• IMA sites
  • IMAJ services
  • IMA journals
  • Follow us
  • Alternate Text Alternate Text
עמוד בית
Sun, 16.06.24

Search results


February 2017
Ido Lavee MD, Rojjer Najjar MD, Patrick Ben-Meir MD, Eyal Sela MD, Yanir Kassif MD, Omri Emodi MD and Leonid Kogan MD PhD
Avishay Tzur MD,Yair Sedaka MD, Yariv Fruchtman MD, Eugene Leibovitz, MD, Yuval Cavari MD, Iris Noyman MD, Shalom Ben-Shimol MD, Ilan Shelef MD and Isaac Lazar MD
January 2017
Avichai Weissbach MD, Ben Zion Garty MD, Irina Lagovsky Phd, Irit Krause MD and Miriam Davidovits MD

Background: Several studies link the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). However, data on the serum TNFα level in children with nephrotic syndrome are sparse. 

Objective: To investigate serum TNFα levels and the effect of steroid therapy in children with nephrotic syndrome. 

Methods: A prospective cohort pilot study of children with nephrotic syndrome and controls was conducted during a 1 year period. Serum TNFα levels were measured at presentation and at remission, or after a minimum of 80 days if remission was not achieved.

Results: Thirteen patients aged 2–16 years with nephrotic syndrome were compared with 12 control subjects. Seven patients had steroid-sensitive and six had steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Mean baseline serum TNFα level was significantly higher in the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome patients than the controls (6.13 pg/ml vs. 4.36 pg/ml, P = 0.0483). Mean post-treatment TNFα level was significantly higher in the steroid-resistant than in the steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome patients (5.67 pg/ml vs. 2.14 pg/ml, P = 0.001). In the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome patients, mean serum TNFα levels were similar before and after treatment.

Conclusions: Elevated serum TNFα levels are associated with a lack of response to corticosteroids. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of TNFα in the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome.

 

November 2016
Julia Berman MD, Adi Aran MD, Tamar Berenstein-Weyel MD and Ehud Lebel MD

Background: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is an idiopathic hip osteonecrosis prevalent in children < age 15 years. The etiology remains incompletely understood, partly because of multiple potential environmental risk factors and partly because of lack of genetic markers. It has been hypothesized that hyperactivity may induce mechanical stress and/or vascular damage at a fragile joint. 

Objectives: To assess children with LCPD for markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to their unaffected comparably aged siblings to exclude the contribution of hyperactive behavior versus environmental and/or genetic factors in LCPD. 

Methods: All children followed in the Pediatric Orthopedic Clinic, and their comparably aged siblings, were recruited. ADHD was assessed using the TOVA computerized test and DSM-IV criteria. Quality of life and sleep disorders as ancillary tests were assessed using the Child Health Questionnaire (Parent Form 50), Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument, and Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale.

Results: Sixteen children with LCPD (age 9.1 ± 3.3, 75% males) were compared with their closest-aged siblings (age 9.3 ± 2.6, 30% males). Mean TOVA scores of children with LCPD (-3.79 ± 2.6) and of their non-LCPD siblings (-3.6 ± 4.04) were lower relative to the general population (0 ± 1.8, P < 0.0001). Both group means were in the ADHD range (≤ -1.8) implying that 73% of this LCPD cohort and 53% of their non-LCPD siblings performed in the ADHD range, relative to 3.6% incidence expected in the general population (P < 0.0001). Other test results were similar in both groups. 

Conclusions: Our findings in a small cohort of children with LCPD and their comparably aged siblings do not support an association between LCPD and ADHD. ADHD markers were equally high in the LCPD children and siblings. 

 

Herman A. Cohen MD, Bella Savitsky MPH, Arie Ashkenasi MD and Moshe Hoshen PhD

Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Recently, increases in ADHD prevalence and methylphenidate use have been reported. There is evidence that children and adolescents use ADHD medication only during the school year. 

Objectives: To investigate trends in methylphenidate dispensing over a period of 3 years (2010–2012) at the monthly level and to investigate whether there is any monthly variation, especially during the summer season.

Methods: The database of Clalit Health Services (the largest of the four health funds in Israel) was used to identify (i) patients aged 6–17 years with a diagnosis of ADHD, and (ii) methylpenidate dispensation during the period 2010–2012. 

Results: Among children aged 6–17 years diagnosed with ADHD, 43% were treated with methylphenidate. For the period 2010 to 2012 there was an annual drop in methylphenidate dispensing, beginning in June and continuing through the 2 months of summer vacation, with a 2.5-fold reduction from July as compared to May. This decline was consistently followed by a rise in medications dispensed starting August. A similar small drop was observed during the Passover school vacation. The summer drop decreased over the years.

