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עמוד בית
Sat, 22.06.24

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May 2024
Oren Biham MD, Shira Sophie Hudes BA, Aviya Kedmi MD, Uriel Wachsman MD, Mohamed Abo Sbet MD, Eduard Ling MD PhD, Lior Zeller MD

Inflammatory myopathies include polymyositis, necrotizing autoimmune myositis, dermatomyositis, juvenile inflammatory myopathy, and inclusion body myositis. These diseases are classified based on the different clinical and pathological characteristics unique to each of them [1]. Dermatomyositis is a rare disease with an incidence of 6–10 cases/1,000,000 a year with the highest incidence in the 7th decade of life as reported by a Norwegian cohort in a Caucasian population [2].

Diagnosis of dermatomyositis is based on typical signs and symptoms combined with laboratory results, imaging, and electromyography findings and muscle biopsy. Historically, the diagnosis of dermatomyositis was based on the classification criteria named after Bohan and Peter published in 1975. Many other classification criteria were proposed subsequently, the latter by the European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology (EULAR/ACR), which were published in 2020 [3].

The clinical features of dermatomyositis are diverse. Skin manifestations can accompany or precede muscle weakness. Classical skin findings include periorbital heliotrope rash and a rash of the upper chest, back, and shoulders, known as the V sign and shawl sign respectively, as well as the Gottron's papules on the knuckles. Another skin appearance is subcutaneous calcifications that break periodically through the skin causing ulcerations. Dermatomyositis usually manifests as a symmetrical proximal muscle weakness but can present with preserved strength called amyopathic dermatomyositis [1].

November 2022
Hanan Massalha MD, Milena Tocut MD, Miguel Stein MD, Gisele Zandman-Goddard MD

Hypereosinophilia is defined as the absolute eosinophilic count of above 1500 cells/µL in the peripheral blood on two separate tests taken during one month and/or the pathological confirmation of hypereosinophilia. There are many conditions that are associated with increased eosinophil counts including: parasitic infections, drug reactions, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, allergic reactions, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), primary immunodeficiencies (PID), eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGID), familial hypereosinophilia, and neoplasms [1]. Molecular classification may be an adjuvant in the classification of hypereosinophilia [2]. Our patient presented with hypereosinophilia as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome.

March 2022
Inbar Nardi-Agmon MD MPH, Alona Zer MD, Yuri Peysakhovich MD, Ili Margalit MD, Ran Kornowski MD, Nir Peled MD PhD, and Zaza Iakobishvili MD PhD

Background: No specific clinical or histological factors are recognized to be associated with the development of pericardial effusion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) other than a metastatic disease.

Objectives: To assess whether specific clinical and histological features are associated with development of pericardial effusion in patients with NSCLC.

Methods: A consecutive cohort of patients with NSCLC who presented with symptomatic pericardial effusion 2014–2017 was compared to a control group of patients with advanced NSCLC without pericardial effusion.

Results: The 27 patients in the effusion group were generally younger, more often female, and with a higher percentage of never-smokers, compared to the 54 patients of the control group. Epidermal growth factor receptor/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EGFR/ALK) mutation tumors were found in 48% of patients in the effusion group vs. 25% in the control group. In the multivariate analysis, the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for the development of pericardial effusion in patients with somatic mutations was significantly higher compared to wild type tumors (OR 2.65, 95% confidence interval 1.00–7.00). However, a suspected association between pericardial effusion and mutation status was found to be confounded by age. While a high rate of recurrence was observed when pericardiocentesis was initially performed (9/17, 53%), no recurrence was documented when pericardial window procedure was performed (total of 17 patients).

Conclusions: Patients with EGFR/ALK mutations may be at higher risk for the development of pericardial effusion; therefore, attending physicians need to be aware and have a high index of clinical suspicion

September 2021
Ariel Kerpel MD, Edith Michelle Marom MD, Michael Green PhD, Michal Eifer MD, Eli Konen MD, Arnaldo Mayer PhD, and Sonia L. Betancourt Cuellar MD

Background: Medical imaging and the resultant ionizing radiation exposure is a public concern due to the possible risk of cancer induction.

