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עמוד בית
Fri, 19.07.24

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February 2000
Idan Burstein, MD, Ran Steinberg, MD and Michael Zer, MD

Background: Small bowel obstruction with perforation is an unusual and rare complication of bezoars.

Objective: To describe our use of emergency laparotomy to treat intestinal obstruction caused by bizarre bezoars.

Conclusions: An aggressive surgical approach to intestinal obstruction in the pediatric disabled or mentally retarded population is recommended.
 

Michael Schwarz MD, Gadi Horev MD, Enrique Freud MD, Nizza Ziv MD, Amir Blumenfeld MD, Ran Steinberg MD and Liora Kornreich MD

Background: Multiple organ injury in children is an increasingly frequent phenomenon in the modern emergency room. Adrenal hemorrhage associated with this type of trauma has received little attention in the past.

Objectives: Using computed tomography, we sought to determine the rate and nature of adrenal gland injury in children following blunt abdominal trauma due to motor vehicular accident.

Methods: A total of 121 children with blunt abdominal trauma were examined and total body CT was performed in cases of multi-organ trauma or severe neurological injury.

Results: Of all the children who presented with blunt abdominal trauma over a 51 month period, 6 (4.95%) had adrenal hemorrhage. In all cases only the right adrenal gland was affected. Coincidental injury to the chest and other abdominal organs was noted in 66.7% and 50% of patients, respectively.

Conclusions: Traumatic adrenal injury in the pediatric population may be more common than previously suspected. Widespread application of the more sophisticated imaging modalities available today will improve the detection of damage to the smaller organs in major collision injuries and will help in directing attention to the mechanism of trauma. 

Tal Eidlitz-Markus, MD, Avinoam Shuper, MD and Jacob Amir, MD

Background: In our experience, secondary enuresis nocturna is a common complaint among children after a motor vehicle accident.  However, as these children are often brought for examination as part of an insurance compensation claim, this complaint is not always reliable.

Objective: To describe a series of children in whom secondary enuresis occurred after a motor vehicle accident.

Methods and Results: Five children were brought to our clinic for evaluation of secondary nocturnal enuresis. Review of past history revealed a car accident preceding the onset of the enuresis. All but one had additional behavioral symptoms typical of post-traumatic stress disorder. Four children had evidence of head trauma, and one had psychological but no physical trauma. 

Conclusions: Nocturnal enuresis can occur after a motor vehicle accident due either to purely psychological trauma or organic head trauma. While nocturnal enuresis is generally attributed to organic causes, psychological mechanisms also play a significant role.

Ram Silfen MD, Michal Chemo-Lotan MD, Abraham Amir MD and Daniel J. Hauben MD

Background: Burn trauma occurs mostly in young children. Burn injury in the pediatric age group has multiple-aspect sequelae.

Objectives: To characterize the profile of the injured pediatric burn patient, thus targeting the most vulnerable pediatric group.

Methods: Between 1 January and 31 December 1996, a total of 9,235 pediatric patients were admitted for various traumatic injuries (burns, lacerations, fractures, etc.) to the Emergency Medicine Department of Schneider Children’s Medical Center. We conducted a retrospective study of the patients’ charts, including demographic data, which were stored in a computerized database, for statistical evaluation. The characteristics of pediatric burn patients were examined and compared with other pediatric trauma patients.

Results: Of the total patient population, 282 (3.1%) suffered from burns (37% females, 63% males). The most frequent burn injury was scald burn (58%). The pediatric group that was most exposed to burns was 13–18 month old males.

Conclusions: Having identified the high risk group among the pediatric burn patients, we suggest that prevention programs be directed towards this group in order to reduce further risk of burn injury.

Yona Amitai MD, Yedidia Bentur MD, Matityahu Lifshitz MD, Pinhas Fainmesser MD, David Applebaum MD, Yehezkel Waisman MD, Nadine Cohen and Samuel D. Oman PhD

Background: Extensive cleaning of homes in Israel before Passover may result in increased exposure of children to cleaning substances.

