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עמוד בית
Wed, 19.06.24

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October 2001
Maurizio Cutolo, MD, Bruno Seriolo, MD, Carmen Pizzorni, MD and Alberto Sulli, MD
August 2001
Eran Pras, MD, Elon Pras, MD, Tengiz Bakhan, PhD, Etgar Levy-Nisenbaum, BSc, Hadas Lahat, MSc, Ehud I. Assia, MD, Hana J. Garzozi, Daniel L. Kastner, MD, PhD, Boleslaw Goldman, MD and Moshe Frydman, MD
Ilan Leibovitch, MD, Ronan Lev, MD, Yoram Mor, MD, Jacob Golomb, MD, Zohar A. Dotan and Jacob Ramon, MD

Background: Extensive necrosis is rare in primary renal cell carcinoma. This finding may reflect the biological characteristics of the carcinoma and therefore could be of prognostic and clinical value.

Objectives: To assess the incidence of necrosis in renal cell carcinoma and its potential prognostic value.

Methods: We conducted a consecutive retrospective study of 173 patients after radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Clinical and pathological data were collected from hospital medical records and compiled into a computerized database.

Results: Extensive necrosis was found in 31 tumor specimens (17.9%). Univariate analysis showed that the specimens with extensive necrosis were significantly larger and manifested more perirenal and venous extension than the tumors without necrosis. The size of the renal tumor was the only parameter that remained significant in multivariate analysis (P=0.0001). Overall disease-free survival did not differ significantly between patients with necrotic tumors and those without (68% and 66% respectively).

Conclusions: The finding of extensive necrosis in renal cell carcinoma specimens does not seem to be related to tumor biology but rather may reflect the relation between size and vascularity of the tumor.

Yehiel Ziv, MD, Tamar Brosh, PhD, Gili Lushkov, MSc and Ariel Halevy, MD, FACS,

Background: The method of midline Iaparotomy incision and closure remains a complex surgical problem.

Objective: To compare the mechanical properties at the interface of midline laparotomy incision made by scalpel versus electrocutting current in rats.

Methods: A sharp midline laparotomy incision was made in 60 Wistar female rats using a scalpel or electrocautery to open the fascia. The fascial and skin wounds were closed separately with a continuous nylon. Fascial specimens were analyzed for mechanical properties at the midline incision using a loading machine. The load-extension curve was recorded during tensile loading at a steady extension rate of 15 mm/mm.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in either wound-bursting force (PPEAK) or the strain energy spent until the point of measured PPEAK. Each load-extension curve showed a characteristic pattern in all rats. Tissue stiffness was greater in the scalpel group than in the electrocautery group (P= 0.02). Correlations were found between tissue stiffness and strain energy, between tissue stiffness and bursting force, and between bursting force and strain energy.

Conclusions: While tissue stiffness was greater when a scalpel was used compared to electrocutting to incise the midline abdominal fascia in rats, there was no difference in the bursing force required to disrupt the wound.

Pablo Jeczmien, Yechiel Levkovitz, MD, Abraham Weizman, MD and Ziv Carmel, MD MmedSc

Although a depressive state is known to occur following the resolution of an acute psychotic episode, little research has investigated its etiology, course, prognosis and treatment. Very often the depression is mistaken for an extrapyramidal­like syndrome — the secondary effect of antipsychotic medica­tion - as a sense of inevitability assails both the patient and therapist. Post-psychotic depression, far from being an obscure and undefined clinical picture, has the characteristics of a clear-cut syndrome. Nevertheless, it was only recently referred to as a distinct entity in psychiatric classification systems. As a result, different researchers used varying criteria for the definition of the phenomenon, and the data collected in the different studies are therefore difficult to compare. We present a critical review of the data published to date, with emphasis on the importance of early recognition and treatment of post-psychotic depression.

June 2001
Jacob Gilad, MD, Abraham Borer, MD, Dafna Hallel-Halevy, MD, Klaris Riesenberg, MD, Michael Alkan, MD and Francisc Schlaeffer, MD
May 2001
Manfred S. Green, MD, PhD, Gali Aharonowitz, MD, Tamy Shohat, MD, MPH, Rachel Levine, MD, Emilia Anis, MD, MPH and Paul E. Slater, MD, MPH

Background: Between 1970 and 1979, there was an increase in the incidence of viral hepatitis in Israel with a shift of peak incidence to an older age in the Jewish population, followed by a declining trend during the early 1980s. In July 1999 universal immunization of infants against hepatitis A was introduced.

Objective: To evaluate the chan-ges in the epidemiology of viral hepatitis A in Israel during the past decade.

Methods: Viral hepatitis is a notifiable disease in Israel and cases are reported to the regional health offices, which in turn provide summary reports to the Ministry of Health's Department of Epidemiology. The data in this study were derived from the summary reports and from results of seroprevalence studies.

