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עמוד בית
Tue, 16.07.24

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May 2023
Yaniv Zager MD, Yuri Goldes MD, Dan Assaf MD, Nadav Zilka MD, Roi Anteby MD, Yehonatan Nevo MD, Liran Barda MD, Avinoam Nevler MD

Background: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has demonstrated prognostic value in various malignant conditions, including gastric adenocarcinoma. However, chemotherapy may affect NLR.

Objectives: To evaluate the prognostic value of NLR as an accessory decision-making tool in terms of operating patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resectable gastric cancer.

Methods: We collected oncologic, perioperative, and survival data of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent curative intent gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy between 2009 and 2016. The NLR was calculated from preoperative laboratory tests and classified as high (> 4) and low (≤ 4). The t-test, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox multivariate regression models were used to assess associations of clinical, histologic, and hematological variables with survival.

Results: For 124 patients the median follow-up was 23 months (range 1–88). High NLR was associated with greater rate of local complication (r=0.268, P < 0.01). The rate of major complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ 3) was higher in the high NLR group (28% vs. 9%, P = 0.022). Among the 53 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, those with low NLR had significantly improved disease-free survival (DFS) (49.7 vs. 27.7 months, P = 0.025). Low NLR was not significantly associated with overall survival (mean survival, 51.2 vs. 42.3 months, P = 0.19). Multivariate regression identified NLR group (P = 0.013), male gender (P = 0.04), and body mass index (P = 0.026) as independently associated with DFS.

Conclusions: Among gastric cancer patients planned for curative intent surgery who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, NLR may have prognostic value, particularly regarding DFS and postoperative complications.

July 2022
March 2022
Avital Angel-Korman MD, Vladimir Rapoport MD, and Adi Leiba MD

Hypertension and cancer are both common due to the aging of the population and the advances in medical treatment which result in increased survival of cancer patients today. More patients with cancer; therefore, present with hypertension, which is attributed to different factors, including genetics and age as well as the type of tumor and cancer-related treatments. Given the increased cardiovascular and mortality risk related to hypertension, it is important to appropriately identify and treat hypertension, particularly in the population of vulnerable cancer patients. In this article we discuss the epidemiology, different etiologies, and approaches to the management of hypertension in cancer patients.

February 2020
Lina Salman MD, Avi Ben-haroush MD, Gad Sabah MD, Ariella Jakobson-Setton MD, Daliah Tsoref MD, Oded Raban MD, Effi Yeoshoua MD and Ram Eitan MD

Background: The treatment of elderly patients with advanced stage ovarian carcinoma is challenging due to a high morbidity.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical course and outcome of elderly patients with advanced stage ovarian carcinoma receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT).

Methods: A retrospective study of all patients with stage IIIC and IV ovarian carcinoma receiving NACT in one medical center (between 2005 and 2017). The study group criteria age was above 70 years. The control group criteria was younger than 70 years old at diagnosis. Demographics and treatment outcomes were compared between groups. Primary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: Overall, 105 patients met the inclusion criteria, 71 patients (67.6%) were younger than 70 years and 34 patients (32.4%) older. Rates of interval cytoreduction were significantly higher in younger patients (76.1% vs. 50.0%, P = 0.01). Of those who underwent interval cytoreduction, no difference was found in rates of optimal debulking between groups (83.35% vs. 100%, P = 0.10). Using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, no significant differences were observed between groups in PFS or OS, P > 0.05. Among the elderly group alone, patients who underwent interval cytoreduction had significantly longer PFS than those without surgical intervention (0.4 ± 1.7 vs. 19.3 ± 19.4 months, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Elderly patients with ovarian carcinoma who received NACT undergo less interval cytoreduction than younger patients, with no difference in PFS and OS. However, among the elderly, interval cytoreduction is associated with significantly higher PFS.

December 2018
Anca Leibovici MD, Rivka Sharon Msc and David Azoulay PhD

Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neuronal growth factor that is important for the development, maintenance, and repair of the peripheral nervous system. The BDNF gene commonly carries a single nucleotide polymorphism (Val66Met-SNP), which affects the cellular distribution and activity-dependent secretion of BDNF in neuronal cells.

Objectives: To check the association between BDNF Val66Met-SNP as a predisposition that enhances the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in an Israeli cohort of patients with breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel.

Methods: Peripheral neuropathy symptoms were assessed and graded at baseline, before beginning treatment, and during the treatment protocol in 35 patients, using the reduced version of the Total Neuropathy Score (TNSr). Allelic discrimination of BDNF polymorphism was determined in the patients' peripheral blood by established polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing.

Results: We found Val/Val in 20 patients (57.14%), Val/Met in 15 patients (42.86%), and Met/Met in none of the patients (0%). Baseline TNSr scores were higher in Met-BDNF patients compared to Val-BDNF patients. The maximal TNSr scores that developed during the follow-up in Met-BDNF patients were higher than in Val-BDNF patients. However, exclusion of patients with pre-existing peripheral neuropathy from the analysis resulted in equivalent maximal TNSr scores in Met-BDNF and Val-BDNF patients.