Objectives: To evaluate the potential danger of Passover cleaning to children, and to study the risk factors in order to identify areas for prevention.

Methods: All cases of poison exposure in Jewish and Arab children under the age of 15 years reported to the Israel Poison Information Center during 1990–95 (n= 5,583) were analyzed for the 6 weeks before and 6 weeks after Passover. Poison exposures in Jewish children <15 years old were studied in seven pediatric emergency rooms for the 2 weeks before and 6 weeks after Passover (n=123).

Results: The IPIC data showed a highly significant 38% increase in the average weekly poison exposure rate for the 2 weeks before Passover compared with the remaining 10 weeks.  Data recorded by the pediatric emergency rooms showed a twofold increase in cleaning substance poisoning during the 2 weeks before Passover compared with the following 6 weeks. The rise in exposures to cleaning substances was observed among children from secular, religious and ultra-orthodox families. In these exposures, the substance was found in open containers in 70% of cases. 

Conclusions: The extensive cleaning of homes among Jewish families in preparation for Passover poses the danger to young children of cleaning substance poisoning. Increasing public awareness, closer observation of children, and keeping these substances in closed containers should increase children’s safety during this annual cleaning.    

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IPIC = Israel Poison Information Center

Ben Zion Garty MD and Oded Poznanski MD

Background: Erythema nodosum, although uncommon in children, is the most frequent form of panniculitis in pediatrics.  EN has been associated with various infections and chronic inflammations, and its course varies with age, gender, and racial and geographic factors.  There is no information on EN in Israeli children.

Objectives: To examine the clinical course of EN and the conditions with which it is associated in Israeli children.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 24 children with a diagnosis of EN who presented at our Center over a 10 year period (1989–98).

Results: EN was more frequent in females than males (ratio 2:1) due to a cluster of adolescent girls. The mean duration of the skin manifestation was 18 days. The course was benign in all patients. Streptococcal infection was the most common cause (25%), followed by Epstein-Barr virus infection (18%) and inflammatory bowel disease (13%).  In one-third of cases, no specific cause could be identified. Tuberculosis, an important cause of EN in the past, was not found in our patients.

Conclusions: Most cases of EN in Israeli children are related to streptococcal and EBV infections or to chronic inflammatory conditions. Despite the increase in tuberculosis morbidity in Israel during recent years, we found no association of EN and tuberculosis in our study.

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EN = erythema nodosum

EBV = Epstein-Barr virus

Ronit Neudorf-Grauss MD, Yoram Bujanover MD, Gabriel Dinari MD, Efrat Broide MD,Yehezkiel Neveh MD, Ilan Zahavi MD and Shimon Reif MD

Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of hepatitis B virus infection in Israeli children, and to evaluate their response and compliance to therapy.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 51 patients (34 males, 17 females), aged 2–18 years, from several medical centers in Israel.

Results: Of the 51 patients, 38 with elevated transaminase, positive hepatitis B e antigen and/or HBV DNA, and histologic evidence of liver inflammation were treated. Interferon was administered by subcutaneous injections three times a week for 3-12 months (dosage range 3–6 MU/m2). Only 16% were native Israelis, while 78% of the children were of USSR origin. A family history of HBV infection was recorded in 25 of the 51 patients (9 mothers, 16 fathers or siblings). Five children had a history of blood transfusion. The histological findings were normal in 3 patients, 24 had chronic persistent hepatitis, 14 had chronic active hepatitis and 2 had chronic lobular hepatitis. Five children also had anti-hepatitis D virus antibodies. Twelve of the 38 treated patients (31.5%) responded to IFN completely, with normalization of the transaminase levels and disappearance of HBeAg and HBV DNA. In no patient was there a loss of hepatitis B surface antigen. The main side effects of IFN were fever in 20 children, weakness in 10, headaches in 9, and anorexia in 6; nausea, abdominal pain, and leukopenia were present in 3 cases each. The response rate was not affected by age, country of origin, alanine/aspartate aminotransferase levels, or histological findings. However, a history of blood transfusion was a predictor of good response, 60% vs 27% (P<0.05).