Objectives: To assess the accuracy of ultra-low-dose (ULD) chest computed tomography (CT) with denoising versus normal dose (ND) chest CT using the Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS).

Methods: This prospective single-arm study comprised 52 patients who underwent both ND and ULD scans. Subsequently AI-based denoising methods were applied to produce a denoised ULD scan. Two chest radiologists independently and blindly assessed all scans. Each scan was assigned a Lung-RADS score and grouped as 1 + 2 and 3 + 4.

Results: The study included 30 men (58%) and 22 women (42%); mean age 69.9 ± 9 years (range 54–88). ULD scan radiation exposure was comparable on average to 3.6–4.8% of the radiation depending on patient BMI. Denoising increased signal-to-noise ratio by 27.7%. We found substantial inter-observer agreement in all scans for Lung-RADS grouping. Denoised scans performed better than ULD scans when negative likelihood ratio (LR-) was calculated (0.04–-0.08 vs. 0.08–0.12). Other than radiation changes, diameter measurement differences and part-solid nodules misclassification as a ground-glass nodule caused most Lung-RADS miscategorization.

Conclusions: When assessing asymptomatic patients for pulmonary nodules, finding a negative screen using ULD CT with denoising makes it highly unlikely for a patient to have a pulmonary nodule that requires aggressive investigation. Future studies of this technique should include larger cohorts and be considered for lung cancer screening as radiation exposure is radically reduced.

December 2020
Amir Bar-Shai MD, Rafael Y. Brzezinski BMedSc, Ahsen Al Qaied MD, Philip Tsenter MD, Svetlana Kolontaevsky MD, and Anna Breslavsky MD

Background: Lung percutaneous needle biopsy (PNB) is routinely used to diagnose lung cancer. The most prevalent complications of PNB are pneumothorax and bleeding. Differences in characteristics of medical procedures between rural and urban hospitals are well known.

Objectives: To compare characteristics of patients and lesions between two hospitals and to evaluate whether lung PNB complications differ in rural vs. urban settings.

Methods: The authors examined case records of 561 patients who underwent lung biopsy at two different medical centers in Israel: Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (urban) and Barzilai Medical Center (rural). To evaluate the complication rates, the authors analyzed findings from chest X-ray performed 2 hours after biopsy and computed tomography (CT) images at the site of biopsy.

Results: The study comprised 180 patients who underwent lung biopsy at Barzilai and 454 at Sourasky. The rate of pneumothorax did not differ between centers (12% at Barzilai and 19% at Sourasky, P = 0.08). Distance from pleura was positively correlated to pneumothorax occurrence in both centers; however, neither lesion size nor lesion locus was found to be a risk factor for pneumothorax. Mild bleeding at the biopsy site occurred equally at Barzilai and Sourasky (32% vs. 36%, P = 0.3, respectively). Furthermore, immediate CT post-biopsy at Barzilai showed 95% negative predictive value, showing that a CT scan performed immediately after lung biopsy cannot replace the routine follow-up chest X-ray in predicting iatrogenic pneumothorax.

Conclusions: CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsies are comparable between rural and urban hospitals regarding procedure characteristics and complication rates.

Michael Peled MD, Jair Bar MD, Liat Avni MD, Sumit Chatterji MD, Dafna Somech MD, Addie Dvir MD, Lior Soussan-Gutman MD, and Amir Onn MD

Background: Guidelines recommend testing for multiple biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors. Blood-based liquid biopsy analyzing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) could be used in addition to tumor biopsy genotyping, especially if tissue/time are limiting.

Objectives: To investigate the clinical utility of early cfDNA analysis (Guardant360® CDx) in treatment-naïve NSCLC patients.

