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עמוד בית
Wed, 29.11.23

Search results

December 2021
Rola Khamisy-Farah MD, Eliyahu Fund MD, Shir Raibman-Spector MD, and Mohammed Adawi MD

Background: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by various additional symptoms. The prevalence of FMS ranges between 2–8% of the population. The exact pathophysiology of the disease remains unknown, and under certain circumstances it is difficult for the physician to diagnose. Previous studies have shown a correlation between inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and FMS activity, suggesting that an inflammatory component may play a role in this disease pathogenesis.

Objectives: To investigate the role of certain new inflammatory biomarkers in the diagnosis of patients with FMS.

Methods: In this study data were collected from FMS patients who were admitted to Ziv Medical Center during the period 2013 to 2019 in an attempt to find a connection between inflammatory markers detectable by a traditional complete blood count (CBC) tests such as neutrophil-lymphocytes ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), mean platelet value (MPV), red cell distribution width (RDW), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and FMS.

Results: We found significantly higher CRP levels, MPV, and PLR and lower lymphocyte count in the FMS group compared to the control group.

Conclusions: FMS has certain inflammatory components that may be useful in disease diagnosis

March 2021
David Zahler MD, Ilan Merdler MD, Keren-Lee Rozenfeld MD, Gil Shenberg MD, Assi Milwidsky MD, Shlomo Berliner MD, Shmuel Banai MD, Yaron Arbel MD, and Yacov Shacham MD

Background: Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) was shown to be associated with an increased risk for new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); however, the optimal time frame to measure CRP for risk stratification is not known.

Objectives: To evaluate the relation between the change in CRP over time (CRP velocity [CRPv]) and new-onset AF among STEMI patients treated with primary PCI.

Methods: We included 801 STEMI patients who underwent PCI between 2007 and 2017 and had their CRP measured with a wide range assay (wr-CRP) at least twice during the 24 hours after admission. CRPv was defined as the change in wr-CRP concentration (mg/l) divided by the change in time (in hours) between the two measurements. Patient medical records were reviewed for occurrence of new-onset AF.

Results: New onset AF occurred in 45 patients (6%). Patients with new onset AF had significantly higher median CRPv (1.27 vs. 0.43 mg/l/h, P = 0.002). New-onset AF during hospitalization occurred in 3.4%, 4.5 %, and 9.1% of patients in the first, second and third CRPv tertiles, respectively (P for trend = 0.006). In a multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for clinical variables the odds ratios for new onset AF was 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.0–3.59, P = 0.04) for patients in the third CRPv tertile.

Conclusion: CRPv might be an independent and rapidly measurable biomarker for new-onset AF following primary PCI in STEMI patients.

October 2020
Dana Elhadad MD PhD, Yotam Bronstein MD, Moshe Yana, Harel Baris MD, Uriel Levinger MD, Maurice Shapiro MD, and Nechama Sharon MD

Background: There is limited clinical information on coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients in Israel.

Objectives: To describe the characteristics, outcomes, and potential associations of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Israel.

Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of 58 consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Laniado Hospital, Israel, between 14 March 2020 and 14 May 2020. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data on admission were collected and analyzed, and the association to subsequent respiratory failure was assessed.

Results: Mean age of patients was 70.7 ± 16.9 years (53% males, 47% females.); 74% had at least one co-morbidity. Most patients were of Jewish Ashkenazi descent. During hospitalization 15 patients (mean age 78.18 ± 10.35 years); 80% male, 73% Sephardi descent developed respiratory failure rates of 60% occurring on average 10.6 days following intubation. Laboratory tests at admission displayed a significant increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK) and a decrease in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) in patients who eventually developed respiratory failure (163.97 mg/L, 340.87 IU/L, 0.886 K/μl vs. 50.01 mg/L and 123.56 IU/L, 1.28 K/μl, respectively). Multivariate logistic analysis revealed an integrated parameter of CRP, CK, and ALC highly correlated with respiratory failure. Receiver operating characteristic curve revealed the area under the curve of CRP, CK, and ALC and the integrated parameter to be 0.910, 0.784, and 0.754, respectively. CRP was the strongest predictor to correlate with respiratory failure.

Conclusions: CRP, CK, and ALC levels on admission could possibly be used to detect high-risk patients prone to develop respiratory failure.

November 2019
Aviv Mager MD, Yoav Hammer MD, Hadas Ofek MD, Ilana Kedmi PhD, Zaza Iakobishvili MD and Ran Kornowski MD

Background: The frequency of increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the time course of evolution of their levels in patients with acute idiopathic pericarditis (AIP) are not well established.

