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עמוד בית
Sat, 02.03.24

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August 2015
Lutfi Jaber MD, Dafna Kirsh MD, Gary Diamond MD FAAP and Avinoam Shuper MD

Background: Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic health problem with significant risk for long-term morbidity in adulthood.

Objectives: We examined long-term outcomes of ADHD in a population-based sample of childhood ADHD cases prospectively assessed as adults.

Methods: Long-term outcomes for 70 adults who were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood were examined and compared with data on the general population.

Results: Most subjects admitted to persistence of ADHD-related symptoms in adulthood, despite discontinuation of regular medical treatment and follow-up. Areas most severely affected by past and ongoing symptoms included driving performance and incidence of motor vehicle accidents, and rates of marriage stability over time. Relatively unaffected were occupational and academic achievements and military service. 

Conclusions: There is a need for outreach and better services for adults who were previously diagnosed with ADHD. 

 

July 2015
Oded Breuer MD, David Shoseyov MD, Eitan Kerem MD and Rebecca Brooks MD

Background: Treatment using inhaled bronchodilators for asthma with a metered dose inhaler attached to a spacer device (MDI+S) was shown to be as efficient as nebulizers. Nevertheless, nebulizers remain the treatment of choice in most hospitals. 

Objectives: To implement a policy change to improve asthma treatment in pediatric wards and the pediatric emergency department.

Methods: The study was performed in the emergency department and pediatric wards of a university medical center. The study group comprised all children admitted with a diagnosis of asthma necessitating treatment. The medical and nursing staff of both the pediatric emergency department and the pediatric wards was trained how to use metered dose inhalers attached to spacers on a regular basis in asthmatic pediatric patients. At a preset date nebulizers were replaced by spacers and their use was monitored by the supervising physician. Salbutamol was administered by metered dose inhaler (100 μg/puff) attached to a spacer device. The number of puffs was determined by severity of disease according to GINA recommendations. After 2 years the outcome and cost analysis were examined.

Results: During 3 years since the initial policy change 92.5% patients were treated with spacers throughout their hospital stay (emergency department and pediatric ward). Costs were reduced by an estimated 63%. 

Conclusions: In view of its many advantages the replacement of nebulizers by MDI+S for the treatment of acute asthma is feasible, if performed in collaboration with the staff, hospital authority and patients.

 

Mauro Calvani MD, Valentino Giorgio MD, Monica Greco MD and Stefano Miceli Sopo MD
Smadar Eventov-Friedman MD PhD, Ayala Frumkin PhD, Benjamin Bar-Oz MD and Annick Raas-Rothschild MD
December 2014
Yael Weintraub MD, Noa Rabinowicz MD, Penny Hanuka, Michal Rothschild MD, Shulamit Kotzki and Yosef Uziel MD

Background: Intra-articular corticosteroid injection (IACI), a common procedure in juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is usually associated with anxiety and pain. In a previous study, we concluded that nitrous oxide (NO2) provides effective and safe sedation for such procedures. Following the introduction of medical clowns in our hospital, we added them as an integral part of the team performing IACI.

Objectives: To prospectively evaluate the effect of a medical clown on pain perception during intra-articular corticosteroid injection for juvenile idiopathic arthritis using NO2 conscious sedation.

Methods: Patients scheduled for IACI first met and interacted with the medical clown. During the procedure, the rheumatologist and the medical clown worked in parallel to create distraction. NO2 was administered. The patient, parent, physician, medical clown and nurse completed a visual analog scale (0–10) for pain. Change in heart rate ≥ 15% was recorded to evaluate physiologic response to pain and stress.

Results: A total of 46 procedures were performed in 32 children: 23 girls, 9 boys, with a mean age of 10.9 ± 3.6 years. The median visual analog scale pain score for the patients, parents, physicians, medical clown and nurses was 2, 2, 1, 1 and 1, respectively. Five patients had increased heart rate and experienced increased pain.

