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עמוד בית
Wed, 22.05.24

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May 2018
Mansour Khoury MD, Sigalit Caspi RN, Ruth Stalnikowics MD, Elad Peless RN, Ela Raiizman RN MA and Shaden Salameh MD MHA

Background: Acute musculoskeletal pain is one of the most commonly reported symptoms among patients visiting the emergency department (ED). Treatment with over-the-counter pain medications, given by nurses, results in improved pain management and reduces the waiting time to drug administration without significant side effects. Opioid analgesics are extensively used for acute pain in the ED. Compared to morphine, oxycodone has a much more specific pharmacological activity, higher analgesic potential, and more tolerable side effects.

Objectives: To assess the degree of pain reduction using different protocols, including dypirone and oxycodone given by nurses, in treating acute musculoskeletal pain in the emergency department (primary outcome) and to evaluate the need for rescue medications (secondary outcome).

Methods: This observational prospective clinical trial compared two groups of 50 patients, each one visiting the ED due to musculoskeletal pain. One group was treated with dipyrone syrup and the other was treated with oxycodone syrup. The primary outcome was pain reduction measured by the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). The secondary outcome was the difference in need for rescue medications.

Results: The reduction in the NRS was greater in the patients treated with oxycodone. This finding was statistically and clinically significant (P < 0.001). The need for rescue medications was also significantly reduced in this group of patients (P = 0.007).

Conclusions: This study showed that the administration of over-the-counter oxycodone syrup by nurses decreases the post-treatment pain reported by patients, reduces the need for rescue medications, and increases the satisfaction of the medical staff.

April 2012
U. Arad, E. Niv, D. Caspi and O. Elkayam

Monogenic periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, accompanied by localized inflammatory manifestations. Among them, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most studied and is by far the most prevalent periodic fever syndrome in Israel. We present a diagnostic workup of a patient suffering from a periodic fever syndrome, initially thought to be FMF and characterized by attacks of fever, severe abdominal pain, a migratory erythematous rash and conjunctivitis. The development of periorbital edema presenting as diplopia led to consideration of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). Genetic tests confirmed the diagnosis. This case should alert us that even in Israel, a patient with periodic fever, not fully consistent with the typical features of FMF, should be evaluated for other periodic fever syndromes.

March 2008
April 2007
M. Garty, A. Shotan, S. Gottlieb, M. Mittelman, A. Porath, B.S. Lewis, E. Grossman, S. Behar, J. Leor, M. S. Green, R. Zimlichman and A. Caspi

Background: Despite improved management of heart failure patients, their prognosis remains poor.

Objectives: To characterize hospitalized HF[1] patients and to identify factors that may affect their short and long-term outcome in a national prospective survey.

Methods: We recorded stages B-D according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association definition of HF patients hospitalized in internal medicine and cardiology departments in all 25 public hospitals in Israel.

Results: During March-April 2003, 4102 consecutive patients were recorded. Their mean age was 73 ± 12 years and 57% were males; 75.3% were hypertensive, 50% diabetic and 59% dyslipidemic; 82% had coronary artery disease, 33% atrial fibrillation, 41% renal failure (creatinine ³ 1.5 mg/dl), and 49% anemia (hemoglobin £ 12 g/dl). Mortality rates were 4.7% in-hospital, 7.6% at 30 days, 18.7% at 6 months and 28.1% at 12 months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased 1 year mortality rate was associated with New York Heart Association III–IV (odds ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.78–2.41), age (for 10 year increment) (OR[2] 1.41, 95% CI[3] 1.31–1.52), renal failure (1.79, 1.53–2.09), anemia (1.50, 1.29–1.75), stroke (1.50, 1.21–1.85), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.25, 1.04–1.50) and atrial fibrillation (1.20, 1.02–1.40).

Conclusions: This nationwide heart failure survey indicates a high risk of long-term mortality and the urgent need for the development of more effective management strategies for patients with heart failure discharged from hospitals.

 







[1] HF = heart failure



[2] OR = odds ratio



[3] CI = confidence interval


B. S. Lewis, A. Shotan, S. Gottlieb, S. Behar, D. A. Halon, V. Boyko, J. Leor, E. Grossman, R. Zimlichman, A. Porath, M. Mittelman, A. Caspi and M. Garty

Background: Heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function is a major cause of cardiac disability.

