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עמוד בית
Wed, 12.06.24

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January 2023
Ron Skorochod B MED Sc, Eli Ben-Chetrit MD, David Raveh MD, Bashar Fteiha MD, Yehonatan Turner MD, Yitzhak Skorochod MD

Acute cholecystitis is a common surgical diagnosis. If not addressed properly, it can potentially lead to sepsis, perforation of the gallbladder, and even death.

The most frequent pathogens isolated from bile cultures of patients with cholecystitis are anaerobes and Enterbacterales such as E. coli, Klebsiella species, and Streptococcus species [1].

Streptococcus gordonii belongs to the Viridians streptococci group of oral bacteria and is commonly associated with dental caries. S. gordonii has been previously reported as the causative pathogen in both endocarditis and spondylodiskitis [2]. However, it has rarely been associated with biliary infections. In this report, we presented a patient diagnosed with cholecystitis associated with S. gordonii infection.

August 2022
Ilan Rozenberg MD, Sydney Benchetrit MD, Michael Raigorodetsky MD, Simone Fajer MD, Ali Shnaker MD, Naomi Nacasch MD, Yael Einbinder MD, Tali Zitman-Gal PhD, Keren Cohen-Hagai MD

Background: Reliable vascular access is a fundamental tool for providing effective hemodialysis. Vascular access dysfunction is associated with increased morbidity and mortality among hemodialysis patients. Current vascular access guidelines strongly recommend creating an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) as the first option; however, a substantial proportion of new AVFs may not be usable.

Objectives: To assess possible predictors of primary and secondary failure of vascular access.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included all vascular access sites created at Meir Medical Center from 2006 through 2012. Vascular access site, primary and secondary failure rates, and relevant demographic and clinical data were recorded during 60 months of follow-up.

Results: A total of 612 vascular accesses were created and followed for a median of 32 ± 29.4 months. Of these, 490 (80%) were suitable for initiating hemodialysis. Vascular access site was the most important predictor of primary failure but did not predict secondary failure. Co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus and congestive heart failure, as well as the use of antiplatelet agents did not predict primary or secondary failure. Preoperative vascular mapping using Doppler ultrasonography was performed in 36.4% of cases and was not associated with lower rates of primary or secondary failure.

Conclusions: Vascular access site is an important predictor of primary failure. We did not find a benefit of pre-operative vessel mapping or chronic antiplatelet therapy in terms of decreasing primary and secondary failure rates. Physicians should carefully consider the characteristics of the patient and blood vessels before creating vascular access in patients requiring chronic hemodialysis.

April 2022
Yonit Wiener-Well MD, Daniel Tordgman MD, Alon Bnaya MD, Orit Wolfovitz-Barchad MD, Marc V. Assous MD PhD, Amos M. Yinnon MD, and Eli Ben-Chetrit MD

Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is an important cause of nosocomial infections. Active surveillance for CRAB carriage to identify and isolate colonized patients is used to reduce transmission.

Objectives: To assess the rate and risks of clinical infection among CRAB-carrier and non-carrier patients.

Methods: Hospitalized patients from whom CRAB screening-cultures were obtained between January and June 2018 were identified retrospectively. All CRAB-carriers were compared to a convenient sample of non-carriers and were followed to detect development of CRAB clinical infection during admission.

Results: We compared 115 CRAB carriers to 166 non-carriers. The median age in the study group was 76 years (IQR 71–87) vs. 65 years (55–79) in the non-carriers group (P < 0.001). Residence in a nursing facility, debilitated state, and admission to medical wards vs. intensive care units were more frequent among CRAB-carriers (P < 0.001). Mechanically ventilated patients included 51 CRAB carriers (44%) and 102 non-carriers (61%). Clinical infection developed in 49 patients (17%), primarily CRAB pneumonia. Of the CRAB-carriers and non-carriers, 26/115 (23%) and 23/166 (14%), respectively, developed a clinical infection (P = 0.05). One-third of the ventilated patients were infected. Debilitated state and antibiotic treatment during hospitalization were linked to higher infection rates (P = 0.01). Adjusted analysis showed that mechanical ventilation and CRAB colonization were strongly associated with clinical infection (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The rate of CRAB infection among carriers was high. Mechanical ventilation and CRAB colonization were associated with CRAB clinical infection, primarily pneumonia

December 2021
Galit Hirsh-Yechezkel PhD, Angela Chetrit MHA, Sivan Ben Avraham MSc, Abed Agbarya MD, Alexander Yakobson MD, Noam Asna MD, Gil Bar-Sela MD, Irit Ben-Aharon MD PhD, Noa Efrat Ben-Baruch MD, Raanan Berger MD PhD, Ronen Brenner MD, Maya Gottfried MD, Shani Paluch-Shimon MBBS MSc, Raphael Pfeffer MD, Aron Popovtzer MD, Larisa Ryvo MD, Valeriya Semenisty MD, Ayelet Shai MD PhD, Katerina Shulman MD, Jamal Zidan MD, and Ido Wolf MD

Background: The increased susceptibility of cancer patients to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infections and complications calls for special precautions while treating cancer patients during COVID-19 pandemics. Thus, oncology departments have had to implement a wide array of prevention measures.