Conclusions: Active participation of a medical clown during IACI with nitrous oxide for juvenile idiopathic arthritis further decreases pain and stress and results in a positive patient experience. 

November 2014
Alon Nevet MD PhD, Havatzelet Yarden-Bilavsky MD, Shai Ashkenazi MD MSc and Gilat Livni MD

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is often used to distinguish bacterial from viral infections. However, the CRP level does have implications, which depend on the clinical scenario and are still under research.

Objectives: To evaluate the distribution of CRP levels in children with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis.

Methods: The electronic database of a tertiary pediatric medical center was searched for all inpatients with a diagnosis of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis without bacterial co-infection. Background and clinical information was collected and CRP levels were analyzed.

Results: The study group consisted of 66 patients aged 8 months to 7.1 years who met the study criteria. The average CRP was 7.4 mg/dl (normal < 0.5 mg/dl). More than a third of the patients had a level higher than 7 mg/dl.

Conclusions: High values of CRP are prevalent in patients with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, similar to adenoviral infections and some bacterial infections. 

September 2014
Liora Ore MD MPH, Hanna J. Garzozi MD, Naama Schwartz MA and Michal Cohen-Dar MD MPH

Background: The detection and correction of refractive errors is one of the priorities of the World Health Organization Initiative Vision 2020.

Objectives: To determine the factors related to a child having an ocular abnormality (poor vision, refractive error or other abnormality) among schoolchildren in northern Israel.

Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted among 2113 students aged 6-7 and 13-14 years old in 70 schools in northern Israel. Medical examination included vision history, clinical eye examination and vision testing. If a parent’s informed consent was available, eye drops (cycloplegia) were delivered for fundus and retinoscopy testing. An ophthalmologist was asked to determine the need for the child’s referral for further diagnostic procedures, treatment and/or follow-up. Multivariate analysis was limited to 1708 children, using data pertaining to the ophthalmologist’s decision regarding referral, as well as vision and retinoscopy results.

Results: Vision and/or ocular abnormality was prevalent in 21.5% (95% confidence interval 17.4–26.6%), predominantly among 13-14 year olds and Jewish children. Abnormal clinical findings were found in 5.7% of the students. Retinoscopy showed a higher prevalence of hypermetropia among 6-7 year olds and a higher prevalence of myopia and astigmatism among the 13-14 year olds. The multivariate analysis suggests an independent effect of retinoscopy abnormality (odds ratio = 3.85), vision abnormality (OR [1]= 2.42), Jewish ethnicity (OR = 1.62) and 13-14 year old age group (OR = 1.26) on the ophthalmologist’s referral decision.

Conclusions: Vision and/or ocular abnormality is an important health problem among schoolchildren in northern Israel. The independent effect of ethnicity and age on the ophthalmologist’s referral decision should be further explored.


 





OR = odds ratio 



May 2014
Lidia V. Gabis MD and John Pomeroy MD
Background:  Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a common phenotype related to multiple etiologies, such to genetic, brain injury (e.g., prematurity), environmental (e.g., viral, toxic), multiple or unknown causes. 

Objectives: To devise a clinical classification of children diagnosed with ASD according to etiologic workup.

Methods: Children diagnosed with ASD (n=436) from two databases were divided into groups of symptomatic, cryptogenic or idiopathic, and variables within each database and diagnostic category were compared.

Results: By analyzing the two separate databases, 5.4% of the children were classified as symptomatic, 27% as cryptogenic and 67.75% as idiopathic. Among other findings, the entire symptomatic group demonstrated language delays, but almost none showed evidence for regression. Our results indicate similarities between the idiopathic and cryptogenic subgroups in most of the examined variables, and mutual differences from the symptomatic subgroup. The similarities between the first two subgroups support prior evidence that most perinatal factors and minor physical anomalies do not contribute to the development of core symptoms of autism. Conclusions: Differences in gender and clinical and diagnostic features were found when etiology was used to create subtypes of ASD. This classification could have heuristic importance in the search for an autism gene(s).

