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עמוד בית
Thu, 02.02.23

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April 2022
Nir Levi MD, Linda Shavit MD, Adam Farkas MD, Joad Atrash MD, Yigal Helvitz MD, Yaacov Esayag MD, and Talya Wolak MD
Natalia Gavrilova MD, Maria Lukashenko MD, Leonid Churilov MD, and Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MaACR
April 2021
Tarek Saadi MD, Johad Khoury MD, Widad Toukan MD, Rimma Krimasky, Ella Veitsman MD, Yaacov Baruch MD, Diana Gaitini MD, and Nira Beck-Razi MD

Background: Point shear-wave elastography (pSWE) is a new method to assess the degree of liver fibrosis. It has been shown to be effective in detecting stiffness in viral hepatitis.

Objectives: To determine the feasibility of pSWE for assessing liver stiffness and fibrosis in liver diseases of different etiologies.

Methods: This prospective single-center study included a population of adult patients with chronic liver diseases from different etiologies, who were scheduled for liver biopsy, and a control group of healthy adults who prospectively underwent pSWE. Ten consecutive pSWE measurements of the liver were performed using a Philips iU22 ultrasound system. Stiffness degree was compared to liver biopsy results. Fibrosis degree was staged according to METAVIR scoring system.

Results: The study group was comprised of 202 patients who underwent liver biopsy and pSWE test and a control group consisting of 14 healthy adults who underwent pSWE for validation. In the study group, the median stiffness was 5.35 ± 3.37 kilopascal (kPa). The median stiffness for F0–1, F2, F3, and F4 as determined by liver biopsy results were 4.9 kPa, 5.4 kPa, 5.7 kPa, and 8 kPa, respectively. The median stiffness in the control group was 3.7 ± 0.6 kPa. Subgroup analyses were conducted for viral hepatitis vs. non-viral hepatitis and steatohepatitis vs. non-steatohepatitis groups.

Conclusions: pSWE is a reproducible method for assessing liver stiffness and is in a linear relationship with fibrosis degree as seen in pathology. Compared with patients with non-significant fibrosis, healthy controls showed significantly lower values

December 2020
Amir Bar-Shai MD, Rafael Y. Brzezinski BMedSc, Ahsen Al Qaied MD, Philip Tsenter MD, Svetlana Kolontaevsky MD, and Anna Breslavsky MD

Background: Lung percutaneous needle biopsy (PNB) is routinely used to diagnose lung cancer. The most prevalent complications of PNB are pneumothorax and bleeding. Differences in characteristics of medical procedures between rural and urban hospitals are well known.

Objectives: To compare characteristics of patients and lesions between two hospitals and to evaluate whether lung PNB complications differ in rural vs. urban settings.

Methods: The authors examined case records of 561 patients who underwent lung biopsy at two different medical centers in Israel: Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (urban) and Barzilai Medical Center (rural). To evaluate the complication rates, the authors analyzed findings from chest X-ray performed 2 hours after biopsy and computed tomography (CT) images at the site of biopsy.

Results: The study comprised 180 patients who underwent lung biopsy at Barzilai and 454 at Sourasky. The rate of pneumothorax did not differ between centers (12% at Barzilai and 19% at Sourasky, P = 0.08). Distance from pleura was positively correlated to pneumothorax occurrence in both centers; however, neither lesion size nor lesion locus was found to be a risk factor for pneumothorax. Mild bleeding at the biopsy site occurred equally at Barzilai and Sourasky (32% vs. 36%, P = 0.3, respectively). Furthermore, immediate CT post-biopsy at Barzilai showed 95% negative predictive value, showing that a CT scan performed immediately after lung biopsy cannot replace the routine follow-up chest X-ray in predicting iatrogenic pneumothorax.

Conclusions: CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsies are comparable between rural and urban hospitals regarding procedure characteristics and complication rates.

Rashed Shkeiri MD, Sonia Schneer MD, Amir Avarmovich MD, and Yochai Adir MD

Background: Transbronchial cryobiopsy (TBC) has recently emerged for the assessment of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) as a less invasive procedure than surgical lung biopsy. The diagnostic usefulness and safety of TBC is still controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety and diagnostic yield of TBC in a peripheral community medical center.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients with DPLD who underwent TBC from January 2015 to January 2020.

Results: The study comprised 97 patients. Three samples were taken from each patient with an average diameter of 0.59 cm. The histologic diagnostic yield was 54% (52 of 97 procedures). The most frequent histopathologic diagnoses were usual interstitial pneumonia in 13 patients (13%). Bleeding was observed in 19 cases (19%) and only one patient (1%) had severe bleeding. Pneumothorax developed in seven patients (7%) and one patient (1%) suffered from Interstitial lung disease exacerbation.

Conclusions: TBC was found to be safe; however, the diagnostic yield was rather low compared to other studies, which emphasizes the need for interstitial lung disease centers with expert in this field.