Objectives: To address issues associated with cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic and to assess the implementation of measures aimed at containment of COVID-19 diffusion while allowing continuation of quality cancer care.

Methods: A national survey among oncology departments in Israel was conducted between 12 April 2020 and 14 April 2020. Eighteen heads of hospital-based oncology departments completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their institute's preparedness for treatment of cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results: In this national survey, prevention measures against COVID-19 spread were taken prior to patients' arrival and at arrival or while staying in the departments. Most participants (78–89%) reported using a quick triage of patients and caregivers prior to their entrance to the oncology units, limiting the entrance of caregivers, and reducing unnecessary visits to the clinic. Switching to oral therapies rather than intravenous ones when possible was considered by 82% and shortage in personal protective equipment was reported by five (28%) heads of oncology departments. Some differences between large and small/medium sized medical centers were observed regarding issues related to COVID-19 containment measures and changes in treatment.

Conclusions: Oncology departments in Israel were able to prepare and adapt their services to guidelines and requirements related to the COVID-19 pandemic with little harm to their treatment capacity

August 2020
Ramzi Kurd MD, Michael Zuckerman MD and Eli Ben-Chetrit MD
July 2018
Yael Einbinder MD, Timna Agur MD, Kirill Davidov, Tali Zitman-Gal PhD, Eliezer Golan MD and Sydney Benchetrit MD

Background: Anemia management strategies among chronic hemodialysis patients with high ferritin levels remains challenging for nephrologists.

Objectives: To compare anemia management in stable hemodialysis patients with high (≥ 500 ng/ml) vs. low (< 500 ng/ml) ferritin levels

Methods: In a single center, record review, cohort study of stable hemodialysis patients who were followed for 24 months, an anemia management policy was amended to discontinue intravenous (IV) iron therapy for stable hemodialysis patients with hemoglobin > 10 g/dl and ferritin ≥ 500 ng/ml. Erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents (ESA), IV iron doses, and laboratory parameters were compared among patients with high vs. low baseline ferritin levels before and after IV iron cessation.

Results: Among 87 patients, 73.6% had baseline ferritin ≥ 500 ng/ml. Weekly ESA dose was greater among patients with high vs. low ferritin (6788.8 ± 4727.8 IU/week vs. 3305.0 ± 2953.9 IU/week, P = 0.001); whereas, cumulative and monthly IV iron doses were significantly lower (1628.2 ± 1491.1 mg vs. 2557.4 ± 1398.9 mg, P = 0.011, and 82.9 ± 85 vs. 140.7 ± 63.9 mg, P = 0.004). Among patients with high ferritin, IV iron was discontinued for more than 3 months in 41 patients (64%) and completely avoided in 6 (9.5%).ESA dose and hemoglobin levels did not change significantly during this period.

Conclusions: Iron cessation in chronic hemodialysis patients with high ferritin levels did not affect hemoglobin level or ESA dose and can be considered as a safe policy for attenuating the risk of chronic iron overload.

March 2018
Ilan Rozenberg MD, Andres Kotliroff MD, Tania Zahavi MD and Sydney Benchetrit MD

Background: Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in Caucasian adults. Most patients have good renal prognosis, but 30–40% may progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD). 

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive treatment (IST) in high-risk patients.

Methods: All IMN patients diagnosed by kidney biopsy from 2004–2010 were included. Clinical and laboratory data were collected at each follow-up visit. Risk assessment for renal progression classified patients as high risk if: 24 hour protein excretion > 6 g/day, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and severe disabling or life-threatening clinical symptoms of NS were present.

Results: Among 290 biopsies, 37 patients (12.7%) were IMN. They were allocated to the high-risk IST group (n=16) or low-risk supportive treatment (ST) group (n=21) according to the likelihood of developing renal failure. Mean follow-up was 47 ± 17.3 months. Complete and partial remission rate was 68.7% for high-risk IST vs. 90.4% for low-risk ST. In the high-risk IST group, eGFR was significantly lower at 30 months (65.5 ± 28.6 vs. 85.3 ± 21.6 at baseline, P < 0.05). Four high-risk patients reached ESRD. In the low-risk ST group, eGFR remained stable at 30 and 60 months. 

