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עמוד בית
Wed, 19.06.24

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January 2013
U. Yoel, T. Abu-Hammad, A. Cohen, A. Aizenberg, D. Vardy and P. Shvartzman
 Background: The rate of adherence to treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN) and lipid metabolic disorder (LMD) is significantly lower in the Bedouin population compared with the Jewish population in southern Israel.

Objectives: To investigate the reasons for non-adherence associated with cardiovascular risk factors among Bedouins.

Methods: We identified Bedouin patients with HTN, DM or LMD from medical records and randomly selected 443 high adherent and 403 low adherent patients. Using trained interviewers we conducted in-depth structured interviews regarding knowledge and attitudes to chronic illness and its treatment, health services evaluation, and socio-demographic factors.

Results: The study population included 99 high and 101 low adherent patients. More low adherent patients agreed that traditional therapy can replace prescribed medications for DM, HTN or LMD (47% vs. 26%, P < 0.01), and 10% used only traditional medications. Also, more low adherent patients believed that the side effects of prescribed drugs are actually worse than the disease itself (65% vs. 47%, P < 0.05), and 47% cited this as a reason for discontinuing drug treatment (47% vs. 31%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in this minority population the basis for non-adherence derives directly from patients' perceptions of chronic disease and drug treatment. A focused intervention should emphasize the importance of early evidence-based drug therapy with open patient-physician dialogue on the meaning of chronic disease and the side effects of prescribed drugs.

June 2012
E. Silberstein, T. Silberstein, E. Elhanan, E. Bar-Droma, A. Bogdanov-Berezovsky and L. Rosenberg

Background: Clefts of the lip and palate are the most common significant congenital birth anomaly of orofacial region. The condition may vary from a minor easily correctable cleft to a significant functional and cosmetic incapacitation. This is the first epidemiological study of orofacial clefts in the Negev region in Israel.

Objectives: To establish the frequency of cleft lip and palate in the population of the Negev, characterize the demographic features of affected individuals and find possible risk factors, compare the risk in two major population groups: Bedouin and Jewish in a well-defined geographic area, and determine whether there is a change over time in the birth of babies with facial clefts.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective survey of the Soroka Medical Center archives. The sample population comprised all 131,218 babies born at Soroka during the 11 year period 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2006. Statistical tests used Pearson's chi-square test, Student’s t-test and Spearman's correlation coefficient test according to the type of parameter tested.

Results: During the study period 140 babies were born with orofacial cleft. The overall incidence of cleft lip and palate was 1.067/1000. The incidence of facial clefts was 1.54/1000 among Bedouins and 0.48/1000 among Jews (P < 0.001). Cleft palate was significantly more frequent in female than male babies (P = 0.002). Over the study years we found a significant decrease in the incidence of facial clefts in the Bedouin population, with Spearman's correlation coefficient rank -0.9 (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: A significant decrease occurred in the incidence of facial clefts among Bedouin. This change may be attributed to prenatal care in the Bedouin Negev population as part of social and health-related behavior changes. The reduction in rates of congenital malformations, however, does not mean a reduction in the number of cases in a growing population. Also, with a modern western lifestyle, the expectancy and demand for reconstructive facial surgery and comprehensive care for these children are on the rise.

June 2011
M. Abu-Tailakh, S. Weitzman and Y. Henkin

Background: The incidence and prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) among Bedouins living in the Negev region was very low until the 1960s. During the past 50 years this pattern has changed: in parallel to the changes in lifestyle and nutrition in the Bedouin population, a rapid increase in incidence and mortality from CHD occurred. The relationship between the rise in CHD incidence and the degree of urbanization in this population has not been investigated to date. The study hypothesis was that the prevalence of risk factors and the outcome of myocardial infarction in Bedouins differ between those settled in permanent villages and those remaining in unrecognized villages.

Objectives: To compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital management of a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in two Bedouin groups: those residing in permanent villages versus those residing in unrecognized villages.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of in-hospital data of 352 patients admitted with a first AMI during the period 1997–2003 to Soroka Medical Center, the only medical facility in the region.

Results: There were no differences between the two groups regarding the major cardiovascular risk factors and outcome. A relatively greater number of patients from urban areas underwent catheterization of any sort during their hospitalization (primary, rescue, and risk stratification; P = 0.038). No significant difference was found between the two groups in the type of catheterization performed (P = 0.279).

Conclusions: We found no differences in the clinical characteristics and in-hospital management of patients with AMI between Bedouins residing in permanent villages versus unrecognized villages.

May 2009
L.S. Avnon, A. Smolikov and Y. Almog

Background: The most common and most serious complication of varicella (chickenpox) in adults is pneumonia, which can lead to severe respiratory failure. Varicella pneumonia is associated with considerable morbidity and even death.