Conclusions: These observations suggest that BDNF Val66met-SNP has no detectable effect on the peripheral neuropathy that is induced by paclitaxel. The significance of BDNF Val66Met-SNP in pre-existing peripheral neuropathy-related conditions, such as diabetes, should be further investigated.

October 2018
Sivan Shamai MD and Ofer Merimsky MD

Background: Trabectedin is a marine-derived chemotherapy, which has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for use in anthracycline-resistant advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS), especially liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma (L-sarcomas).

Objectives: To describe our 10 year real-life experience with trabectedin regarding safety and efficacy in a cohort of 86 patients.

Methods: In our study cohort, 46.51% were diagnosed with liposarcoma and 43.02% with leiomyosarcoma. A total of 703 cycles of trabectedin were given, with a median of five cycles per patient (range 1–59). Median overall survival was 13.5 months for the whole cohort, 11 months for liposarcoma patients (range 1–63), and 15 months for leiomyosarcoma patients (range 1–35).

Results: There was no statistically significant difference in progression free survival when stratified according to previous treatment lines given. Trabectedin exhibited a favorable safety profile, with only 22% requiring dose reductions. Grade 3 and higher toxicity was noted in 25% of the patients, mostly due to myelosuppression. There were no treatment-related deaths.

Conclusions: Trabectedin is a safe and effective drug for treating advanced STS. Our results reflect real-life data with patients receiving the drug as a third and even fourth line of treatment, or with a suboptimal performance status, yet achieving impressive clinical benefit rates and survival.

February 2018
June 2017
Yael C. Cohen MD, Tamar Berger MD MHA, Lora Eshel MD, Dorit Stern MD, Osnat Bairey MD, Pia Raanani MD and Ofer Shpilberg MD MPH

Background: Pulmonary infiltrates (PIs) detected in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may present a diagnostic challenge due to their wide differential diagnosis, including infection, pulmonary lymphoma and immunochemotherapy-associated pulmonary toxicity.

Objectives: To characterize therapy-associated PIs by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging.

Methods: We conducted a historical analysis of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT (18F-FDG-PET/CT) PIs in NHL patients treated with combined immunochemotherapy including rituximab. Incidence of PIs, radiological features, patients’ characteristics, underlying NHL type, rituximab/chemotherapy dosing schedules, and symptoms were recorded. Therapy-associated PIs were defined as new or worsening PIs appearing after treatment onset, without evidence of active pulmonary lymphoma or infection.

Results: Among 80 patients who met the pre-specified criteria, therapy-associated PIs were identified in 17 (21%), 6 of whom had accompanying symptoms. Increased FDG uptake was observed in nine, and PI resolution in six. The incidence of PIs was higher in females and in patients with aggressive lymphoma, at advanced stages, and in those who had received treatment consisting of a combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone every 14 days (R-CHOP-14).

Conclusions: This characterization of therapy-associated PIs may support the clinician managing NHL patients. Further prospective studies are needed to establish the role of each therapeutic component and the natural history of this phenomenon.

May 2017
Abdel-Rauf Zeina MD, Saif Abu-Mouch MD and Amir Mari MD
May 2013
S. Billan, O. Kaidar-Person, F. Atrash, I. Doweck, N. Haim, A. Kuten and O. Ronen
 Background: The role of induction chemotherapy in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is under constant debate. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies are part of the treatment strategy in these patients, but their sequence remains to be defined.

Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of induction chemotherapy with docetaxel-cisplatin-5-flurouracil (TPF) followed by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with concomitant chemotherapy (CRT) or cetuximab (ERT) in the treatment of patients with advanced SCCHN.

Methods: We reviewed the data of all patients with advanced SCCHN, stage III and IV, treated in 2007–2010. Tolerability was assessed and scored according to the proportion of patients completing the planned study protocol. Toxicity was scored using the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (version 4) for classification of adverse events.

Results: The study included 53 patients. TPF was initiated at a reduced dose in 13 patients (25%). Twenty-two patients (41.5%) received primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and 42 (77%) completed treatment according to schedule. During the induction phase one patient (2%) died and 24 (45%) had one or more grade 3-4 complications. The number of patients who developed neutropenia was lower in the group that received primary GCSF prophylaxis. Secondary dose reductions were required in 21% of the patients.

Conclusions: Induction TPF was associated with grade 3-4 toxicity. Prophylaxis with GCSF should be part of the treatment regimen.