Objectives: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and late clinical outcome of patients hospitalized with HF-PSF[1] on a nationwide basis in Israel.

Methods: The Israel nationwide HF survey examined prospectively 4102 consecutive HF patients admitted to 93 internal medicine and 24 cardiology departments in all 25 public hospitals in the country. Echocardiographic LV function measurements were available in 2845 patients (69%). The present report relates to the 1364 patients who had HF-PSF (LV ejection fraction ≥ 40%).

Results: Mortality of HF-PSF patients was high (in-hospital 3.5%, 6 months 14.2%, 12 months 22.0%), but lower than in patients with reduced systolic function (all P < 0.01). Mortality was higher in patients with HF as the primary hospitalization diagnosis (16.0% vs. 12.5% at 6 months, P = 0.07 and 26.2% vs. 18.0% at 12 months, P = 0.0002). Patients with HF-PSF who died were older (78 ± 10 vs. 71 ± 12 years, P < 0.001), more often female (P = 0.05) and had atrial fibrillation more frequently (44% vs. 33%, P < 0.01). There was also a relationship between mortality and pharmacotherapy: after adjustment for age and co-morbid conditions, mortality was lower in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (P = 0.0003) and angiotensin receptor blockers (P = 0.002) and higher in those receiving digoxin (P = 0.003) and diuretic therapy (P = 0.009).

Conclusions: This nationwide survey highlights the very high late mortality rates in patients hospitalized for HF without a decrease in systolic function. The findings mandate a focus on better evidence-based treatment strategies to improve outcome in HF-PSF patients.

 







[1] HF-PSF = heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function


December 2006
A. Jotkowitz, A. Porath, A. Shotan, M. Mittelman, E. Grossman, R. Zimlichman, B.S. Lewis, A. Caspi, S. Gottlieb and M. Garty, for the Steering Committee of the Israeli Heart Failure National Survey 2003

Background: Despite significant advances in the therapy of heart failure, many patients still do not receive optimal treatment.

Objectives: To document the standard of care that patients hospitalized with HF[1] in Israel received during a 2 month period.

Methods: The Heart Failure Survey in Israel 2003 was a prospective 2 month survey of patients admitted to all 25 public hospitals in Israel with a diagnosis of HF.

Results: The mean age of the 4102 patients was 73 years and 43% were female. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blockers and beta blockers both declined from NYHA class I to IV (68.8% to 50.6% for ACE[2]-inhibitor/ARB[3] and 64.1% to 52.9% for beta blockers, P < 0.001 for comparisons). The percentage of patients by NYHA class taking an ACE-inhibitor or ARB and a beta blocker at hospital discharge also declined from NYHA class I to IV (47.5% to 28.8%, P < 0.002 for comparisons). The strongest predictor of being discharged with an ACE-inhibitor or ARB was the use of these medications at hospital admission. Negative predictors for their usage were age, creatinine, disease severity class, and functional status.

Conclusions: Despite the dissemination of guidelines many patients did not receive optimal care for HF. Reasons for this discrepancy need to be identified and modified.






[1] HF = heart failure



[2] ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme



[3] ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker


October 2006
R. Segal, E. Lubart, A. Leibovitz, A. Iaina and D. Caspi
 Background: Aspirin is commonly used by elderly patients. In previous studies we found transient changes in renal function induced by low doses of aspirin.

Objectives: To investigate the mechanisms of these effects.

Methods: The study group included 106 long-term care stable geriatric inpatients. Diet and drugs were kept stable. The study lasted 5 weeks; during the first 2 weeks 100 mg aspirin was administered once a day. Clinical and laboratory follow-up were performed at baseline and weekly for the next 3 weeks. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated by creatinine clearance measured in 24 hour urine and serum creatinine, and by the Cockcroft-Gault formula (C-G) equation. Uric acid clearance (Cu acid) was determined from serum concentrations and 24 hour excretion of uric acid. Patients with serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl were not included.

