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עמוד בית
Sun, 21.04.24

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February 2021
December 2018
Eviatar Nesher MD, Marius Braun MD, Sigal Eizner MD, Assaf Issachar MD, Michal Cohen MD, Amir Shlomai MD PhD, Michael Gurevich MD, Ran Tur-Kaspa MD and Eytan Mor MD

Background: The lack of organs for liver transplantation has prompted transplant professionals to study potential solutions, such as the use of livers from donors older than 70 years. This strategy is not widely accepted because potential risks of vascular and biliary complications and recurrence of hepatitis C.

Objectives: To examine the efficacy and safety of liver grafts from older donors for transplantation.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of data on 310 adults who underwent deceased donor liver transplantation between 2005 and 2015 was conducted. We compared graft and recipient survival, as well as major complications, of transplants performed with grafts from donors younger than 70 years (n=265, control group) and those older than 70 years (n=45, older-donor group), followed by multivariate analysis, to identify risk factors.

Results: There was no significant difference between the control and older-donor group at 1, 5, and 10 years of recipient survival (79.5% vs. 73.3%, 68.3% vs. 73.3%, 59.2% vs. 66.7%, respectively) or graft survival (74.0% vs. 71.0%, 62.7% vs. 71.0%, 54.8% vs. 64.5%, respectively). The rate of biliary and vascular complications was similar in both groups. Significant risk factors for graft failure were hepatitis C (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.16–2.63), older donor age (HR = 1.02, 95%CI 1.007–1.031), and male gender of the recipient (HR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.06–2.55).

Conclusion: Donor age affects liver graft survival. However, grafts from donors older than 70 years may be equally safe if cold ischemia is maintained for less than 8 hours.

January 2014
Bezalel Podolak, Dorit Blickstein, Aida Inbal, Sigal Eizner, Ruth Rahamimov, Alexander Yussim and Eytan Mor
September 2003
A.B. Chkhotua, T. Klein, E. Shabtai, A. Yussim, N. Bar-Nathan, E. Shaharabani, S. Lustig and E. Mor

Background: Recent advances in immunosuppressive therapy have led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of kidney transplantation. Living unrelated donors may become a source of additional organs for patients on the kidney waiting list.

Objectives: To study the impact of combination of calcineurin inhibitors and mycophenolate-mofetile, together with steroids, on outcomes of living related and unrelated transplants. 

Methods: Between September 1997 and January 2000, 129 patients underwent living related (n=80) or unrelated (n=49) kidney transplant. The mean follow-up was 28.2 months. Immunosuppressive protocols consisted of MMF[1] with cyclosporine (41%) or tacrolimus (59%), plus steroids. Patient and graft survival data, rejection rate, and graft functional parameters were compared between the groups.

Results: LUD[2] recipients were older (47.8 vs. 33.6 years) with higher number of re-transplants (24.5% vs. 11.2% in LRD[3] recipients, P < 0.05). Human leukocyte antigen matching was higher in LRD recipients (P < 0.001). Acute rejection developed in 28.6% of LUD and 27.5% of LRD transplants (P = NS). Creatinine levels at 1, 2 and 3 years post-transplant were 1.6, 1.7 and 1.7 mg/dl for LRD patients and 1.5, 1.5 and 1.3 mg/dl for LUD recipients (P = NS). There was no difference in patient survival rates between the groups. One, 2 and 3 year graft survival rates were similar in LRD (91.3%, 90% and 87.5%) and LUD (89.8%, 87.8% and 87.8%) recipients.

Conclusions: Despite HLA[4] disparity, rejection and survival rates of living unrelated transplants under current immunosuppressive protocols are comparable to those of living related transplants.






[1] MMF = mycophenolate-mofetile



[2] LUD = living unrelated donor



[3] LRD = living related donor



[4] HLA = human leukocyte antigen


July 2003
G.N. Bachar, F. Greif, E. Mor, R. Tur-Kaspa and A. Belenky

Background: Radiofrequency ablation has recently become a viable treatment option for unresectable primary or secondary lesions confined to the liver.

Objective: To study the local therapeutic efficacy, side effects and complications of radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases This is the first reported experience of radiofrequency ablation for treating malignant hepatic tumors in Israel.

Methods: Fifteen consecutive patients, aged 53–73 years, with 23 lesions (8 patients with HCC[1] and 7 with secondary liver tumors) underwent radiofrequency ablation under general anesthesia. RITA nine-array 5 cm thermal ablation catheter and the model 1500 generator were used. The mean diameter of all tumors was 4.28 cm (range 1–10 cm). Three lesions were 1–3 cm in diameter (small), 17 lesions measured 3.1–5 cm (medium), and 3 measured 5.1–10 cm (large).

Results: Complete necrosis was found in 8 (66%) of 12 HCCs by computed tomography scan. Of the remainder, diffuse tumor recurrence was demonstrated in three lesions (25%) after lipiodol injection and there was one local tumor recurrence. In the metastases group complete necrosis was found in 5 of 11 lesions (45%). One major complication (peritonitis) was treated with antibiotics and four (26%) minor complications (right pleural effusion, small subcapsular hematoma) were monitored.

Conclusions: Radiofrequency ablation appears to be an effective, safe and relatively simple procedure for the treatment of liver tumors.






[1] HCC = hepatocellular carcinoma


March 2003
E. Mor, M. Cohen, F. Grief, S. Lelcuk and Z. Ben-Ari
April 2000
Eytan Mor MD, Rachel Michowiz RN MA, Tamar Ashkenazi RN MSc Ethi Shabtai PhD, Richard Nakache MD, Ahmed Eid MD, Aaron Hoffman MD, Solly Mizrahi MD, Moshe Shabtai MD and Zaki Shapira MD1 for the Israel Transplant Center

Background: Over a 12 month period, the Israel Transplant Center doubled the number of donors by assigning a nurse coordinator to each of 22 hospitals around the country and by using kidneys from elderly donors.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of our "marginal donors" policy on the results immediately following transplantation.

Methods: Between October 1997 and September 1998, 140 cadaveric kidney transplantations from 72 donors were performed in Israel. We defined two groups of recipients: patients with immediate graft function and patients with either delayed graft function requiring >1 week of dialysis post-transplant or with primary graft non-function. We compared the following parameters between groups: donor and recipient age and gender, cause of donor’s death, length of stay in the intensive care unit, vasopressor dosage and creatinine levels before harvesting, cold ischemic time, and the number of recipient grafts.

Results: There were 102 recipients (72.8%) with immediate graft function and 38 with either PNF (n=13, 9.3%) or DGF (n=25, 17.9%). On regression analysis, donor age >50 year and retransplantation were significant risk factors for PNF or DGF (odds ratio 4.4 and 2.8, respectively). Of the 56 kidneys from donors >50 years old, 21 (37.5%) developed either PNF (n=9) or DGF (n=12).

Conclusions: We conclude that kidneys from donors over age 50 are at increased risk for graft non-function or delayed function. Better assessment of functional capacity of kidneys from “aged” donors may help to choose appropriate donors from that pool.

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PNF = primary graft non-function

DGF = delayed graft function

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