 

March 2011
O. Beyar Katz, A. Ben Barak, G. Abrahami, N. Arad, Y. Burstein, R. Dvir, S. Fischer, J. Kapelushnik, H. Kaplinsky, A. Toren, S. Vilk-Revel, M. Weintraub, I. Yaniv, S. Linn, B. Futerman and M. Weyl Ben-Arush

Background: Survival in T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma has improved over the past 30 years, largely due to treatment protocols derived from regimens designed for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Objectives: To assess the outcome of the NHL-BFM-95 protocol in children and adolescents hospitalized during the period 1999–2006.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective multi-institutional, non-randomized study of children and adolescents up to age 21 with T cell lymphoma admitted to pediatric departments in six hospitals in Israel, with regard to prevalence, clinical characteristics, pathological characteristics, prognostic factors, overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). All patients had a minimal follow-up of one year after diagnosis. The study was based on the NHL[1]-BFM[2]-95 protocol.

Results: At a median follow-up of 4 years (range 1–9 years), OS and EFS for all patients was 86.5% and 83.8%, respectively. OS was 86.7% and 83.3% for patients with stage III and stage IV, respectively, and EFS was 83.3% and 83.3%, respectively. EFS was 62.5% for Arab patients and 89.7% for Jewish patients (P = 0.014). Patients who did not express CD45 antigen showed superior survival (P = 0.028). Five (13.5%) patients relapsed, four of whom died of their disease. Death as a consequence of therapy toxicity was documented in one patient while on the re-induction protocol (protocol IIA).

Conclusions: Our study shows that OS and EFS for all patients was 86.5% and 83.8%, respectively.






[1] NHL = non-Hodgkin lymphoma



[2] BFM = Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster


March 2009
S. Machlenkin, E. Melzer, E. Idelevich, N. Ziv-Sokolovsky, Y. Klein and H. Kashtan

Background: The role of endoscopic ultrasound in evaluating the response of esophageal cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of EUS[1] in restaging patients who underwent NAC[2].

Methods: The disease stage of patients with esophageal cancer was established by means of the TNM classification system. The initial staging was determined by chest and abdominal computed tomography and EUS. Patients who needed NAC underwent a preoperative regimen consisting of cisplatin and fluouracil. Upon completion of the chemotherapy, patients were restaged and then underwent esophagectomy. The results of the EUS staging were compared with the results of the surgical pathology staging. This comparison was done in two groups of patients: the study group (all patients who received NAC) and the control group (all patients who underwent primary esophagectomy without NAC).

Results: NAC was conducted in 20 patients with initial stage IIB and III carcinoma of the esophagus (study group). Post-chemotherapy EUS accurately predicted the surgical pathology stage in 6 patients (30%). Pathological down-staging was noted in 8 patients (40%). However, the EUS was able to observe it in only 2 patients (25%). The accuracy of EUS in determining the T status alone was 80%. The accuracy for N status alone was 35%. In 65% of examinations the EUS either overestimated (35%) or underestimated (30%) the N status. Thirteen patients with initial stage I-IIA underwent primary esophagectomy after the initial staging (control group). EUS accurately predicted the surgical pathology disease stage in 11 patients (85%).

Conclusions: EUS is an accurate modality for initial staging of esophageal carcinoma. However, it is not a reliable tool for restaging esophageal cancer after NAC and it cannot predict response to chemotherapy.






[1] EUS = endoscopic ultrasound

[2] NAC = neo-adjuvant chemotherapy

 

January 2009
A. Dortort Lazar, O. Shpilberg, M. Shaklai and O. Bairey

Background: There is currently no standard salvage chemotherapy for the 40–50% of patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma who fail first-line treatment.

Objectives: To review the experience of a major tertiary medical center with DVIP (dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide and cisplatin) salvage therapy for primary refractory/relapsing NHL[1].

Methods: We reviewed the records of all patients with NHL who received DVIP salvage therapy during the period 1993 to 2005.

Results: We identified 37 adult patients (mean age 56.3 years): 29 with aggressive lymphoma and 8 with indolent lymphoma. Mean event-free survival was 13.5 months (range 0–82 months), mean time between diagnosis and DVIP treatment 18.5 months (range 2–101), and mean number of DVIP cycles 1.9. Four patients (11%) achieved a complete response and 9 (24%) a partial response (overall response 35%). Consolidation with stem cell transplantation was used in 14 patients with aggressive lymphoma and 4 with indolent lymphoma; 14 patients, all with aggressive lymphoma, responded (12 complete, 2 partial). Of the 10 patients who underwent SCT[2] despite no response to salvage DVIP, 6 achieved a complete response. Five year overall survival from diagnosis for the whole sample was 39.4 ± 8.7%, and 5 year post-DVIP overall survival 37.6 ± 8.0%. On multivariate analysis, SCT was the strongest predictor of survival (relative risk 0.73, P < 0.0001) followed by a high score on the International Prognostic Index (RR[3] 3.71, P = 0.032).

Conclusions: DVIP salvage therapy for NHL was associated with a low response rate of 35% but a 5 year post-DVIP survival rate of 37.6%. Patients who are refractory to salvage treatment with DVIP might still be salvaged with SCT.






[1] NHL = non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma



[2] SCT = stem cell transplantation



[3] RR = relative risk



 
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