Results: After 2 weeks on low dose aspirin, measured creatinine and uric acid clearances decreased significantly compared with the initial values in 70% and 62% of the patients, respectively, with mean decreases of 19% and 17%, respectively (P < 0.001). Blood urea nitrogen increased by 17% while serum creatinine and uric acid concentrations increased by 4% (P < 0.05 for all). The C-G[1] values decreased by 3% (P < 0.05). After withdrawal of aspirin all parameters improved. However, 67% of the patients remained with some impairment in their measured Ccr[2], compared to baseline. Patients who reacted adversely to low dose aspirin had significantly better pre-study renal function (Ccr), lower hemoglobin and lower levels of serum albumin.

Conclusions: Short-term low dose aspirin affected renal tubular creatinine and uric acid transport in the elderly, which may result in a prolonged or permanent deterioration of the renal function. It is suggested that renal functions be monitored even with the use of low dose aspirin in elderly patients.


 





[1] C-G = Cockcroft-Gault formula

[2] Ccr = creatinine clearance


March 2006
O. Caspi and L. Gepstein

The adult human heart has limited regenerative capacity and, therefore, functional restoration of the damaged heart presents a great challenge. Despite the progress achieved in the pharmacological and surgical treatment of degenerative myocardial diseases, they are still considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Repopulation of the damaged heart with cardiomyocytes represents a novel conceptual therapeutic paradigm but is hampered by the lack of sources for human cardiomyocytes. The recent derivation of pluripotent human embryonic stem cell lines may provide a solution for this cell sourcing problem. This review will focus on the derivation of the hESC[1] lines, their mechanism of self-renewal, and their differentiation to cardiomyocytes. The possible signals and cues involved in the commitment and early differentiation of cardiomyocytes in this model will be discussed as well as the molecular, structural and electrophysiologic characteristics of the generated hESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Finally, the hurdles and challenges toward fully harnessing the potential clinical applications of these unique cells will be described.

 






[1] hESC = human embryonic stem cells


June 2003
April 2003
S. Behar, A. Battler, A. Porath, J. Leor, E. Grossman, Y. Hasin, M. Mittelman, Z. Feigenberg, C. Rahima-Maoz, M. Green, A. Caspi, B. Rabinowitz and M. Garty

Background: Little information is available on the clinical practice and implementation of guidelines in treating acute myocardial infarction patients in Israel.

Objective: To assess patient characteristics, hospital course, management, and 30 day clinical outcome of all AMI[1] patients hospitalized in Israel during a 2 month period in 2000.

Method: We conducted a prospective 2 month survey of consecutive AMI patients admitted to 82 of 96 internal medicine departments and all 26 cardiac departments operating in Israel in 2000. Data were collected uniformly by means of a hospital and 30 day follow-up form.

Results: During the survey 1,683 consecutive patients with a discharge diagnosis of AMI were included. Their mean age was 66 years; 73% were male. The electrocardiographic pattern on admission revealed ST elevation, non-ST elevation and an undetermined ECG[2] in 63%, 34% and 4% of patients respectively. Aspirin and heparin were given to 95% of patients. Beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were given to 76% and 65% of patients respectively. Among hospital survivors, 45% received lipid-lowering drugs. Thrombolytic therapy was administered in 28% of patients, coronary angiography was used in 45%, and 7% of patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The 7 and 30 day mortality rates were 7% and 11% respectively.

Conclusions: This nationwide survey shows that one-third of the AMI patients in Israel are elderly (≥ 75 years). The survey suggests that clinical guidelines for the management of patients with AMI are partially implemented in the community. Data from large surveys representing the "real world" practice are of utmost importance for the evaluation of clinical guidelines, research and educational purposes.






[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction



[2] ECG = electrocardiogram


January 2003
I. Caspi, M. Levinkopf and J. Nerubay

Background: Damage to the intervertebral disk is usually corrected by means of a prosthesis.

Objectives: To report the outcome of the artificial lumbar disk replacement with the Charité SB III disk prosthesis in 20 patients after a 48 month follow-up.

Methods: The 20 patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically during this period. Preoperative diagnosis included degenerative diskopathy in 17 patients and failed posterior conventional diskectomy in 3. The prosthesis was implanted at one level in 17 patients and bi-level implantation was performed in the other 3 patients.

Results: Eighty percent of patients reported satisfactory to very good results. Poor results were reported by four patients, one of whom underwent posterolateral fusion and another is waiting for the same operation. There were two dislocations of the prosthesis followed by immediate revision surgery.

Conclusions: Contraindications for surgery appear to be the principal cause of failure rather than the prosthesis itself.
 

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