Results: Following the increase in the incidence of reported viral hepatitis (mainly due to type A) between 1970 and 1979, the rates then stabilized and around 1984 began to decline until 1992. Since then there has been a slight increase. Whereas until 1987 the rates were consistently higher in the Jewish population. since then they are higher in the Arab population. The shift in the peak age-specific incidence from the 1-4 to the 5-9 year age group observed in the Jewish population around 1970 occurred 20 years later in the Arab population. The previously described seasonality is no longer evident. Recent seroprevalence studies indicate that by age 18 years only about 30-40% of the Jewish population have anti-hepatitis A antibodies.

Conclusions: The decline in the incidence of hepatitis probably reflects the changing socioeconomic condition occurring at different times in the two major population groups. Since hepatitis A accounts for almost all the acute viral hepatitis in Israel, the universal vaccination of infants introduced in 1999 should substantially lower the morbidity within the next few years.

April 2001
Dror Harats, MD, Offer Yodfat, MD, Ram Doolman, MSc, Slava Gavendo, MSc, Daniella Marko, BSc, Aviv Shaish, PhD and Ben-Ami Sela, PhD

Background: Case-control and prospective studies indicate that an elevated plasma homocysteine level is a powerful risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Certain medications can induce hyperhomocystinemia, such as methotrexate, trimethoprim and anti-epileptic drugs. There are few reports indicating an interaction between lipid-lowering drugs (cholestyramine and niacin) and homocysteine. Recently, an interaction was shown between fenofibrate and benzafibrates (a fibric acid derivative) and homocysteine plasma levels.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of different fibrates on plasma homocysteine levels and to measure the reversibility of this effect.

Methods and Results: We investigated the effects of ciprofibrate and bezafibrate on homocysteine levels in patients with type IV hyperlipidemia and/or low high density lipoprotein levels. While a 57% increase in homocysteine was detected in the ciprofibrate-treated group (n=26), a 17% reduction n homocysteine was detected in the group treated with bezafibrate (n=12). The increase in homocysteine in the ciprofibrate-treated group was sustained for the 12 weeks of treatment and was partially reversible after 6 weeks of discontinuing the ciprofibrate therapy.

Conclusions: These results indicate that an increase In plasma homocysteine levels following administration of flbrates is not a class effect, at least in its magnitude. Moreover, it is reversible upon discontinuation of the treatment.
 

Nimrod A. Kimchi, MD, Gourion Rivkin, MD, Yaron Wiener, MD, Judith Sandbank, MD and Ariel Halevy, MD
March 2001
Itzchak Levi, MD, Baruch Modan, MD, Tzvia Blumstein, MA, Osnat Luxenburg, MD, Tamar Yehuda-Cohen, PhD, Barak Shasha, MD, Amir Lotan, MD, Arie Bundstein, MD, Asher Barzilai, MD and Ethan Rubinstein, MD

Objectives: To compare risk behavior between subjects attending anonymous and confidential clinics for human immunodeficiency virus testing, and to assess whether anonymous testing results in a higher accrual of persons at risk for HIV.

Methods: An anonymous questionnaire that addressed sociodemographic and risk behavior aspects was administered to 140 subjects attending an anonymous clinic and 124 attending a confidential clinic in the Tel Aviv area. A logistic regression analysis was used to compare the effects of various behavioral factors on the probability of attending each clinic.

Results: Chronological age, age at first sexual intercourse and the percent of married subjects were similar in both clinics. However, there was a significant difference in the sex ratio and in educational attainment (85.0% versus 55.6% were males, P< 0.001 and 58% vs. 34% had over 12 years of education, P<0.001, in the anonymous and confidential clinics respectively).

There was a striking difference between the two clinics with regard to sexual experience characteristics: of the subjects reaching the anonymous clinic 21.4% were homosexual and 10.0% bisexual versus a total of 2.6% in the confidential clinic. A logistic regression analysis, comparing the effects of various behavioral factors on the probability of attending each clinic showed that gender (male), high education, homosexuality, number of partners and sexual encounter with sex workers were the strongest predictors for selecting anonymous HIV examination.

Conclusions: Individuals at high risk for HIV, such as homosexuals and bisexuals, prefer to attend an anonymous clinic.
 

January 2001
Zvi Stern, MD

The Management of a 750-bed tertiary care university hospital that serves the Jerusalem area and nationwide referrals initiated a total overhaul of all its supporting systems. This program, with parallel contingency plans, ensured a smooth transition of all computer-depended and othe services into the year 2000. Because this extraordinary project proved successful, its outcomes are noe being utilized as a unique impetus for implementation of hospital-wide continuous quality improvement programs. This paper reports how the established QI procedures, which were introduced also during the campaign, are now being activated from the baseline of those outcomes that have provided absolute efficacy in all hospital activities. The success of the campaign was achieved through the total involvement of all staff. This involvement was enhanced by the popular appeal of the dramatic deadline of the date 2000, as well as by focusing attention on personnel dynamics. Strategies for sustaining the momentum must be considered.

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