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עמוד בית
Fri, 31.05.24

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March 2024
Amram Kupietzky MD, Roi Dover MD, Ata Maden MD, Nachum Emil Eliezer Lourie MD, Ronit Grinbaum MD

Despite recent advances in the pharmacological and endoscopic treatments for obesity, bariatric surgery is still considered one of the most effective and safe treatments for morbid obesity with over 250,000 bariatric procedures performed each year in the United States. While these procedures are considered safe, they are not free of complications. It has been reported that the primary short-term major complication after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), one-anastomosis (Mini) gastric bypass (OAGB), or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is gastrointestinal leakage, with a reported leak rate of 0.1–8.3%, 0–5.1%, and 0–7%, respectively [1,2]. While the etiology of gastrointestinal leakage following bariatric procedure is multifactorial, including preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, a single factor can rarely be attributed to this misfortunate complication. We describe a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented on postoperative day (POD) 10 of a OAGB with a gastrointestinal leakage after treated with a high dose of oral misoprostol.

Brittany Bass MD, Kuaybe Gulen MD, Liying Han MD PhD, Kassem Harris MD, Oleg Epelbaum MD FACP FCCP ATSF

A 69-year-old woman with a 30-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on leflunomide presented with dizziness and weakness. Vital signs, cardiopulmonary auscultation, and laboratory studies were normal. The serological status of her RA was unknown. She exhibited ulnar deviation and swan-necking of the hands but no nodular skin lesions. She was an active smoker. Chest radiography revealed an opacity in the right lung. Computed tomography (CT) showed multiple pulmonary nodules and a dominant thick-walled cavitary mass in the periphery of the right lower lobe [Figure 1A]. Due to concern for a malignancy or infection, she underwent a bronchoscopy with a biopsy of the mass, which was non-diagnostic. A subsequent transthoracic needle biopsy demonstrated a central zone of necrosis surrounded by a cuff of palisading epithelioid histiocytes with the presence of occasional giant cells [Figure 1B]. There was no malignancy, and stains for micro-organisms were negative. In this clinical context, biopsy results were consistent with a pulmonary rheumatoid nodule (PRN).

October 2023
Nidal Siag MD, Ran Moshkovsky MD, Nili Golan MD, Lee Nussbaum MD, Asaf Bar MD, Einat Malik Gadot PhD, Idit Maharshak MD PhD

Background: In recent years, major progress has been made in treating the wet form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with anti-vascular endothelial growth factors, which reportedly stabilize and improve vision.

Objectives: To examine the effect of dietary supplementation, as recommended by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2), on the number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections administered to patients with wet AMD.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with 57 participants (27 participants in the study group and 30 in the control group) receiving injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors. The study group received dietary supplements for at least one year before the treatment was initiated, while the control group did not. Primary outcome was the number of injections a patient received over a 3-year period. Secondary outcomes were central macular thickness and visual acuity.

Results: The average number of injections per patient after 3 years was 21.89 ± 7.85 in the study group and 26.00 ± 5.62 in the control group (P = 0.083). Final visual acuities were 0.45 ± 0.45 and 0.8 ± 0.73 (P = 0.09), and final central macular thicknesses were 288.26 ± 55.38 and 313.12 ± 107.36 (P = 0.38) in the study and control groups, respectively.

Conclusions: The average number of injections after 3 years was lower in the study group, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. No statistically significant difference was found in final visual acuity or central macular thickness between the groups.

Zach Rozenbaum MD FACC FSCAI

Infectious endocarditis (IE) remains challenging to treat, with substantial morbidity and mortality rates. Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment; however, patients with large vegetations often do not respond to antibiotics. Moreover, large vegetations carry an increased risk of embolization. In such cases, guidelines recommend considering surgical treatment [1]. Surgery itself introduces potential complications and high mortality rates [2], and if performed during active infection, the technical possibilities are hindered by a catastrophic recurrence on prosthetic material. Emerging percutaneous solutions to large IE vegetations have been described in recent years to overcome the surgical limitations. Currently, several devices are available. The different debulking mechanisms are based on percutaneous mechanical, either motor or manual aspiration. While becoming more available, percutaneous treatment options are not mentioned in guidelines and data are limited. This report describes a case of percutaneous tricuspid valve (TV) vegetation aspiration using Inari Flowtriever (Inari Medical, Irvine, CA, USA). The case is followed by a review of the literature.

