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עמוד בית
Thu, 30.11.23

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March 2023
Dorit Shitenberg MD, Barak Pertzov MD, Moshe Heching MD, Yael Shostak MD, Osnat Shtraichman MD, Dror Rosengarten MD, Moshe Yeshurun MD, Yury Peysakhovich MD, Yaron Barac MD, Mordechai R. Kramer MD

Background: Late-onset pulmonary complications can occur following hematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In allogeneic HSCT these complications are often associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Lung transplantation (LTx) often remains the only viable therapeutic option in these patients.

Objectives: To describe our experience with LTx due to GVHD after HSCT and to compare the long-term survival of this group of patients to the overall survival of our cohort of LTx recipients for other indications.

Methods: We retrospectively retrieved all data on patients who had undergone LTx for end-stage lung disease as a sequela of allogeneic HSCT, between 1997 and 2021, at Rabin Medical Center in Israel.

Results: A total of 15 of 850 patients (1.7%) from our cohort of LTx recipients fulfilled the criteria of LTx as a sequela of late pulmonary complication after allogeneic HSCT. The median age at the time of HSCT was 33 years (median 15–53, range 3–60). The median time between HSCT and first signs of chronic pulmonary GVHD was 24 months (interquartile range [IQR] 12–80). The median time from HSCT to LTx was 96 months (IQR 63–120). Multivariate analysis showed that patients transplanted due to GVHD had similar survival compared to patients who were transplanted for other indications.

Conclusions: LTx for GVHD after allogeneic HSCT constitutes an important treatment strategy. The overall survival appears to be comparable to patients after LTx for other indications.

February 2019
Lital Oz-Alcalay MD, Shai Ashkenazi MD MSc, Aharona Glatman-Freedman MD MPH, Sarit Weisman-Demri MD, Alexander Lowenthal MD and Gilat Livni MD MHA

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related bronchiolitis is a common cause of morbidity in young infants. The recommendations for its passive prevention by palivizumab are currently under intensive debate.

Objectives: To elucidate the optimal prevention strategy by studying the morbidity of RSV disease under the current recommendations for palivizumab prophylaxis in Israel.

Methods: We collected demographic and clinical data of all children hospitalized with microbiologically confirmed RSV bronchiolitis during 2015–2016 at Schneider Children's Medical Center. The seasonality of RSV disease was also studied for the period 2010–2017 in sentinel clinics scattered throughout Israel.

Results: Of the 426 hospitalized children, 106 (25%) had underlying diseases but were not eligible for palivizumab prophylaxis according to the current criteria in Israel. Their course was severe, with a mean hospital stay of 6.7 days and a 12% admission rate to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Palivizumab-eligible children who did not receive the prophylaxis before hospitalization had the most severe course, with 22% admitted to the PICU. More children were diagnosed with RSV disease in October than in March among both hospitalized and ambulatory children; 44% of the palivizumab-eligible hospitalized children were admitted in the last 2 weeks of October, before 1 November which is the recommended date for starting palivizumab administration in Israel.

Conclusions: According to the results of the present study we suggest advancing RSV prophylaxis in Israel from 1 November to mid-October. The precise palivizumab-eligible categories should be reconsidered.

November 2018
Vered Nir MD, Michal Gur MD, Yazeed Toukan MD, Fahed Hakim MD, Arcadi Vachyan MD and Lea Bentur MD

Background: Recurrence of tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is reported in 8–20% patients. Factors that may influence recurrence of fistula beyond the postoperative period are not clear.

Objectives: To evaluate possible factors associated with recurrence of TEF beyond the immediate postoperative period.

Methods: A single center, retrospective comparison of patients with and without recurrence of TEF was conducted. Medical records of patients previously operated for TEF who were followed in our pediatric pulmonary institute between January 2007 and December 2016 were reviewed.

Results: The medical records of 74/77 patients previously operated for TEF were evaluated. Nine patients (12%) had a recurrence of TEF and 65 did not. These groups had similar age and gender distribution and similar prevalence of VACTERL association. In addition, they had similar length of atretic gap, rates of thoracoscopic surgery, rates of prolonged need for respiratory assistance post-surgery, and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms. Notably, the patients who had recurrent TEF had significantly more hospitalizations for respiratory symptoms (P = 0.011) and significantly more episodes of clinical bronchiolitis per patient (P < 0.0001). In addition, the patients with recurrent TEF had significantly more episodes of positive polymerase chain reaction for viruses (P = 0.009).

Conclusions: Hospitalizations for respiratory symptoms as well as clinical and/or viral bronchiolitis are associated with recurrence of TEF. Even though cause and effect cannot be established, these patients should undergo meticulous evaluation for the possibility of recurrence of TEF.