Conclusions: This study showed a high remission rate for IMN. IST with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide provided favorable renal outcomes in most high-risk patients. The very high remission rate obtained in the low-risk patients confirms the adequacy of supportive treatment in this group.

September 2017
Efrat Orenbuch-Harroch MD, Eli Ben-Chetrit MD, Natalia Simanovsky MD, David Katz MD and Eldad Ben-Chetrit MD
December 2016
Eli Ben-Chetrit MD, Ayman Abu Rmeileh MD, Karine Atlan MD and Eldad Ben-Chetrit MD
September 2016
Keren Cohen-Hagai MD, Ilan Rozenberg MD, Ze'ev Korzets MBBS, Tali Zitman-Gal PhD, Yael Einbinder MD and Sydney Benchetrit MD

Background: Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) occurs frequently in the general population and is considered a benign self-limited disease. Dialysis patients constitute a high risk population whose morbidity and mortality rate as a result of URTI is unknown. 

Objectives: To assess the local incidence, morbidity and mortality of URTI in dialysis patients compared to the general population. 

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we reviewed the charts of all chronic dialysis patients diagnosed with URTI at Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel during the 2014–2015 winter season. 

Results: Among 185 dialysis patients, 40 were found to be eligible for the study. The average age was 66.1 ± 15.7 years, and the co-morbidity index was high. Influenza A was the most common pathogen found, followed by rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and para-influenza. Of the 40 patients 21 (52.5%) developed complications: pneumonia in 20%, hospitalization in 47.5%, and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in 12.5%. Overall mortality was 10%. General population data during the same seasonal period showed a peak pneumonia incidence of 4.4% compared to 20% in the study population (P < 0.0001). 

Conclusions: The study findings show that compared to the general population, URTI in dialysis patients is a much more severe disease and has a higher complication rate. Influenza A, the most common pathogen, is associated with a worse prognosis. 


January 2016
Etty Daniel-Spiegel MD, Micha Mandel PhD, Daniel Nevo MA, Avraham Ben-Chetrit MD, Ori Shen MD, Eliezer Shalev MD and Simcha Yagel MD

Background: Selection of appropriate reference charts for fetal biometry is mandatory to ensure an accurate diagnosis. Most hospitals and clinics in Israel use growth curves from the United States. Charts developed in different populations do not perform well in the Israeli population.

Objectives: To construct new reference charts for fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), using a large sample of fetuses examined at 14–42 weeks gestational age in a medical center and a community ultrasound unit located in two different regions of Israel. 

Methods: Data from the medical center and the community clinic were pooled. The mean and standard error of each measure for each week was calculated. Based on these, reference charts were calculated using quantiles of the normal distribution. The performance of the reference charts was assessed by comparing the new values to empirical quantiles.

Results: Biometric measurements were obtained for 79,328 fetuses. Growth charts were established based on these measurements. The overall performance of the curves was very good, with only a few exceptions among the higher quantiles in the third trimester in the medical center subsample.

Conclusions: We present new local reference charts for fetal biometry, derived from a large and minimally selected Israeli population. We suggest using these new charts in routine daily obstetric practice.


December 2015
Eleonora Plotkin MD, Sydney Benchetrit MD, Tanya Zahavi MD, Oded Kimhi MD and Ze'ev Korzets MBBS
May 2014
Timna Agur MD MSc, Yair Levy MD, Eleonora Plotkin MD and Sydney Benchetrit MD
February 2013
O. Halshtok Neiman, S. Sadetzki, A. Chetrit, S. Raskin, G. Yaniv and C. Hoffmann
 Background: MRI differentiation between metastases and high grade gliomas is a challenging task. Contrast enhancement and size of edema do not provide clear-cut differentiators. The differences in the properties of the peritumoral edema between these tumor types may be exploited to distinguish between them, using MRI perfusion sequences, which are capable of imaging edema in the clinical setting and may be a reliable method to make this differentiation.

Objectives: To assess the ability of perfusion-weighted imaging to differentiate between high grade gliomas and brain metastases.

Methods: During 5 months, 21 patients (age 40–85, median age 61, 16 males and 5 females) with either glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or metastasis (pathology proven), underwent MRI for assessment of the tumor prior to surgery. Most of the scans were done at 3 Tesla. The scans included perfusion-weighted imaging sequences. Perfusion in the tumor, in the peritumoral edema and in normal tissue were assessed using Functool® software. The ratios of tumor perfusion and peritumoral edema perfusion to normal tissue perfusion were calculated and compared.

Results: Bleeding artifact precluded perfusion assessment in four patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the tumor perfusion ratios of high grade gliomas and those of metastases. The edema perfusion ratios were higher in GBM than in metastases (P = 0.007).

Conclusions: Perfusion-weighted imaging of peritumoral edema can help to differentiate between GBM and metastases.

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