August 2023
Sheer Shabat MD, Ronit Grinbaum MD, Yoram Kluger MD, Haggi Mazeh MD, Zvi Ackerman MD, Orit Pappo MD, Offir Ben-Ishay MD

Background: Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is classified as an undifferentiated gastric carcinoma with poor prognosis. Early SRCCs are associated with improved prognosis.

Objectives: To describe the outcomes of incidental SRCC.

Methods: In this case series, 900 medical charts of patients with SRCC were screened to identify patients with incidental SRCC, defined as diagnosed in random, non-focal-lesion-targeted biopsies.

Results: Six patients were diagnosed with incidental SRCC and underwent gastrectomy. The final pathology of five patients revealed one or more small foci of early SRCC without lymphovascular invasion. Only one patient had no evidence of malignancy. The median follow-up after surgery was 4.2 years (50 months, range 37–90 months). No deaths or recurrences were recorded during the follow-up period. These results resemble the reported survival rate for early SRCC.

Conclusions: An aggressive surgical approach in incidental gastric SRCC patients is recommended, as they have a chance for long-term survival.

July 2023
Zach Rozenbaum MD, Orly Sapir MD, Yoav Granot MD, Joshua H. Arnold MD MS, Simon Biner MD, Yan Topilsky MD, Michal Laufer-Perl MD

Background: Small left atria (LA) is associated with an increased risk of mortality.

Objectives: To determine whether the attributed risk of mortality is influenced by the underlying etiologies leading to decreased volumes.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with an available LA volume index (LAVI) as measured by echocardiography who came to our institution between 2011 and 2016. Individuals with small LA (LAVI < 16 ml/m2) were included and divided according to the etiology of the small LA (determined or indeterminate) and investigated according to the specific etiology.

Results: The cohort consisted of 288 patients with a mean age of 56 ± 18 years. An etiology for small LA was determined in 84% (n=242). The 1-year mortality rate of the entire cohort was 20.5%. Patients with indeterminate etiology (n=46) demonstrated a lower mortality rate compared with determined etiologies (8.7% vs. 22.7%, P = 0.031). However, following propensity score adjustments for baseline characteristics, there was no significant difference between the groups (P = 0.149). The only specific etiology independently associated with 1-year mortality was the presence of space occupying lesions (odds ratio 3.26, 95% confidence interval 1.02–10.39, P = 0.045).

Conclusions: Small LA serve as a marker for negative outcomes, and even in cases of undetected etiology, the prognosis remains poor. The presence of small LA should alert the physician to a high risk of mortality, regardless of the underlying disease.

June 2023
Jonathan Abraham Demma MD, Lisandro Luques MD PhD, Lior Cohen MD, Uri P. Dior MD, Gad Marom MD, Asaf Kedar MD, Naama Lev Cohain MD, Alon Pikarsky MD, Gidon Almogy MD, Liat Appelbaum MD

Background: Abdominal pathology in pregnant patients is a frequent challenge for emergency department physicians. Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice but is inconclusive in approximately one-third of cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming increasingly available, even in acute settings. Multiple studies have defined the sensitivity and specificity of MRI in this population.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of MRI findings in pregnant patients presenting with acute abdominal complaints to the emergency department.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single institution. Data were collected on pregnant patients who underwent an MRI for acute abdominal complaints between 2010 and 2019 at a university center. Patient demographics, diagnosis at admission, ultrasound and MRI findings, and discharge diagnosis were recorded and evaluated.

Results: In total, 203 pregnant patients underwent an MRI for acute abdominal complaints during the study period. MRI was found without pathology in 138 cases (68%). In 65 cases (32%), the MRI showed findings that could explain the patient's clinical presentation. Patients presenting with long-standing abdominal pain (> 24 hours), fever, leukocytosis, or elevated C-reactive protein values were at a significantly increased risk of having an acute pathology. In 46 patients (22.6%), MRI findings changed the primary diagnosis and management while in 45 patients (22.1%) MRI findings improved characterization of the suspected pathology.