December 2017
Nili Elior MD, Diana Tasher MD, Elli Somekh MD, Michal Stein MD, Orna Schwartz Harari MA and Avigdor Mandelberg MD

Background: Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment is unavailable to large populations worldwide.

Objectives: To determine the bacterial contamination and electrolyte concentrations in homemade (HM-HS) vs. pharmacy made (PM-HS).

Methods: We conducted three double-blind consecutive trials: 50 boiled-water homemade 3%-HS (B-HM-HS) bottles and 50 PM-HS. The bottles were cultured after 48 hours. Electrolyte concentrations were measured in 10 bottles (5 per group). Forty bottles (20 per group) were distributed to volunteers for simulation of realistic treatment by drawing 4 ml HS three times daily. From each bottle, 4 ml samples were cultured after 1, 5, and 7 days. Volunteers prepared 108 bottles containing 3%-HS, sterilizing them using a microwave oven (1100–1850W). These bottles were cultured 24 hours, 48 hours, and 1 month after preparation.

Results: Contamination rates of B-HM-HS and PM-HS after 48 hours were 56% and 14%, respectively (P = 0.008). Electrolyte concentrations were similar: 3.7% ± 0.4 and 3.5% ± 0.3, respectively (P = NS). Following a single day of simulation B-HM-HS bottles were significantly more contaminated than PM-HS bottles: 75% vs. 20%, respectively (P < 0.01). By day 7, 85% of PM-HS bottles and 100% of B-HM-HS bottles were contaminated (P = 0.23). All 108 microwave-oven prepared bottles (MICRO-HS) were sterile, which was significantly better than the contamination rate of B-HM-HS and PM-HS (P < 0.001). Calculated risk for a consecutive MICRO-HS to be infected was negligible.

Conclusion: Microwave preparation provides sterile HS with adequate electrolyte concentrations, and is a cheap, fast, and widely available method to prepare HS.


November 2013
M. Dotan, L. Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Z. Samra, G. Livni, H. Yarden-Bilavsky, J.b Amir and E. Bilavsky
 Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract disease and hospitalization in infants and young children. Infants of multiple births, which are often premature, might be more susceptible to developing a more severe RSV infection than singletons.

Objective: To assess the impact of multiple births on the severity of RSV infection and define risk factors for acquiring RSV infection in infants of multiple birth.

Methods: Clinical data on infants hospitalized with RSV infection between 2008 and 2010 were retrospectively collected.

Results: Twins comprised 7.6% (66/875) of hospitalized infants with RSV bronchiolitis during the study period. Infants in the twin group were younger (122.4 ± 131.7 vs. 204.5 ± 278.8 days, P = 0.014), had a lower mean gestational age (35.3 ± 2.6 vs. 38.6 ± 2.5 weeks, P < 0.001), and were more likely to have been born prematurely compared with singleton infants (65.6% vs. 13%, P < 0.001). On a multivariable logistic regression analysis, young age, early gestational age and male gender were the only variables identified as risk factors for pediatric intensive care unit admission (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). In contrast, the mere fact of a child being a twin was not found to be a significant risk factor for disease severity. In addition, if one twin is hospitalized due to RSV infection, the other has a 34% chance of also being hospitalized with bronchiolitis. Young age was a significant risk factor for hospitalization of the second twin (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that twins hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis do not have an increased risk for severe infection as compared to singletons. However, a twin of an infant hospitalized with RSV infection has a considerable risk of also being hospitalized with bronchiolitis, thus close monitoring is recommended. 

January 2010
E. Bilavsky, H. Yarden-Bilavsky D.S. Shouval, N. Fisch, B-Z. Garty, S. Ashkenazi and J. Amir

Background: Secondary thrombocytosis is associated with a variety of clinical conditions, one of which is lower respiratory tract infection. However, reports on thrombocytosis induced by viral infections are scarce.

Objectives: To assess the rate of thrombocytosis (platelet count > 500 x 109/L) in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis and to investigate its potential role as an early marker of respiratory syncytial virus infection.

Methods: Clinical data on 469 infants aged ≤ 4 months who were hospitalized for bronchiolitis were collected prospectively and compared between RSV[1]-positive and RSV-negative infants.

Results: The rate of thrombocytosis was significantly higher in RSV-positive than RSV-negative infants (41.3% vs. 29.2%, P = 0.031). The odds ratio of an infant with bronchiolitis and thrombocytosis to have a positive RSV infection compared to an infant with bronchiolitis and a normal platelet count was 1.7 (P = 0.023, 95% confidence interval 1.07–2.72). There was no significant difference in mean platelet count between the two groups.

Conclusions: RSV-positive bronchiolitis in hospitalized young infants is associated with thrombocytosis.