Objective: To assess the time course of evolution of hs-CRP levels and the possible clinical significance of maximal hs-CRP levels in patients with AIP

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical files of 241 patients admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of AIP between March 2006 and March 2017. Data on demographics, time of symptom onset, laboratory and imaging findings, and outcome were collected.

Results: Data on serum hs-CRP levels were available for 225 patients (age 18–89 years, 181 men). Fever, pleural effusion, and age were independently associated with hs-CRP levels. Major cardiac complications (MCC) (death, cardiac tamponade, cardiogenic shock, large pericardial effusion, ventricular tachycardia, pericardiocentesis, or pericardiectomy) were more common in patients with hs-CRP levels above the median compared to those below (21.2% vs. 4.5%, respectively, P < 0.001). Hs-CRP levels were independently associated with MCC (odds ratio [OR] 1.071, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.016–1.130, P = 0.011). Hs-CRP levels were elevated in 76.0%, 92.3% and 96.0% of the patients tested <6 hours, 7-12 hours, and >12 hours of symptom onset, respectively (P = 0.003). The frequency of elevated hs-CRP among patients tested > 24 hours was 98.1%.

Conclusions: Hs-CRP levels rise rapidly among patients with AIP. Maximal hs-CRP levels are associated with MCC. A normal hs-CRP level is rare among patients tested > 24 hours of symptom onset.

October 2019
William Nseir MD, Rola Khamisy-farah MD, Amir Amara MD and Raymond Farah MD

Background: The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is increasing and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, there is a need to find new tools to determine the severity of the disease.

Objectives: To investigate the prognostic values of inflammatory markers such as mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with CDAD.

Methods: The study comprised of 100 patients diagnosed with CDAD. The study included an additional control group of 69 patients with diarrhea who were negative for C. difficile toxin. The control group was age- and sex-matched and hospitalized at the same time period. NLR and MPV were obtained from complete blood count results. Serum CRP levels were measured by the latex particle enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Blood samples for all inflammatory markers were collected at time of diagnosis and prior to initiating the antibiotic therapy. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and prognostic data were collected from medical records for a period of 90 days from the initial diagnosis of CDAD.

Results: The mean age of the CDAD group was 68.6 ± 21.5 years compared to 65.6 ± 24.5 in the control group (P = 0.29). Our findings show that patients with CDAD had significantly higher NLR, MPV and serum CRP levels compared to the control group (P < 0.001)). Moreover, significantly higher levels were observed when CDAD was fatal (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Elevated NLR, MPV, and serum CRP levels may serve as biomarkers for prediction of recurrence and mortality in patients with CDAD.

Galina Goltzman MD, Sivan Perl MD, Lior Cohen Mendel MD, Eyal Avivi MD and Micha J Rapoport MD

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) blood level is associated with clinical outcomes of several diseases. However, the independent predictive role of CRP in the heterogeneous population of patients admitted to internal medicine wards is not known. 

Objectives: To determine whether single CRP levels at admission independently predicts clinical outcome and flow of patients in general medicine wards.

Methods: This study comprised 275 patients (50.5% female) with a mean age of 68.25 ± 17.0 years, hospitalized with acute disease in a general internal medicine ward. The association between admission CRP levels and clinical outcomes including mortality, the need for mechanical ventilation, duration of hospitalization, and re-admission within 6 months was determined.

Results: A significant association was found between CRP increments of 80 mg/L and risk for the major clinical outcomes measured. The mortality odds ratio (OR) was 1.89 (95% confidence interval (95%CI, 1.37–2.61, P < 0.001), mechanical ventilation OR 1.67 (95%CI, 1.10–2.34, P = 0.006), re-admission within 6 months OR 2.29 (95%CI, 1.66–3.15 P < 0.001), and prolonged hospitalization >7 days OR 2.09 (95%CI, 1.59–2.74, P < 0.001). Lower increments of10 mg/L in CRP levels were associated with these outcomes although with lower ORs. Using a stepwise regression model for admission CRP levels resulted in area under the receiver operating characteristics curves between 0.70 and 0.76 for these outcomes.

Conclusions: A single admission CRP blood level is independently associated with major parameters of clinical outcomes in acute care patients hospitalized in internal medicine wards.

October 2018
David Dahan MD, Gali Epstein Shochet PhD, Ester Fizitsky MD, Miriam Almagor MD and David Shitrit MD

Background: Sepsis is a common cause of hospitalization, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs), and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is often difficult due to the absence of characteristic clinical signs (e.g., fever and leukocytosis); therefore, additional markers, in addition to C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count, are needed.

Objectives: To prospectively link resting energy expenditure (REE) with CRP, WBC count, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores in ICU patients. Such a correlation may suggest REE measurement as an additional parameter for sepsis diagnosis.

