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עמוד בית
Tue, 04.10.22

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February 2020
Moti Harats MD, Josef Haik MD MPH, Michelle Cleary RN, PhD, Ilan Vashurin MD, Uri Aviv MD and Rachel Kornhaber RN PhD

Background: Rapid and selective bromelain-based enzymatic debridement provides a non-surgical alternative for the eschar removal in deep burns, which allows for early debridement of large surface areas, accurate evaluation of burn and wound depth, and the need for skin grafting.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of application of a bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement (Nexobrid®) beyond the manufacturer’s guidelines for use in burns > 48 hours as well as chemical, electrical, and pediatric burns, and chronic wounds

Methods: This retrospective review included records collected between January 2017 and April 2019, from male and female patients aged 8 months to 99 years with deep burns or wounds treated with bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement.

Results: Of the 33 patients who received the bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement agent beyond the manufacturer’s guidelines, 25 (76%) were observed to have successful debridement of the eschar, 8 (24%) were observed to have little effect on the burn eschar. Sixteen required further surgery after debridement. Clinical data on the use of bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement agents are limited, but these results suggest the capacity to effectively debride burns > 48 hours (late presentation burns), use for pediatrics and for chemical and electrical burns, and apply to hard to heal full thickness chronic wounds.

Conclusions: Bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement was found to be an effective treatment modality beyond the recommended guidelines including late presentation burns and chronic wounds. This debridement method warrants further consideration when making clinical decisions concerning burn and wound care.

January 2019
Itay Wiser MD PHD, Roni Averbuch Sagie MD, Liran Barzilai MD, Moti Haratz MD and Josef Haik MD MPH

Background: Burn injury pathophysiology is characterized by severe catabolic state and poor glycemic control. A tight glycemic control protocol using insulin for burn victims has yielded inconsistent mortality and morbidity outcomes.

Objectives: To compare the effect of standard and tight glycemic control protocols on mortality and hypoglycemia events in critical care burn patients.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study of burn victims admitted to the burn intensive care unit between 2005 and 2011. Patients were assigned to either a standard or a tight glycemic control protocol.

Results: Of the 38 burn patients in the study, 28 were under a tight glycemic control protocol. No differences in glucose area-under-the-curve per day levels were observed between the groups (148.3 ± 16 vs. 157.8 ± 16 mg/dl in the standard and tight glycemic control protocol groups respectively, P < 0.12). The hypoglycemic event rate was higher in the tight glycemic control protocol group (46.4% vs. 0%, P < 0.008). No difference in mortality rate was noted (67.9% vs. 50%, P < 0.31). Mortality-independent risk factors found on multivariate analysis included total body surface area (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.039, 95% confidence interval  [95%CI] 1.02–1.06, P < 0.001), white blood cell count on admission (AHR 1.048, 95%CI 1.01–1.09, P < 0.02) and surgery during hospitalization (AHR 0.348, 95%CI 0.13–0.09, P < 0.03).

Conclusions: The tight glycemic control protocol in burn patients was associated with higher rates of hypoglycemic events, and no association was found with improved survival in the acute setting of burn trauma care.

December 2018
Ori Samuel Duek MD BSBME, Yeela Ben Naftali MD, Yaron Bar-Lavie MD, Hany Bahouth MD and Yehuda Ullmann MD

Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients with inhalation injuries. An increased risk of pneumonia has been demonstrated in trauma and burn patients urgently intubated in the field vs. emergency departments (EDs).

Objectives: To compare intubation setting (field vs. ED) and subsequent development of pneumonia in burn patients and to evaluate the indication for urgent intubation outside the hospital setting.

Methods: A retrospective medical records review was conducted on all intubated patients presenting with thermal (study group, 118 patients) or trauma (control group A, 74 patients) injuries and admitted to the intensive care unit of a level I trauma and burn center at a single institution during a 15 year period. Control group B (50 patients) included non-intubated facial burn patients hospitalized in the plastic surgery department.

Results: Field intubation was less frequent (37% field vs. 63% ED), although it was more frequent in larger burns (total body surface area > 50%; 43% field vs. 27% ED). More field intubated patients developed pneumonia during hospitalization (65% field vs. 36% ED [burns]; 81% field vs. 45% ED [multi-trauma]; 2% non-intubated, P < 0.05), with a significantly higher all-cause mortality (49% field vs. 24% ED, P < 0.05) and dramatically lower rates of extubation within 3 days (7% field vs. 27% ED, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Field intubation is associated with a higher risk of subsequent development of pneumonia in burn and multi-trauma patients and should be applied with caution, only when airway patency is at immediate risk.

