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עמוד בית
Sat, 02.03.24

Search results


September 2015
Liana Tripto-Shkolnik MD, Elena Segal MD, Anat Jaffe MD, Sophia Ish-Shalom MD, Rakefet Bachrach MD, Alicia Nachtigal MD and Daniela Militianu MD

Background: Evidence suggests that prolonged bisphosphonate (BP) treatment predisposes to atypical fractures (AF), but the etiology has yet to be determined. Addressing causality begins with case identification, which requires radiological adjudication. However, many trials based their case findings on coded diagnoses. 

Objectives: To investigate the feasibility of case findings by the coding system and the reproducibility of radiological evaluations in two hospitals in Israel, and to compare BP exposure of AF patients to a control group with typical (intertrochanteric of femoral neck) fractures. 

Methods: Diagnostic databases from 2007–2010 were reviewed and admission X-rays of patients were examined in two steps by two radiologists. Fractures were classified as atypical or not atypical according to published criteria. A 2:1 control group was created. Ambulatory drug acquisition was reviewed. 

Results: Of the 198 patients who fulfilled the search criteria, 38 were classified by initial radiological opinion as AF. Subsequent radiological opinion judged 16 as not atypical. Of the AF patients, 80% were exposed to BP. Of those, 81% continued to receive BP treatment for 2.4 years after AF. Only one AF patient was discharged with suspected AF diagnosis. In the control group, 27% were exposed to BP prior to fracture (P < 0.001). 

Conclusions: Thorough radiological revision is mandatory for proper classification of AF, and even when performed there is significant inconsistency in interpretation. Conclusions drawn from trials based solely on coded diagnoses lead to significant bias. BP exposure was significantly higher in the AF group. Caregiver unawareness of AF leads to improper management. 

 

February 2014
Yoav Rosenthal, Amir Arami, Yona Kosashvili, Nir Cohen, Eli Sidon and Steven Velkes
Background: Bisphosphonates reduce the overall risk of fractures among patients with osteoporosis, and this beneficial effect is long-lasting. However, since bisphosphonates inhibit bone remodeling, they may enhance the formation and propagation of micro-cracks over time and patients may therefore be prone to atypical fatigue fractures, mainly in the subtrochanteric region and femoral shaft.

Objectives: To present two cases of subtrochanteric fractures related to bisphosphonate treatment and review of the current literature.

Conclusions: Despite the overall beneficial effect of bisphosphonates, further research is required to prevent this significant complication. 

Noam Rosen, Roy Gigi, Amir Haim, Moshe Salai and Ofir Chechik
Background: Above-the-knee amputations (AKA) and below-the-knee amputations (BKA) are commonly indicated in patients with ischemia, extensive tissue loss, or infection. AKA were previously reported to have better wound-healing rates but poorer rehabilitation rates than BKA.

Objectives: To compare the outcomes of AKA and BKA and to identify risk factors for poor outcome following leg amputation.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised 188 consecutive patients (mean age 72 years, range 25–103, 71% males) who underwent 198 amputations (91 AKA, 107 BKA, 10 bilateral procedures) between February 2007 and May 2010. Included were male and female adults who underwent amputations for ischemic, infected or gangrenotic foot. Excluded were patients whose surgery was performed for other indications (trauma, tumors). Mortality and reoperations (wound debridement or need for conversion to a higher level of amputation) were evaluated as outcomes. Patient- and surgery-related risk factors were studied in relation to these primary outcomes.

Results: The risk factors for mortality were dementia [hazard ratio (HR) 2.769], non-ambulatory status preoperatively (HR 2.281), heart failure (HR 2.013) and renal failure (HR 1.87). Resistant bacterial infection (HR 3.083) emerged as a risk factor for reoperation. Neither AKA nor BKA was found to be an independent predictor of mortality or reoperation.

Conclusions: Both AKA and BKA are associated with very high mortality rates. Mortality is most probably related to serious comorbidities (renal and heart disease) and to reduced functional status and dementia. Resistant bacterial infections are associated with high rates of reoperation. The risk factors identified can aid surgeons and patients to better anticipate and possibly prevent severe complications.

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