Michael Peled MD, Jair Bar MD, Liat Avni MD, Sumit Chatterji MD, Dafna Somech MD, Addie Dvir MD, Lior Soussan-Gutman MD, and Amir Onn MD

Background: Guidelines recommend testing for multiple biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors. Blood-based liquid biopsy analyzing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) could be used in addition to tumor biopsy genotyping, especially if tissue/time are limiting.

Objectives: To investigate the clinical utility of early cfDNA analysis (Guardant360® CDx) in treatment-naïve NSCLC patients.

Methods: A prospective cohort of treatment-naïve patients with metastatic NSCLC who underwent tumor and cfDNA analysis between 12/2018 and 2/2019 were included.

Results: Ten patients were included: 6 males, median age 70.5 years (range 48–87), 8 prior smokers. Liquid biopsy was sent when cancer cells were detected in the biopsy specimen. Median time from diagnosis to receiving the report on the last biomarker from the tumor biopsy was 20 days (range 9–34); median time from blood draw to receiving the cfDNA findings was 9 days (range 7–12). The median difference between the cfDNA and the tumor analysis reports was 20 days (range 9–28). Actionable biomarkers were identified in four patients by both the biopsy analysis and the cfDNA analysis (2cases with EGFR mutations, one with ROS1 fusion, and one with EML4-ALK fusion for whom the biopsy analysis also identified an EGFR mutation not detected in the cfDNA analysis). Overall, eight patients received treatment (2 died before treatment initiation). Three patients received biomarker-based treatment (1 osimertinib, 1 alectinib, and 1 crizotinib).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that cfDNA analysis should be ordered by the pulmonologists early in the evaluation of patients with NSCLC, which might complement the tumor biopsy.

November 2020
Noa Sabag MD Alexander Yakobson MD and Eldad Silberstein MD

Malignant melanoma is one of the most extensively studied diseases in the last few decades. The outcome of these studies and the treatment changes that followed have dramatically altered the landscape of not only melanoma therapy, but all solid tumors. In this review we presented the recent advances of surgical and adjuvant management of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma. This review focuses on stage III melanoma since this stage of disease requires surgical treatment as well as adjuvant therapy

Katya Dolnikov MD, Gai Milo MD, Suheir Assady MD, Robert Dragu MD, Yolanda Braun-Moscovici MD, and Alexandra Balbir-Gurman MD
May 2020
April 2019
Elisabeth Dramsdahl MD, Dag Gundersen Storla MD and Marco Harari MD

Background: Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for patients presenting with rheumatic diseases has been shown to produce better results in a warm climate. Dead Sea Climatotherapy (DSC) has been successfully used for decades to treat many patients with rheumatic diseases.

Objectives: To evaluate the short-term improvement of Norwegian patients who presented with chronic pain following a multidisciplinary biopsychosocial approach to treatment combined with DSC. Both objective and subjective clinical parameters were evaluated.

Methods: This retrospective study included a statistical analysis of 938 patients presenting with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis (n=105), osteoarthritis (n=342), fibromyalgia (n=374), and other orthopedic conditions (n=117). Clinical assessments were conducted before and after a 3 week treatment program at the Dead Sea.

Results: Six parameters improved significantly in the rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis group as well as in the osteoarthritis group. Five parameters in the fibromyalgia group improved, while two improved in the orthopedic conditions group. Overall, major significant changes occurred in the pain self-assessment, joint motility, and daily activities scores.

Conclusions: A 3-week multidisciplinary biopsychosocial program combined with DSC induced positive changes in the clinical parameters of Norwegian patients presenting with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

March 2019
Ortal Fallek Boldes BSc, Shani Dahan MD, Yahel Segal MD, Dana Ben-Ami Shor MD, Robert K. Huber MD, Iris Barshack MD, Yuval Horowitz MD, Gad Segal MD and Amir Dagan MD

Background: Pericardial biopsies are rarely performed during the diagnosis and management of pericardial diseases. The circumstances and clinical profile of patients undergoing pericardial biopsies are largely uncharacterized.



Objectives: To examine the circumstances in which pericardial biopsies are obtained and to evaluate their diagnostic yield.



Methods: We studied a total of 100 cases (71% males, mean age 60.8 years, range 8.1–84.5 years) of surgically resected pericardium specimens obtained from 2000 to 2015 at Sheba Medical Center, the largest medical center in Israel. Patients were classified into groups according to four major histological etiologies: idiopathic pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, malignant pericarditis, and post-cardiac injury syndrome (PCIS). The clinical history and course, laboratory, echocardiography, and histological results were reviewed retrospectively.



Results: Causes of pericarditis according to histological definitions included idiopathic pericarditis (29%), constrictive pericarditis (29%), PCIS (9%), and malignant pericarditis (26%). Overall sensitivity of the pericardial biopsy in patients with malignancy was 57.7%. During the study period, we found a trend toward an increased number of biopsies due to constrictive pericarditis and PCIS, along with a decrease in the number of biopsies performed in patients with malignant or idiopathic pericarditis. The diagnosis following biopsy did not change for any of the patients.