February 2017
Yuval Krieger MD, Eldad Silberstein MD, Yaron Shoham MD and Alexander Bogdanov-Berezovsky MD
June 2013
E. Palmanovich, Y.S. Brin, L. Laver, M. Nyska and B. Kish
April 2013
N. Yanculovich, Z.H. Perry, R. Gurfinkel and L. Rosenberg

 Background: Burn injuries are extremely common and may impose a serious load on public health around the world.

 Objectives: To compare mortality rates and length of hospitalization according to the identified risk factors, extent of burn, gender and age.

Methods: In this retrospective study, data from 558 archive files of hospitalization due to burns as the diagnosis in patients of all ages, between the years 2001 and 2002, were analyzed to identify the risk factors for mortality and length of hospitalization.

Results: Males comprised 62.4% of the hospitalized burn patients. The mortality rate was 3.2% (n=18) and among them 55.6% were women. Fifty percent of the fatality cases were over 48 years old, with statistically significant correlation of mortality rate and age. Most of the fatality cases (66.7%) had burns with total burn surface area (TBSA) larger than 40%. The multiple logistic regression model showed that leukocyte count on admission, TBSA, and age are the most important predictors of mortality. Smoke inhalation was not found to be an independent risk factor.

Conclusions: Using a statistical model for estimating the mortality rate, this study found that white blood cell count at admission, TBSA, and age were the most significant predictors of mortality. 

April 2008
F. Serour, A. Gorenstein and M. Boaz

Background: Reports of burn injuries in children are usually made by highly specialized burn units. Our facility admits children with burns < 20% total body surface area, while those with major burns are transferred to burn units at tertiary care facilities.

Objectives: To review our experience with thermal burns.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all thermal burns admitted to our hospital during a 5 year period.

Results: Among 266 patients (69.2% boys) aged 3.5 ± 3.6 years, children < 3 years old were the most frequently injured (64.7%). Scalds (71.4%) were the most common type of burn. Partial thickness burns were sustained by 96.6% of children and TBSA[1] burned was 4.2 ± 3.6%. The mean hospital stay was 3.8 ± 4.5 days, and was significantly prolonged in girls (4.6 ± 4.8 vs. 3.5 ± 4.3 days, P = 0.01). Percent TBSA burned was correlated with patient age (r = 0.12, P = 0.04) and length of hospital stay (r = 0.6, P < 0.0001). Six patients (2.3%) (mean age 3.4 ± 2.3 years) were hospitalized in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit due to toxin-mediated illness.

Conclusions: Children under the age of 3 years are at increased risk for burn injury, but older children sustain more extensive injuries. Prevention and awareness are needed for child safety.






[1] TBSA = total body surface area


September 2007
J. Haik, A. Liran, A. Tessone, A. Givon, A. Orenstein and K. Peleg

Background: Burns are a major public health problem, with long hospitalization stay in both intensive care units and general wards. In Israel about 5% of all hospitalized injuries are burn injuries. There are no long-term epidemiological studies on burn injuries in adults in Israel.

Objectives: To identify risk factors for burn injuries and provide a starting point for the establishment of an effective prevention plan.

Methods: We analyzed the demographic, etiologic and clinical data of 5000 burn patients admitted to the five major hospitals with burn units in Israel during a 7 year period (1997–2003). Data were obtained from the records of the Israeli National Trauma Registry. The differences between various groups were evaluated using the chi-square test.

Results: Male gender was twice as frequent as female gender in burn patients (68.0% vs. 31.9%), and Jewish ethnicity was more common than non-Jewish (62.3% vs. 36.8%). Second and third-degree burns with body surface areas less than 10% constituted the largest group (around 50%). The largest age group was 0–1 years, constituting 22.2% of the cases. Inhalation injury was uncommon (1.9%). The most common etiologies were hot liquids (45.8%) and open fire (27.5%). Children less than 10 years old were burnt mainly by hot liquids while the main cause of burns for adults > 20 years old was an open flame. The majority of burns occurred at home (58%); around 15% were work related. The mean duration of hospitalization was 13.7 days (SD 17.7); 15.5% were in an intensive care unit with a mean duration of 12.1 days (SD 17.1). Surgical procedures became more common during the period of the study (from 13.4% in 1998 to 26.59% in 2002, average 19.8%). The mortality rate was 4.4%. We found a strong correlation between burn degree and total body surface area and mortality (0.25% mortality for 2nd to 3rd-degree burns with less than 10% TBSA[1], 5.4% for 2nd to 3rd-degree burns with 20–39% TBSA, and 96.6% for burns > 90% TBSA). The worst prognosis was for those over the age of 70 (mortality rate 35.3%) and the best prognosis was for the 0–1 year group (survival rate 99.6%).