Methods: Our study comprised 41 ventilated consecutive patients > 18 years of age. Patient demographic data, height, actual body weight, and SOFA scores were collected at admission. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. REE, CRP, and WBC measurements were collected at admission, on day three after admission, and 1 week later or as clinically indicated.

Results: Comparison of the REE and CRP changes revealed a significant correlation between REE and CRP changes (r = 0.422, P = 0.007). In addition, CRP changes also correlated with the changes in REE (r = 0.36, P = 0.02). Although no significant correlations in REE, WBC count, and SOFA score were found, a significant trend was observed.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to link REE and CRP levels, indicative of severe infection. Further study is needed to establish these findings.

June 2018
Raymond Farah, Rola Khamisy-Farah and Nicola Makhoul

Background: Accurate diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is crucial to its proper management and to combating antibiotic resistance. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been shown to distinguish pneumonia from other pathological conditions and can be used to control the severity of infection during admission.

Objective: To investigate an association between consecutive measurements of CRP and the severity of CAP in hospitalized patients.

Methods: A total of 500 patients with CAP were admitted to the hospital. Traditional markers of inflammation including CRP, leukocyte count, body temperature, were measured on the first, second, and fifth days of hospitalization. Correlations between these measures and the length of the hospital stay were calculated.

Results: Mean levels of CRP, body temperature, and leukocyte count were significantly lower on the second day after hospital admission and even lower on the fifth day. A positive correlation of medium strength was found between the level of CRP on the second day of hospitalization and the length of hospital stay (P < 0.001, rs = 0.447), and a negative correlation was noted between the decrease in CRP level from the first to second day and the length of hospital stay.

Conclusions: CRP levels correlated with body temperature and leukocyte count, traditional markers of inflammation. A greater decrease in CRP level between the first and second day of hospitalization was associated with shorter hospital stay and rapid improvement. These findings support the use of CRP as a marker for the severity and complication of CAP.

October 2017
Neri Katz MD, Letizia Schreiber MD, Anat Oron MD, Sarel Halachmi MD and David Kohelet MD

Background: Preterm birth is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates in the United States. Early recognition of sepsis in this population is a challenging task since overt clinical signs can be difficult to determine. C-reactive protein (CRP), one of the most frequently non-specific used laboratory test, can indirectly aid the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between histological findings in the placenta of preterm newborns born after prolonged rupture of membranes, CRP levels, and blood cultures.

Methods: Medical records were reviewed of all preterm newborns born after prolonged premature rupture of membranes at a medical center in Israel between 2011 and 2014.

Results: Of 128 newborns with prolonged rupture of membranes, 64 had evidence of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA). Gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar scores were significantly lower, while CRP levels (on admission and 10–12 hours post-delivery) were significantly higher in preterm newborns born to mothers with histological evidence of chorioamnionitis, but values were within normal ranges. Duration of the rupture of membranes and white blood cell counts did not differ between groups.

Conclusions: CRP levels taken on admission and 10–12 hours after delivery were higher when HCA was present, but since there was a substantial overlap between those with and without HCA and the values for most were within normal range, the differences were not enough to serve as a tool to diagnose placental histological chorioamnionitis in preterm infants born after prolonged premature rupture of membranes and exposed to intrapartum antibiotics.

June 2016
Rona Dagan BSc, Roxana Cleper MD, Miriam Davidovits MD, Levana Sinai-Trieman MD and Irit Krause MD

Background: The incidence of post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) has decreased over the last decades. As a result, recent epidemiological data from industrialized countries are scarce. 

Objectives: To evaluate patterns of PIGN in children and detect possible predictors of disease severity.

Methods: We collected clinical and laboratory data of patients with PIGN admitted to Schneider Children's Medical Center during 1994–2011. Diagnostic criteria included presence of hematuria with/without other features of nephritic syndrome along with hypocomplementemia and/or microbiological/serological evidence of streptococcal infection. Patients with other diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, etc.) were excluded from the study. 

Results: A total of 125 patients with a mean age of 5.8 ± 3.3 years (range 1.5–17.6), of whom 16% were < 3 years, matched the study criteria. Presenting features included hypertension in 103 (82.4%) patients, azotemia in 87 (70.2%), fever in 49 (40%), and elevated C-reactive protein in 75 (81.5%). Isolated macrohematuria was found in 21 (16%). Full-blown nephritic syndrome was diagnosed in 51 patients (41.1%) and 28 (22.9%) had nephritic syndrome with nephrotic-range proteinuria. Depressed C3 complement levels were associated with the presence of nephritic syndrome (OR 0.73, 95%CI 0.60–0.88, P = 0.001) as well as older age (OR1.24, CI 1.08–1.43, P = 0.001). At last follow-up (mean 42 months) all examined patients (100 of 125) had normal renal function, 6 had hypertension, and 1 had proteinuria.