March 2014
Kineret Mazor-Aronovitch, Danny Lotan, Dalit Modan-Moses, Akiva Fradkin and Orit Pinhas-Ham
Background: The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has increased dramatically in the last few decades. Primary hypertension, a known secondary complication among obese adults, has been considered rare in children.

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of hypertension and its relation to body mass index (BMI) in obese children aged 9–17 years in Israel.

Methods: Weight, height, BMI, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (twice) were measured in children attending general and pediatric endocrine clinics. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 95th percentile and overweight as BMI ≥ 85th percentile. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined as systolic and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90th percentile for age, gender and height and BP ≥ 95th percentile respectively. In children with pre-hypertension or hypertension, repeated measurements were performed.

Results: We evaluated 264 children of whom 152 had BMI ≥ 85th percentile (study group). Their mean age was 12.5 years. The prevalence of elevated BP (both pre-hypertension and hypertension) in the study group was 44.1% and 31% at the first and second measurements respectively, compared to 11.6% and 1.9% in the normal-weight group. Hypertension was documented in 17.2% of the study group at the second measurement.

Conclusions: Elevated BP was diagnosed in 31% of overweight and obese children and adolescents. Increased awareness and early diagnosis and treatment are essential.

December 2013
Nir Samuel, Anat K. Politansky, Ron Hoffman, Shlomit Itzkovich and Hanna Mandel
November 2013
S. Menascu, U. Kremer, Y. Schiller, I. Blatt, N. Watemberg, M. Boxer, H. Goldberg, I. Korn-Lubetzki, M. Steinberg, and B. Ben-Zeev
 Background: The management of intractable epilepsy in children and adults is challenging. For patients who do not respond to antiepileptic drugs and are not suitable candidates for epilepsy surgery, vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is a viable alternative for reducing seizure frequency.

Methods: In this retrospective multicenter open-label study we examined the efficacy and tolerability of VNS in patients in five adult and pediatric epilepsy centers in Israel. All patients had drug-resistant epilepsy and after VNS implantation in 2006–2007 were followed for a minimum of 18 months. Patients were divided into two age groups: < 21 and > 21 years old.

Results: Fifty-six adults and children had a stimulator implanted in 2006–2007. At 18 months post-VNS implantation, none of the patients was seizure-free, 24.3% reported a reduction in seizures of ≥ 75%, 19% reported a 50–75% reduction, and 10.8% a 25–50% reduction. The best response rate occurred in patients with complex partial seizures. Among these patients, 7 reported a ≥ 75% reduction, 5 patients a 50–75% reduction, 3 patients a 25–50% reduction, and 8 patients a < 25% reduction. A comparison of the two age groups showed a higher reduction in seizure rate in the older group (< 21 years old) than the younger group.

Conclusions: VNS is a relatively effective and safe palliative method for treating refractory epilepsy in both adults and children. It is an alternative treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, even after a relatively longed disease duration, who are not candidates for localized epilepsy surgery.

E. Ganelin-Cohen and A. Ashkenasi
 There is a well-established correlation between sleep disturbances and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A large number of pediatric patients diagnosed with ADHD have sleep problems, while patients with sleep disturbances often display behavioral patterns that resemble some features of ADHD. Despite these observations, the relationship between sleep problems and ADHD is not yet fully understood. It is often difficult to pinpoint which of the disorders is the primary and which a byproduct of the other. A complicating factor is that stimulant medication such as methylphenidate, a drug of choice for ADHD, may adversely affect sleep quality in ADHD patients. However, there have also been reports that it may actually improve sleep quality. This review examines the latest trends in the contemporary literature on this clinical dilemma.

August 2013
M. Drendel, E. Carmel, P. Kerimis, M. Wolf and Y. Finkelstein
 Background: Cricopharyngeal achalasia (CA) is a rare cause of dysphagia in children presenting with non-specific symptoms such as choking, food regurgitation, nasal reflux, coughing, recurrent pneumonia, cyanosis, and failure to thrive. It results from failure of relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and may appear either as an isolated lesion or in conjunction with other pathologies. Recognition and early diagnosis of this condition may minimize children's morbidity.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical course of four children with cricopharyngeal achalasia presenting to our clinic.