Conclusions: Our findings showed a decrease in the number of methylphenidate prescriptions dispensed during the summer months and Passover as compared to the rest of the year. However, this phenomenon appears to be decreasing. Given that ADHD is a chronic disease state that can effectively be managed with pharmacotherapy, discontinuation of treatment may be harmful for patients and should be considered only on a patient-by-patient basis.

 

Ayelet Rimon MD, Shelly Shalom MD, Ido Wolyniez MD, Alejandro Gruber, Schachter-Davidov Anita MD and Miguel Glatstein MD

Background: Medical clowns are increasingly used for diminishing pain and anxiety during painful procedures being performed on children in the hospital setting. Cortisol levels rise as a response to emotional distress. 

Objectives: To investigate whether medical clown-assisted interventions to reduce child's distress during venipuncture have an effect on cortisol levels. 

Methods: During a 1 year period, children requiring blood work or intravenous access in the pediatric emergency department were prospectively randomized to either the presence or absence of a medical clown during the procedure. The child's distress was evaluated using the Faces Pain Scale - revised (FPS-R) for the 4–7 year age group and the visual analog scales (VAS) for those aged 8–15 years. Serum cortisol levels were measured in blood samples obtained by venipuncture. 

Results: Fifty-three children aged 2–15 years were randomly assigned to the study group (with medical clown, n=29) or to the control group (without medical clown, n=24). Combined pain scores of the study group and control group were 2.2 and 7.5 respectively (P < 0.001). No difference in mean cortisol levels was found between the study group and the control group at all ages (16.4 µg/dl vs. 18.3 µg/dl, P = 0.65).

Conclusions: In this pilot study, medical clowns reduced the distress from venipuncture in children. No effect on cortisol levels was observed. 

August 2016
Galit Pomeranz MD, Avishalom Pomeranz MD, Alexandra Osadchy MD, Yigal Griton MD and Ze’ev Korzets MBBS
June 2016
Tzippora Shalem MD, Akiva Fradkin MD, Marguerite Dunitz-Scheer MD, Tal Sadeh-Kon Dsc RD, Tali Goz-Gulik MD, Yael Fishler MD and Batia Weiss MD

Background: Children dependent on gastrostomy tube feeding and those with extremely selective eating comprise the most challenging groups of early childhood eating disorders. We established, for the first time in Israel, a 3 week intensive weaning and treatment program for these patients based on the "Graz model."

Objectives: To investigate the Graz model for tube weaning and for treating severe selective eating disorders in one center in Israel. 

Methods: Pre-program assessment of patients’ suitability to participate was performed 3 months prior to the study, and a treatment goal was set for each patient. The program included a multidisciplinary outpatient or inpatient 3 week treatment course. The major outcome measures were achievement of the target goal of complete or partial tube weaning for those with tube dependency, and expansion of the child's nutritional diversity for those with selective eating. 

Results: Thirty-four children, 28 with tube dependency and 6 with selective eating, participated in four programs conducted over 24 months. Their mean age was 4.3 ± 0.37 years. Of all patients, 29 (85%) achieved the target goal (24 who were tube-dependent and 5 selective eaters). One patient was excluded due to aspiration pneumonia. After 6 months follow-up, 24 of 26 available patients (92%) maintained their target or improved. 

Conclusions: This intensive 3 week program was highly effective in weaning children with gastrostomy tube dependency and ameliorating severe selective eating. Preliminary evaluation of the family is necessary for completion of the program and achieving the child’s personal goal, as are an experienced multidisciplinary team and the appropriate hospital setup, i.e., inpatient or outpatient. 

 

February 2016
Efrat Ben-Shalom MD, Ori Toker MD and Shepard Schwartz MD

Background: Hypernatremic dehydration is a common and potentially life-threatening condition in children. There is currently no consensus as to the optimal strategy for fluid management. Objectives: To describe the relationship between the type, route and rate of fluids administered and the rate of decline in serum sodium (Na+) concentration. 

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all children under the age of 2 years who were hospitalized with hypernatremic dehydration (serum Na+ ≥ 155 mEq/L) in Shaare Zedek Medical Center during the period 2001–2010. Collected data of 62 subjects included initial and subsequent serum Na+ levels, and rate and Na+ concentration of all intravenous and oral fluids administered until the serum Na+ reached ≤ 150 mEq/L.