Methods: A prospective cohort of treatment-naïve patients with metastatic NSCLC who underwent tumor and cfDNA analysis between 12/2018 and 2/2019 were included.

Results: Ten patients were included: 6 males, median age 70.5 years (range 48–87), 8 prior smokers. Liquid biopsy was sent when cancer cells were detected in the biopsy specimen. Median time from diagnosis to receiving the report on the last biomarker from the tumor biopsy was 20 days (range 9–34); median time from blood draw to receiving the cfDNA findings was 9 days (range 7–12). The median difference between the cfDNA and the tumor analysis reports was 20 days (range 9–28). Actionable biomarkers were identified in four patients by both the biopsy analysis and the cfDNA analysis (2cases with EGFR mutations, one with ROS1 fusion, and one with EML4-ALK fusion for whom the biopsy analysis also identified an EGFR mutation not detected in the cfDNA analysis). Overall, eight patients received treatment (2 died before treatment initiation). Three patients received biomarker-based treatment (1 osimertinib, 1 alectinib, and 1 crizotinib).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that cfDNA analysis should be ordered by the pulmonologists early in the evaluation of patients with NSCLC, which might complement the tumor biopsy.

Jair Bar MD PhD, Marina Perelman MD, Damien Urban MD, Maya Gottfried MD, Mor Moskovitz MD, Hovav Nechushtan MD PhD, Julia Dudnik MD, Alona Zer MD, Elizabeth Dudnik MD, Ofer Merimsky MD, Amir Onn MD, Barbara Silverman MD

Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death.

Objectives: To identify changing patterns of lung cancer and its histologic subtypes among different population groups in Israel over a 25 year period.

Methods: Primary lung cancers, all types and all stages, diagnosed during 1990–2014 were recorded in the Israel National Cancer Registry database. Demographic information was retrieved from the National Population Register. Age-standardized rates for the different subgroups were calculated for each year. Joinpoint software was used to analyze trends in incidence.

Results: We identified 42,672 lung cancer cases. The most common histology was adenocarcinoma (34%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (19%), large cell/not-otherwise-specified (19%), other histologies (15%), and small cell lung cancer (11%). The adenocarcinoma incidence rose from 25.7% to 48.2% during the examined period. Large cell/not-otherwise-specified incidence peaked around 2005–2006 and declined after. Lung cancer incidence increased significantly for the population overall and specifically in Arab females, followed by Jewish females and by Arab males. Adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer increased in Jewish females and in Arab males. A younger age of diagnosis was seen in Arab compared to Jewish patients.

Conclusions: Jewish females and Arab males and females living in Israel demonstrated a constant increase in lung cancer incidence, mostly in adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer incidence. In addition, a younger age of diagnosis in Arabs was noted. Smoking reduction interventions and screening should be implemented in those populations.

January 2020
Elizabeth Dudnik MD, Aaron M. Allen MD, Natalia Michaeli MD, Aleksandra Benouaich-Amiel MD, Tzippy Shochat, Nir Peled MD PhD FCCP, Inbar Finkel MD, Alona Zer MD, Ofer Rotem MD and Shlomit Yust-Katz MD

Background: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) exclusion in favor of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) staging and surveillance in the management of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is controversial yet accepted by some centers. The use of MRI suggests performing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment for limited brain metastases. Data regarding SRS efficacy in this setting is limited.

Objectives: To assess intracranial objective response rate (iORR), progression-free survival (iPFS), intracranial failure patterns, overall survival (OS) and time-to-whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT)/death, whichever occurred first (TTWD) with SRS in SCLC.

Methods: The study comprised 10 consecutive SCLC patients with brain metastases treated with SRS and followed-up at Davidoff Cancer center between Aug 2012 and March 2019. Brain MRI images were reviewed by a neuro-radiology specialist.