Methods: We conducted a 5 year retrospective chart review in a tertiary referral center.

Results: Four children were diagnosed with primary cricopharyngeal achalasia between 2006 and 2010. Diagnosis was established by videofluoroscopy and all underwent uneventful cricopharyngeal myotomy. Three children recovered completely and one child showed partial improvement. For residual UES spasm in a partially improved patient, botulinum toxin was injected into the UES which led to further improvement. Dysphagia recurred in one child who was successfully treated with botulinum toxin injection.

Conclusions: Cricopharyngeal myotomy is a safe procedure in infants and young children. Botulinum toxin injection of the UES was found to be effective in refractory cases. 

July 2013
G. Korchia, Y. Amitai, G. Moshe, L. Korchia, A. Tenenbaum, J. Rosenblum and A. Schechter

Background: Hypovitaminosis D is common worldwide, even in sunny regions.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in toddlers.

Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in healthy Jewish children aged 1.5–6 years at five primary care pediatric clinics in the Jerusalem area during the period October 2009 to November 2010. Parents were interviewed regarding personal and demographic data and sun exposure. Blood samples were obtained for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-OHD] level. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were defined as 25-OHD < 20 ng/ml and < 30 ng/ml, respectively.

Results: Of 247 children studied, 188 (76%) were ultra-Orthodox and 59 (24%) were Orthodox, traditional or secular. Mean (± SD) 25-OHD level was 25.7 ± 10 ng/ml. Only 73 children (29.6%) had sufficient 25-OHD levels, 104 (42.1%) had insufficiency, and 70 (28.3%) had 25-OHD deficiency. The difference between ultra-Orthodox and others was insignificant (25 ± 10 vs. 27.8 ± 10.5 ng/ml respectively, P = 0.062). Children aged 1.5–3 years had higher 25-OHD levels than those aged 3–6 years (28.6 ± 10.7 and 24 ± 9.2 ng/ml respectively, P < 0.001). Vitamin D deficiency was more common in winter (53%) and autumn (36%) than in summer (19%) and spring (16%). Toddlers attending long-day kindergartens had higher 25-OHD level than those staying at home or at short-day kindergartens (28.8 ± 11.5 and 24.7 ± 9.6 ng/ml respectively, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found in toddlers in our study, mainly in older children and in the winter and autumn. We recommend routine supplementation of vitamin D for children beyond the agear.

June 2013
A. Hilmi, Y. Pasternak, M. Friger, N. Loewenthal, A. Haim and E. Hershkovitz
 Background: The existent glycemic control of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients in daily practice might not reach the goals determined in guidelines. Ethnic diversity was also shown to influence glycemic control.

Objectives: To evaluate glycemic control, prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at presentation, diabetic complications rate, and associated autoimmune diseases in a pediatric T1DM patient population in the Negev area.

Methods: Clinical and demographic details of 168 T1DM patients were evaluated, including HbA1C levels, long-term complications, related autoimmune diseases, and insulin pump usage. The data were analyzed and the Jewish and Bedouin patient groups compared.

Results: Only 13.1% of the patients had reached the HbA1C levels recommended by the current guidelines at the first and second year follow-up visits, and 9.5% and 7.1% at the third and fourth year visits, respectively. A significant difference in HbA1c levels between Jewish and Bedouin patients was found (P = 0.045 at the first year follow-up, P ≤ 0.01 thereafter). Significant difference was found between the Jewish and the Bedouin groups regarding presentation with DKA, 33% and 56% of the patients respectively (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Existent glycemic control in daily practice is far from the guideline goals. Bedouin ethnicity was associated with less favorable diabetes control, emphasizing the need for better awareness of T1DM and its treatment options in this population. More resources should be directed to address T1DM in the general population, especially among the Bedouin.

 

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