Objectives: To summarize our experience with varicella pneumonia in terms of clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics as well as risk factors, management and outcome.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort survey in our facility from 1995 to 2008.

Results: Our cohort comprised 21 patients with varicella pneumonia, of whom 19 (90%) were men; their mean age was 35 ± 10.5 years. Nineteen patients (90%) were Bedouins and 18 (86%) were smokers. Eleven (52%) were admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit; 3 of them required mechanical ventilation and the remaining 10 (48%) were admitted to the general medical ward. Median length of stay was 6 ± 7.7 days. Hypoxemia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase on admission were associated with respiratory failure. Radiological manifestations were variable and nine patients exhibited characteristic findings. All but one patient were treated with acyclovir. All patients fully recovered.

Conclusions: In southern Israel varicella pneumonia is primarily a disease of young male Bedouins who are smokers. Severity ranges from mild disease to severe, resulting at times in respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Prognosis is favorable with complete recovery.

September 2007
O. Tamir, R. Peleg, J. Dreiher, T. Abu-Hammad, Y. Abu Rabia, M. Abu Rashid, A. Eisenberg, D. Sibersky, A. Kazanovich, E. Khalil, D. Vardy and P. Shvartzman

Background: Until three decades ago coronary heart disease and stroke were considered rare in the Israeli Bedouin population. Today, this population shows increasing high prevalence compared to the Jewish population.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors among the Bedouin (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia), and to assess compliance with follow-up tests and drug treatment.

Methods: The study included all listed patients aged 20 years and older in eight clinics in major Bedouin towns, and in two large teaching clinics in Beer Sheva (Jewish population). Risk factor data were extracted from the clinics' computerized databases. For those diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia, drug purchasing data were collected from the pharmacy database to determine compliance with treatment, and from the central laboratory mainframe (HbA1c and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol) to evaluate follow-up and control.

Results: A significantly higher prevalence of diabetes in all age groups was found in the Bedouin population compared to the Jewish population; age-adjusted results show a prevalence of 12% vs. 8% respectively (P < 0.001). The prevalence of dyslipidemia and age-adjusted hypertension was lower among Bedouins (5.8% vs. 18.2%, P < 0.01 and 17% vs. 21%, P < 0.001 respectively). Two-thirds of hypertensive Bedouin patients and 72.9% of diabetic Bedouin patients were not compliant with treatment. For dyslipidemia only 10.4% of the Bedouins were compliant compared with 28.2% in the Jewish population (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Compliance with drug therapy and follow-up tests was found to be a major problem in the Bedouin population.

September 2002
Yunis Abou-Rbiah, MD and Shimon Weitzman, MD MPH

Background: Previous studies have shown a low prevalence of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors among Bedouins living in the Negev Desert. New evidence suggests that diabetes is becoming highly prevalent.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes in the town of Rahat, describe the cardiovascular risk factor profile and therapeutic modalities for diabetes and related conditions in this population, and compare these findings with those in the Jewish population.

Methods: A complete record review of all known diabetic individuals aged 35 and older registered at the Rahat Clinic (Clalit Health Services) was carried out by a trained nurse and a research assistant. Information on demographic, anthropometric and clinical characteristics was abstracted. Data on prescribed hypoglycemic agents and other medications were also obtained.

Results: Of the 316 known diabetic patients in the clinic, complete data were available for 271 (85.8 %). The prevalence of known diabetes was 7.3% in males and 9.9% in females. Females had a significantly higher body mass index than males (30.9 vs. 29, P < 0.002), but lower levels of HBA1c and microalbuminuria. Oral hypoglycemic medications were taken by 69% of women and 76% of men, and insulin by 19% of women and 15% of men.

Conclusions: Compared with data on Jewish diabetic patients in the Negev and Israel, the overall prevalence of diabetes in the population of Rahat is higher, but their cardiovascular risk profile is better, except for obesity. These findings support the hypothesis that diabetes and obesity have become major public health problems among Bedouins.

April 2002
Pnina Romem, MmedSc, RN, Haya Reizer, BN, RN, Yitzhak Romem, MD and Shifra Shvarts, PhD

Southern Sinai, a mountainous desolated arid area, is inhabited by Bedouin nomad tribes composed of Arabic-speaking Moslems. Until the Six Day War between Egypt and Israel in 1967, healthcare services in the region were based on traditional medicine performed by the Darvish, a local healer. Over the course of Israeli rule (1967-1982) an elaborate healthcare service was established and maintained, providing modern, up to date, comprehensive medical services that were available to all free of charge.

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