Conclusions: The groups at highest risk were children 0–1 years old, males and non-Jews (the incidence rate among non-Jews was 1.5 times higher than their share in the general population). Those with the highest mortality rate were victims of burns > 90% TBSA and patients older than 70. Most burns occurred at home.






[1] TBSA = total body surface area


March 2006
E. Bar-Meir, D. Mendes and E. Winkler

Background: The suspicion of child abuse and neglect may arise from manifestations such as physical or psychosomatic symptoms, eating disorders, suicidal behavior, impaired parental functioning, etc. Thus the arrival of an abused or neglected child at the hospital provides an opportunity for detecting the problem and beginning a process of change. Optimal utilization of this potential depends on the awareness, diagnostic ability and cooperation of the staff.

Objectives: To assess knowledge about hospital policy, attitudes and actual behavior of hospital staff in cases of SCAN[1].

Methods: The questionnaire was adapted and distributed to a convenience sample of personnel at a children’s hospital. The questionnaire included items on knowledge of hospital policy regarding SCAN, attitudes towards inquiring about cases that appear suspicious, and behaviors in cases in which the respondent was involved. The comparison of responses to specific questions and among members of different professions was analyzed by chi-square test.

Results: Eighty-two staff members completed the questionnaires. Most of the respondents were aware of hospital policy regarding suspected abuse (86.6%), with fewer regarding suspected neglect (77.2%). Physicians were the least aware of these policies, as compared to medical students, nurses and social workers. Although most considered the issue of SCAN a responsibility of members of their own profession, 35.4% considered it primarily the responsibility of the welfare or judicial systems. Over 40% felt uncomfortable discussing suspicions with the child and nearly half felt uncomfortable discussing them with parents. The most often reported reason for this was the sense that they lacked skills or training for dealing with the issue. Despite this, when asked about actual behavior, 94.7% responded that they do try to clarify the circumstances related to the suspicious symptoms. Respondents were more likely to contact the hospital social worker than community resources (91.5% vs. 47.2%).

Conclusions: The findings highlight the need to encourage awareness, discourse and training of medical personnel about issues related to SCAN in order to maximize their potential contribution to identifying children at risk.






[1] SCAN = suspicion of child abuse and neglect


E. Bar-Meir, D. Mendes and E. Winkler

The role of skin substitutes in burn surgery and in the treatment of chronic wounds is constantly evolving. New products are regularly being developed and approved for clinical use. Studies on existing products demonstrate their effectiveness in different clinical scenarios. However, cost-related concerns, inadequate physician education, and the drawbacks that still accompany every skin substitute have resulted in limited application of these modalities. Today, burn surgeons still rely mostly on old-fashioned skin grafts. Only a few burn centers in the world actually use some of these products in their routine treatment of wounds. This review provides an up-to-date overview of the latest developments in the field of skin substitutes. We examine the major commercially available skin substitute products and their performance, and briefly review the technologies and products that are under development but have not yet become widely available.

October 2002
Craig Bjinderman, MA, Oren Lapid, MD and Gad Shaked, MD
February 2000
Ram Silfen MD, Michal Chemo-Lotan MD, Abraham Amir MD and Daniel J. Hauben MD

Background: Burn trauma occurs mostly in young children. Burn injury in the pediatric age group has multiple-aspect sequelae.

Objectives: To characterize the profile of the injured pediatric burn patient, thus targeting the most vulnerable pediatric group.

Methods: Between 1 January and 31 December 1996, a total of 9,235 pediatric patients were admitted for various traumatic injuries (burns, lacerations, fractures, etc.) to the Emergency Medicine Department of Schneider Children’s Medical Center. We conducted a retrospective study of the patients’ charts, including demographic data, which were stored in a computerized database, for statistical evaluation. The characteristics of pediatric burn patients were examined and compared with other pediatric trauma patients.

Results: Of the total patient population, 282 (3.1%) suffered from burns (37% females, 63% males). The most frequent burn injury was scald burn (58%). The pediatric group that was most exposed to burns was 13–18 month old males.

Conclusions: Having identified the high risk group among the pediatric burn patients, we suggest that prevention programs be directed towards this group in order to reduce further risk of burn injury.

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