, MD, Francis Serour, MD and Gad Lotan, MD

Background: Acute scrotal pain in children presents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Epididymitis has been considered uncommon in childhood. The clinical spectrum and therapeutic policy of the acute scrotum in children is continually being reassessed.

Objectives: To determine whether there has been an increase in the incidence of epididymitis in children and to advocate a more selective surgical approach to the acute scrotum.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 65 children admitted to our department of pediatric surgery with the diagnosis of acute scrotum during a 5 year period.

Results: Of the 65 children admitted with the diagnosis of acute scrotum, epididymitis was diagnosed in 42 (64.6%). The remaining cases included torsion of the testis in 12 patients (18.5%), torsion of the appendix testis in 5 (7.7%), scrotal pain and minimal physical findings in 4 (6.1%), and scrotal hematoma and idiopathic scrotal edema in one patient each. Doppler ultrasound of the groin, color Doppler ultrasound of the testis and testicular nuclide scintigraphy (Tc-99m scan) examinations were performed on 49, 30 and 57 occasions, respectively; the Tc-99m scan was the most effective tool. All the patients with epididymitis were diagnosed before surgical intervention and were treated conservatively.

Conclusions: We observed an increasing frequency of epididymitis in children admitted with the diagnosis of acute scrotum.
 

October 2000
Raana Shamir, MD, Aaron Lerner, MD, MHA and Edward A. Fisher, MD, PhD
February 2000
Dan Nemet, MD, Baruch Wolach, MD, Joanne Yacobovich, MD and Alon Eliakim, MD
Idan Burstein, MD, Ran Steinberg, MD and Michael Zer, MD

Background: Small bowel obstruction with perforation is an unusual and rare complication of bezoars.

Objective: To describe our use of emergency laparotomy to treat intestinal obstruction caused by bizarre bezoars.

Conclusions: An aggressive surgical approach to intestinal obstruction in the pediatric disabled or mentally retarded population is recommended.
 

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