Conclusions: MRI is helpful when clinical and sonographic findings are inconclusive, leading to changes in patient management in more than one-fifth of patients.

Chen Buxbaum MD, Mark Katson MD, Moshe Herskovitz MD

Background: The annual incidence of epilepsy increases with age, from nearly 28 per 100,000 by the age of 50 years to 139 per 100,000 by the age of 75 years. Late-onset epilepsy differs from epilepsy at a young age in the prevalence of structural-related epilepsy, types of seizures, duration of seizures, and presentation with status epilepticus.

Objectives: To check the response to treatment in patients with epilepsy with age of onset of 50 years and older.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study. The cohort included all patients referred to the Rambam epilepsy clinic between 1 November 2016 and 31 January 2018 with epilepsy onset at age 50 years or older and at least one year of follow-up at the recruitment time point and epilepsy not caused by a rapidly progressive disease.

Results: At recruitment, most patients were being treated with a single antiseizure medication (ASM); 9 of 57 patients (15.7%) met the criteria for drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). The mean duration of follow-up was 2.8 ± 1.3 years. In an intention-to-treat analysis, 7 of 57 patients (12.2%) had DRE at the last follow-up.

Conclusions: Late-onset epilepsy, which is defined as a first diagnosis in patients older than 50 years of age, is easy to control with monotherapy. The percentage of DRE in this group of patients is relatively low and stable over time.

March 2023
Sergei Elber-Dorozko MD, Yackov Berkun MD, Abraham Zlotogorski MD, Alexander Maly MD, Ariel Tenenbaum MD

IgA vasculitis, formerly known as Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP), is the most common systemic vasculitis in children. It is defined as palpable purpura in the absence of coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia and one or more of the following criteria: abdominal pain, arthritis or arthralgia, biopsy of affected tissue demonstrating predominant IgA deposition, and renal involvement with proteinuria and hematuria or red cell casts [1].

February 2023
Aviv Barzilai MD MSc, Hila Greenbaum MD MPH, Monica Huszar MD, Sergei Ikher MD, Avner Shemer MD, Sharon Baum MD

Background: Diagnosis of onychomycosis is based on potassium hydroxide (KOH), direct smear, culture, and polymerase chain reaction. Nail clippings are rarely used as a diagnostic tool.

Objectives: To evaluate nail clippings for the diagnosis of onychomycosis and to compare it to KOH smears.

Methods: Nail clipping specimens of 39 patients were collected: 34 with onychomycosis proved by positive culture and 5 from normal nails. The specimens were submitted to histological processing and then stained with periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) and Grocott-Gomori's methenamine silver (GMS) stains. For each nail, KOH smear was also performed. Two pathologists who had no information on the KOH smear and the culture results evaluated the nail clipping histology for the presence of fungal element. Their assessment was compared to the KOH smear and culture results.

Results: Of the 34 specimens that had positive culture, 25 were dermatophytes, 5 were molds, and 4 were candida. Clipping specimens were positive in 30 cases (88%): 23/25 dermatophyte, 4/5 molds, and 3/4 candida. Pathologists were able to classify the pathogens into dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes based on the morphology. PAS stain results were the same as GMS in evaluation of the nail specimen. KOH smear was positive in 29 nails (85%): 20/25 dermatophytes, all 5 molds, and 4 candida. In all five nails where the culture was negative, both clipping and KOH smear did not show fungal elements.

Conclusion: Nail clippings can serve as a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method for evaluation of onychomycosis, comparable to KOH smear, with the advantage of pathogen group identification.

Yarden Tenenbaum Weiss MD, Michael Friger PhD, Alon Haim MD, Eli Hershkovitz MD

Background: Pediatric patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are commonly treated with daily multiple insulin injections or an insulin pump. They tend to have higher body mass index-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) than non-diabetic children.

Objectives: To identify patterns in the changes in BMI in the 3 years after T1DM diagnosis, and to discover factors that relate to excessive weight gain.

Methods: This retrospective study included clinical and laboratory data for 194 boys and girls aged 2–18 years at the time of diagnosis and at 1, 2, and 3 years after. Their BMI values were compared to non-diabetic children using BMI percentile and z-score (standard deviation) based on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts.