[1] RSV = respiratory syncytial virus

September 2009
A.I. Eidelman, O. Megged, R. Feldman and O. Toker

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is the single leading cause of pediatric admissions for infants in the first year of life, presenting regularly in epidemic proportions in the winter months and impacting in a major way on pediatric inpatient services.

Objective: To quantitate the burden of RSV[1] disease on a pediatric service with the purpose of providing a database for proper health planning and resource allocation.

Methods: We conducted a prospective 5 year study of documented RSV infections in a single pediatric service. RSV disease was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence testing of nasal swabs from all hospitalized cases of bronchiolitis.

Results: On average, 147 ± 17 cases of RSV bronchiolitis were admitted annually in the November–March RSV season, representing 7%–9% of admissions and 10%–14% of hospital days. There was a consistent male preponderance of admissions (55–64%) and 15–23% of admissions were patients less than 1 month old. In peak months RSV cases accounted for as many of 40% of the hospitalized infants and was the leading cause of over-occupancy (up to 126%) in the pediatric ward during the winter,

Conclusions: RSV infection is a major burden for pediatric inpatient services during the winter season. This recurrent and predictable “epidemic,” which regularly leads to over-occupancy, requires increased manpower (nursing) and resources (beds, pulse oximeters) to facilitate proper care. Since this annual event is not a surprise nor an unexpected peak, but rather a cyclical predictable epidemiological phenomenon, proper planning and allocation of services are crucial.

[1] RSV = respiratory syncytial virus

March 2006
G. Tal, K. Cesar, A. Oron, S. Houri, A. Ballin and A. Mandelberg

Background: We recently published preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of hypertonic saline in infants with viral bronchiolitis.

Objective: To further establish the efficacy of nebulized hypertonic saline in these infants

Methods: In a continuing, second-year randomized, double-blind controlled trial, an additional 41 infants (age 2.6 ± 1 months) hospitalized with viral bronchiolitis were recruited during the winter of 2001–2002. The infants received inhalation of 1.5 mg epinephrine dissolved either in 4 ml normal (0.9%) saline (Group I, n=20) or 4 ml hypertonic (3%) saline (Group II, n=22). The therapy was repeated three times daily until discharge. Pooling our 2 years of experience (2000–2002), a total of 93 hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis were recruited; 45 were assigned to Group I and 48 to Group II.

Results: The clinical scores at baseline were 7.6 ± 0.7 for Group I vs. 7.4 ± 1.3 for Group II (P = NS). However, the clinical scores at days 1 and 2 after inhalation differed significantly between the two groups, invariably favoring Group II: 7 ± 1 vs. 6.25 ± 1.1 (P < 0.05), 6.45 ± 1 vs. 5.35 ± 1.35 (P < 0.05), respectively. Adding aerosolized 3% saline to 1.5 mg epinephrine reduced the hospitalization stay from 3.5 ± 1.7 days in Group I to 2.6 ± 1.4 in Group II (P < 0.05). The pooled data of both years revealed that adding 3% saline to the inhalation mixture decreased hospitalization stay from 3.6 ± 1.6 to 2.8 ± 1.3 days (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: This second-year experience and our 2 year pooled data analysis strengthen the evidence that the combination of 3% saline/1.5 mg epinephrine benefits hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis

February 2000
Itamar Offer, MD, Shai Ashkenazi, MD, Gilat Livni, MD and Itamar Shalit, MD

Background: Bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus is one of the major causes of hospitalization in young children, especially during the winter.  Recent evidence has shown that pharmacological treatment, especially nebulized epinephrine, in addition to the traditional supportive treatment, can alleviate symptoms and shorten hospitalization, but this approach is not yet widespread.

Objectives: To determine whether the management of bronchiolitis in Israel is moving toward a stronger emphasis on pharmacological care.

Methods: A questionnaire on the diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis was completed by 27 heads of pediatric departments throughout Israel.  The questionnaire dealt with the frequency of usage of diagnostic and selected therapeutic procedures.

Results: Chest X-ray and arterial blood gases are commonly used as a diagnostic aid in more than 75% of the departments, and antibiotics are prescribed routinely in 24%.  Corticosteroids are still in use: 48% use systemic steroids, and 19% nebulized steroids.  Nebulized epinephrine is used in 22% of the departments, while nebulized beta-agonists are used frequently in two-thirds of the departments.

Conclusions: Despite convincing data that beta-agonists and steroids have no positive effect on the outcome of bronchiolitis on the one hand, and that nebulized epinephrine has advantages in children on the other, we found significant use of the former two agents and sparse use of the latter.  Greater awareness is needed among pediatricians, and measures should be introduced to incorporate the new recommendations, with further study of the effect of the old and new drugs on bronchiolitis.


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