Results: iORR was 57% as assessed by response assessment in neuro-oncology brain metastases. Intracranial progression developed in 8 patients. Median iPFS was 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.7–7.2). In-site, off-site and combined pattern of intracranial failure was seen in 0, 5, and 3 patients, respectively; median number of new brain lesions following SRS was 4 (range, 1–12). SRS was performed 10 additional times in 6 patients (median number of lesions irradiated per round was 1, range 1–5). WBRT was administered in 3 patients. Median TTWD was 20.9 months (95% CI, 1.9–26.8). Median OS since SRS administration was 23.2 months (95% CI, 4.2–not reached).

Conclusions: MRI surveillance with multiple rounds of SRS may serve a reasonable alternative to PCI or therapeutic WBRT in SCLC. 

November 2019
Omar Hakrush MD, Yochai Adir MD, Sonia Schneer MD, and Amir Abramovic MD

Background: Transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration using a bronchoscope (EUS-B-FNA) allows clinicians to determine mediastinal staging and lung mass evaluation of lesions not accessible by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or where endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration might not be safe.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety, diagnostic accuracy, and feasibility of EUS-B-FNA.

Methods: The study comprised patients who underwent a pulmonologist-performed EUS-B-FNA of mediastinal lymph nodes and parenchymal lung lesions between June 2015 and September 2017 at the Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Results: EUS-B-FNA was performed in 81 patients. The transesophageal procedure was performed for easier accessibility (49.4%) and in high-risk patients (43.3%). The most frequently sampled mediastinal stations were left paratracheal and sub-carinal lymph nodes or masses (38.3% and 56.7%, respectively). There were no complications (e.g., acute respiratory distress, esophageal perforation, or bleeding). An accurate diagnosis was determined in 91.3% of cases.

Conclusions: Pulmonologist-performed EUS-B-FNA is safe and accurate for evaluating mediastinal and parenchymal lung lesions and lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic accuracy is high. EUS-B-FNA may allow access to sites not amenable to other forms of bronchoscopic sampling, or may increase diagnostic accuracy in patients where anatomic position predicts a low diagnostic yield.

June 2019
Margarita Makarov, Nir Peled MD PhD FCCP, Tzippy Shochat MD, Alona Zer MD, Ofer Rotem MD and Elizabeth Dudnik MD

Background: The main acquired resistance mechanism to first- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the propagation of T790M clones, which can be detected in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA).

Objectives: To analyze osimertinib outcomes according to T790M testing method.

Methods: The study comprised 33 consecutive patients with advanced EGFR mutant NSCLC who were diagnosed with a T790M mutation after progression on first- or second-generation EGFR TKIs and treated with osimertinib. The patients were divided into groups A (diagnosed by tumor testing) and B (by ctDNA testing). Osimertinib outcomes were compared between the groups.

Results: Objective response rate with osimertinib comprised 54% and 62% in groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.58). Median progression-free survival (PFS) with osimertinib was 8.9 months (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.8–17.5) and 9.1 months (95%Cl 5.3–12.6) in groups A and B, respectively (log-rank test 0.12, P = 0.73). Median overall survival (OS) was 13.8 months (95%CI 4.9–25.5) and 13.8 months (95%Cl 7.7–27.7) in groups A and B, respectively (log-rank test 0.09, P = 0.75). T790M testing technique did not affect PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95%CI 0.50–2.69, P = 0.73) or OS (HR = 1.16, 95%CI 0.45–3.01, P = 0.76). The proportion of patients diagnosed by ctDNA grew from 56% in 2015 to 67% in 2016–2017.

Conclusions: Our study provides a ctDNA validation for the purpose of T790M testing in EGFR mutant NSCLC.

January 2019
Jonathan Braun, Albert Grinshpun MD MSc, Karin Atlan MD, Sigal Sachar MD, Adi Knigen MD, Liron Yosha-Orpaz PhD, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg MD, Tawfik Khoury MD and Dean Nachman MD
Moran Livne Margolin MD, Nona Zeitlin MD, Yehudit Eden Friedman MD, Opher Globus MD and Meir Mouallem MD
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