Results: Both males and females had low mean BMI-SDS at diagnosis (-0.4499 ± 1.38743 male, 0.3050 ± 1.29887 female) that increased after 1 year (-0.0449 ± 1.14772 male, 0.1451 ± 0.98893 female). Lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 1 year correlated with higher BMI-SDS (r = -0.215, P = 0.011). No such correlation was found in the following 2 years. The daily dose of basal insulin correlated with higher BMI-SDS at 1 year (r = 0.183, P = 0.026) and 3 years (r = 0.297, P < 0.01). No association was found between the use of an insulin pump or continuous glucose monitoring and higher BMI-SDS.

Conclusions: BMI-SDS of children with T1DM was lower than average at the time of diagnosis and rose higher than average in the 3 years following. Higher BMI-SDS was not significantly associated with sex or ethnicity. The most prominent increase happened in the first year.

October 2022
Miri Zektser MD, Anat Rabinovich MD, Uri Grinbaum MD, Tzvi Porges MD, Aya Gozlan MD, Anna Gourevitch MD, Kayed Al-Athamen MD, Orit Barrett MD, Ido Peles MD, Tehila Kaisman-Elbaz MD, Etai Levi MD

Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There are limited data on the management of PCNSL outside of clinical trials.

Objectives: To report experience with three main high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based protocols for PCNSL treatment at one medical center.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of patients diagnosed with PCNSL who were treated at Soroka Medical Center between 2007 and 2019.

Results: The study included 36 patients, median age 64.9 years; 33 patients received a HDMTX backbone induction therapy, 21 (58.3%) received consolidation treatment in addition. In the entire cohort, 25 patients (75.7%) achieved complete remission (CR, CRu-unconfirmed), with mean progression-free survival (PFS) 32 ± 6.9 months and median overall survival (OS) 59.6 ± 12.4 months. More aggressive regiment such as combination of rituximab, HDMTX, cytarabine and thiotepa had better responses 5 (100%) CR, but also a higher incidence of side effects such as neutropenic fever 5 (100%). In subgroup analysis by age (younger vs. older than 60 years), the PFS was 24.2 vs. 9.3 months, and OS was 64.1 vs. 19.4 months, respectively.

Conclusions: A difference in CR and PFS favored a more aggressive protocol, but the toxicity of the multiagent combinations was significantly higher. The prognosis in younger was better than in older patients, with higher rates of CR, PFS, and OS, although not statistically significant. Overall treatment outcomes are encouraging; however, there is a real need for an adaptive approach for older patients and balancing among the effectiveness and side effects.

Natav Hendin B.Sc., Raanan Meyer, M.D., Ravit Peretz-Machluf, B.Sc., Ettie Maman, M.D., Micha Baum, M.D.

Background: Gestational hypertensive (GH) disorders remain a major obstetric problem.

Objective: To evaluate the incidence of gestational hypertensive disorders among participants undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) after exposure to various levels of sperm from sperm donation (SD).

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted at a single tertiary medical center between 2011 and 2019. Participants conceived via IUI using SD from a single sperm bank and had a successful singleton birth. Group 1 conceived during 1–2 cycles of IUI from the same sperm donor; whereas Group 2 after 3+ cycles.

Results: Overall 171 patients (Group 1 = 81, Group 2 = 90) met inclusion criteria. Participants showed no differences in age, chronic medical conditions, or history of pregnancy complications. The groups differed in gravidity and parity. The factors positively associated with Group 1 included either preeclampsia or GH (11 [13.5%] vs. 1 [1.1%], P = 0.001) and GH alone (8 [9.9%] vs. 1 [1.1%], P = 0.014). Newborns from Group 1 had a statistically significant lower birth weight than those from Group 2 (3003 grams ± 564.21 vs. 3173 grams ± 502.59, P = 0.039). GH was more prevalent in Group 1 (P = 0.008) than a control group of 45,278 participants who conceived spontaneously. No significant differences were observed between Group 2 and the control group.

Conclusions: The incidence of GH and preeclampsia in participants was higher among those exposed to 1–2 cycles than those exposed to 3+ cycles of IUI.

August 2022
Aviv Gour MD, Emily Elefant MD, Feda Fanadka MD, Meir Kestenbaum MD, and Nirit Lev MD, PhD
July 2022
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