Conclusions: Our findings suggest a low diagnostic yield from pericardial biopsies, especially in malignant pericarditis. This conclusion, along with novel therapies, resulted in the infrequent use of pericardial biopsy in recent years.

November 2018
Tatiana Dorfman MD, Mariya Neymark MD, Julia Begal MD and Yoram Kluger MD FACS

Background: Enlarged lymph nodes (ELN) pose a great diagnostic challenge. They may represent the first clinical finding of a hematologic disease or other malignancy and may be an indication of a wide range of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Because many patients undergo percutaneous biopsy, surgical excisional biopsy is not often considered.

Objectives: To analyze indications for a patient's referral for surgical biopsy of ELN and diagnostic steps to follow until referral, and to determine the number of ELN.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of prospectively collected data of patients who underwent surgical biopsy of ELN from January 2004 to December 2013.

Results: Of 118 patients who underwent surgical biopsy of ELN, only 52 (44%) had needle biopsy (NB) before referral. Lymphoma was diagnosed by NB in 24 (46%) of the referred patients. In patients with a previous diagnosis of lymphoma, NB of ELN yielded a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 79%. In patients with lymphadenopathy but with no previous history of malignancy, sensitivity for lymphoma was 68% and specificity was 71%. The investigative time period until final diagnosis was 3 months in patients who had NB but only 1.25 months in patients who were referred directly for surgery (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Surgical biopsy of ELN still has a place in the clinical evaluation of patients with ELN. Surgery may significantly reduce the length of investigation and prevent unnecessary diagnostics, especially in patients with suspected lymphoma recurrence.

August 2018
Amihai Rottenstreich MD, Adi Schwartz, Yosef Kalish MD, Ela Shai PhD, Liat Appelbaum MD, Tali Bdolah-Abram and Itamar Sagiv MD

Background: Risk factors for bleeding complications after percutaneous kidney biopsy (PKB) and the role of primary hemostasis screening are not well established.

Objectives: To determine the role of primary hemostasis screening and complication outcomes among individuals who underwent PKB.

Methods: We reviewed data of 456 patients who underwent PKB from 2010 to 2016 in a large university hospital. In 2015, bleeding time (BT) testing was replaced by light transmission aggregometry (LTA) as a pre-PKB screening test.

Results: Of the 370 patients who underwent pre-PKB hemostasis screening by BT testing, prolonged BT was observed in 42 (11.3%). Of the 86 who underwent LTA, an abnormal response was observed in 14 (16.3%). Overall, 155 (34.0%) patients experienced bleeding: 145 (31.8%) had minor events (hemoglobin fall of 1–2 g/dl, macroscopic hematuria, perinephric hematoma without the need for transfusion or intervention) and 17 (3.7%) had major events (hemoglobin fall > 2 g/dl, blood transfusion or further intervention). Abnormal LTA response did not correlate with bleeding (P = 0.80). In multivariate analysis, only prolonged BT (P = 0.0001) and larger needle size (P = 0.005) were identified as independent predictors of bleeding.

Conclusions: Bleeding complications following PKB were common and mostly minor, and the risk of major bleeding was low. Larger needle size and prolonged BT were associated with a higher bleeding risk. Due to the relatively low risk of major bleeding and lack of benefit of prophylactic intervention, the use of pre-PKB hemostasis screening remains unestablished.

July 2018
Tima Davidson, Michal M. Ravid, Ella Nissan, Mirriam Sklair-Levy, Johnatan Nissan and Bar Chikman

Background: When a breast lesion is suspected based on a physical exam, mammography, or ultrasound, a stereotactic core needle biopsy (CNB) is usually performed to help establish a definitive diagnosis. CNBs are far less invasive than excisional biopsies, with no need for general anesthetics or hospitalization, and no recovery period. However, since only samples of the mass are removed in a CNB and not the whole mass, sampling errors can occur.

Objectives: To compare the degree of agreement between the pathological data from CNBs and excisional biopsies from a single tertiary referral hospital.

Methods: The concordance of pathological data was compared in patients who underwent CNBs and had their surgical procedures at the same medical center.

Results: From the 894 patients who underwent CNBs, 254 (28.4%) underwent subsequent excisional biopsies at our medical center. From the total of 894 patients, 227 (25.3%) who underwent a CNB were diagnosed with a malignancy, with the rest of the CNBs being diagnosed as benign pathologies. The pathological findings in the CNBs and in the excisional biopsies concurred in 232/254 (91.3%) of the cases.

Conclusions: A CNB to confirm mammographic or clinical findings of breast lesions is an accurate method to establish a pathological diagnosis of breast lesions. The accuracy is higher for invasive carcinomas than for non-invasive cancers. Excisional biopsies are necessary for lesions with anticipated sampling errors or when the core needle biopsy findings are discordant with clinical or mammographic findings.

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