Conclusions: We found IFN to be a safe and adequate mode of treatment in children with chronic HBV infection, regardless of their liver histology and transaminase levels. Therefore, in view of the transient side effects associated with this drug, we recommend considering its use in all children with chronic hepatitis B. 

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HBV = hepatitis B virus

IFN = interferon

HBeAg = hepatitis B e antigen

November 1999
Gideon Paret MD, Tamar Ziv MD, Arie Augarten MD, Asher Barzilai MD, Ron Ben-Abraham MD, Amir Vardi MD, Yossi Manisterski MD and Zohar Barzilay MD, FCCM

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a well-recognized condition resulting in high permeability pulmonary edema associated with a high morbidity.

Objectives: To examine a 10 year experience of predisposing factors, describe the clinical course, and assess predictors of mortality in children with this syndrome.

Methods: The medical records of all admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit over a 10 year period were evaluated to identify children with ARDS1. Patients were considered to have ARDS if they met all of the following criteria: acute onset of diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates of non-cardiac origin and severe hypoxemia defined by <200 partial pressure of oxygen during ³6 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure for a minimum of 24 hours. The medical records were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and physiologic information including PaO22 /forced expiratory O2, alveolar–arterial O2 difference, and ventilation index.

Results: We identified 39 children with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Mean age was 7.4 years (range 50 days to 16 years) and the male:female ratio was 24:15. Predisposing insults included sepsis, pneumonias, malignancy, major trauma, shock, aspiration, near drowning, burns, and envenomation. The mortality rate was 61.5%. Predictors of death included the PaO2/FIO2, ventilation index and A-aDO23 on the second day after diagnosis. Non-survivors had significantly lower PaO2/FIO2 (116±12 vs. 175±8.3, P<0.001), and higher A-aDO2 (368±28.9 vs. 228.0±15.5, P<0.001) and ventilation index (43.3±2.9 vs. 53.1±18.0, P<0.001) than survivors.

Conclusions: Local mortality outcome for ARDS is comparable to those in tertiary referral institutions in the United States and Western Europe. The PaO2/FIO2, A-aDO2 and ventilation index are valuable for predicting outcome in ARDS by the second day of conventional therapy. The development of a local risk profile may allow early application of innovative therapies in this population. 

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1ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome

2 PaO2 = partial pressure of oxygen

3A-aDO2 = alveolar–arterial O2 difference

Nehama Linder MD, Lea Sirota MD, Amir Snapir MD, Irit Eisen MD, Nadav Davidovitch MD, Giora Kaplan MSc and Asher Barzilai MD

Background: Although the onset of fever in children often prompts parents to seek immediate treatment, the general level of parental knowledge on pediatric fever and administration of antipyretic medications is unknown. Parents without a basic understanding of treatment principles may give their children incorrect doses of medication. Overdosing may cause drug toxicity, while underdosing may lead to unnecessary, repeated clinic and/or emergency room visits.

Objectives: To assess parental decision-making with regard to treating fever in children, and its effectiveness, and to suggest methods for improving the level of treatment.

Methods: In this cross-sectional self-reported survey, questionnaires were completed by 650 parents who sought medical assistance for a child under the age of 10 years. Parents represented various socioeconomic levels, educational backgrounds and religious affiliations.

Results: Ninety-six percent of parents treated fevers that reached 38.5°C, and 77.6% treated fevers of only 38°C. Acetaminophen was the treatment of choice for 96% and dipyrone for 4%. Parental sources of information for managing and administering antipyretic drugs were medical personnel (40.7%), mother's or grandmother's experience (30%), and the enclosed leaflet or instructions on the bottle (29.3%). Forty-three percent of the parents administered the recommended dosage (10–20 mg/kg), whereas 24.3% used less and 32.7% used more; 11% exceeded a daily dosage of 120 mg/kg. 

Conclusions: A total of 57% of parents treated children with incorrect doses of antipyretic drugs. In 11% of the children treated, the daily dose was at a level that could cause severe toxicity. Parental knowledge of the treatment of fever must be improved.

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