Results: Median initial serum Na+ was 159.5 mEq/L (IQR 157–163, maximal value 170). The median rate of decline in serum Na+ until serum Na+ reached 150 mEq/L was 0.65 mEq/L/hr (IQR 0.45–0.95). Forty-two children received hypotonic oral fluids which accounted for approximately one-quarter of all fluids they received. There was no significant difference in the rate of decline in serum Na+ between those who consumed oral fluids and those who did not. Neither was there a correlation between the rate of IV fluids, receipt of oral fluids or the degree of dehydration, with the rate of decline in serum Na+. No child experienced an apparent short-term adverse outcome. 

Conclusions: A cumulative rate of 5.9 ml/kg/hr of IV fluid administration may reduce the serum Na+ to an acceptable rate (0.65 mEq/L/hr). Fluid therapy comprising up to 25% hypotonic oral fluids and 75% IV fluids high in Na+ concentration was not associated with any short-term adverse outcome in our patient population. 

 

January 2016
Baruch Yerushalmi MD, Raffi Lev-Tzion MD and Neta Loewenthal MD
December 2015
Aviv Weinstein PhD, Yafa Yaacov BA, Michal Manning BA, Pinhas Danon MD and Abraham Weizman MD

Background: Use of the internet and videogames by children and adolescents has risen dramatically over the last decade. Increasing evidence of internet and videogame addiction among children is causing concern due to its harmful physical, emotional and social consequences. There is also emerging evidence for an association between computer and videogame addiction and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between ADHD and internet addiction.


Methods: We compared 50 male schoolchildren, mean age 13 years, diagnosed with ADHD to 50 male schoolchildren without ADHD on measures of internet addiction, internet use and sleep patterns.


Results: Children with ADHD had higher scores on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), used the internet for longer hours, and went to sleep later than those without ADHD. 


Conclusions: These findings indicate an association of ADHD, sleep disorders and internet/videogame addiction.


 
November 2015
Esther Granot MD and Etienne M. Sokal MD

The major route of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the pediatric age group is vertical, with infection occurring in up to 5% of infants born to mothers positive for HCV-RNA. The natural course of pediatric HCV infection is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous clearance, an asymptomatic clinical course, and normal or mild histologic changes. Cirrhosis is reported in 1–2% of children and progression to severe chronic liver disease and HCC occurs 20–30 years after infection. Treatment with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) + ribavirin results in a sustained viral response (SVR) of up to 100% in children with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 but only 45–55% in those infected with genotypes 1 or 4. Treatment is associated with adverse effects ranging from flu-like symptoms, myalgia, anemia and thrombocytopenia, to less commonly observed thyroid-related symptoms, alopecia, neuropsychiatric manifestations and possible long-term effects on growth. Ongoing trials with direct-acting antiviral agents in adults show promising results with treatment regimens of shorter duration and high tolerance. The next few years will likely see these advances introduced to the pediatric population as well. In the meantime, in children with HCV an expectant approach is advocated and treatment should be offered only to those at high risk for more severe, progressive disease. 

October 2015
Bshara Mansour MD and Nael Elias MD MHA

Background: Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is common in the pediatric population and if not diagnosed and treated properly can lead to major complications. 

Objectives: To define the clinical and radiological features of aspirated foreign bodies, characterize the incidence of FBA among the Israeli-Arab population, and evaluate flexible bronchoscopy as a diagnostic tool prior to performing rigid bronchoscopy.

Methods: We reviewed the e-files of 115 children who underwent bronchoscopy for suspected FBA between January 2006 and December 2010 in the pediatric department of the St. Vincent French Hospital, Nazareth.

Results: We identified 44 patients (38.3%) who had foreign body aspiration (mean age 31.2 ± 29 months, males 64%). Organic-type foreign body was seen in 70% of cases and location was equally distributed. Statistically significant correlations were found between the presence of a foreign body and a history of choking, abnormal lung auscultation, and abnormal chest X-ray (P < 0.05). The rate of negative finding in rigid bronchoscopy in our study was as low as 15% (in only 8 of 52 rigid bronchoscopies was the finding negative for FBA). Compared with other centers in our region where rigid bronchoscopy was performed without the preceding flexible procedure, we found that our protocol reduced the rate of negative rigid bronchoscopies.

Conclusions: Introducing flexible bronchoscopy initially in FBA management reduced the rate of negative rigid bronchoscopies.

 

Legal Disclaimer: The information contained in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or medical advice on any matter.
The IMA is not responsible for and expressly disclaims liability for damages of any kind arising from the use of or reliance on information contained within the site.
© All rights to information on this site are reserved and are the property of the Israeli Medical Association. Privacy policy

2 Twin Towers, 35 Jabotinsky, POB 4292, Ramat Gan 5251108 Israel