Conclusions: PIGN remains an important cause of glomerular disease in children and may affect very young patients. Nephrotic-range proteinuria with hypoalbuminemia seems to be more frequent than previously reported. Hypocomplementemia is associated with a more severe disease course, namely, azotemia and nephritic syndrome. 


May 2016
Shachaf Ofer-Shiber MD and Yair Molad MD

Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) inhibitors are indicated for patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in whom conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are insufficient to achieve disease remission. 

Objectives: To determine the value of acute-phase reactant levels at diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis in predicting the need for biologic treatment with TNFα inhibitors.

Methods: We conducted a longitudinal observational study of an inception cohort of 71 consecutive patients diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis. C-reactive protein (CRP) was assayed for all patients at their first visit.

Results: All patients were treated with one or more DMARDs, mainly methotrexate (81.6%). Thirty-seven patients (52.11%) had an inadequate response and received at least one TNF inhibitor. CRP level at diagnosis was positively correlated with need for a TNF inhibitor (P = 0.009, HR 1.8, 95%CI 1.27–1.85). Patients with CRP > 0.9 mg/dl at diagnosis started biologic treatment significantly earlier than patients with a lower level (P = 0.003, HR 2.62, 95%CI 0.393–2.5).

Conclusions: In patients with psoriatic arthritis, CRP ≥ 0.9 mg/dl at diagnosis significantly predicts an earlier need for a TNF inhibitor to achieve disease control.


February 2016
Michal Laufer Perl MD, Ariel Finkelstein MD, Miri Revivo MHA, Shlomo Berliner MD, Itzhak Herz MD, Itay Rabinovich MD, Tomer Ziv-Baran PhD, Dalit Gotler, Gad Keren MD, Shmuel Bana MD and Yaron Arbel MD

Background: Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease. Nevertheless, the role of specific biomarkers as indicators for both coronary and carotid diseases is debatable.

Objectives: To evaluate the association of biomarkers with coronary and carotid disease.

Methods: We studied 522 consecutive patients with stable angina. All underwent coronary angiography and carotid duplex study on the same day. Patients with no apparent carotid plaques were evaluated for carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) using an automated system that sampled over 100 samples in each carotid artery. Biochemical markers of cardiovascular disease risk were obtained at the time of coronary angiography, including serum lipid levels, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), white blood cell count, fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).

Results: The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 11; 73% were males. Significant carotid stenosis was associated with higher hs-CRP (9.4 ± 17 vs. 6.3 ± 13 mg/L, P = 0.001), while high HbA1c (6.7 ± 1.6 vs. 5.8 ± 0.8%, P < 0.001) and low high density lipoprotein levels (40 ± 9 vs. 47 ± 14 mg/dl, P < 0.001) were linked with advanced coronary artery disease severity. In contrast, CIMT was not related to any of the biomarkers evaluated.

Conclusions: Although atherosclerosis is considered a systemic disease, different biomarkers are associated with coronary and carotid artery disease. Identifying the specific biomarkers for each disease is important for both prevention and for exposing the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism.


April 2015
Eran Leshem-Rubinow MD, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty PhD, Assi Milwidsky MD, Sharon Toker PhD, Itzhak Shapira MD, Shlomo Berliner MD, Yael Benyamini PhD, Samuel Melamed PhD and Ori Rogowski MD


Background: A single self-rated health (SRH) assessment is associated with clinical outcome and mortality, but the biological process linking SRH with immune status remains incompletely understood.

Objectives: To examine the association between SRH and inflammation in apparently healthy individuals.

Methods: Our analysis included 13,773 apparently healthy individuals attending the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center for periodic health examinations. Estimated marginal means of the inflammation-sensitive biomarkers [i.e., highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen] for the different SRH groups were calculated and adjusted for multiple potential confounders including risk factors, health behavior, socioeconomic status, and coexistent depression.

Results: The group with the lowest SRH had a significantly higher atherothrombotic profile and significantly higher concentrations of all inflammation-sensitive biomarkers in both genders. Hs-CRP was found to differ significantly between SRH groups in both genders even after gradual adjustments for all potential confounders. Fibrinogen differs significantly according to SRH in males only, with low absolute value differences.

Conclusions: A valid association exists for apparently healthy individuals of both genders between inflammation-sensitive biomarker levels and SRH categories, especially when comparing levels of hs-CRP. Our findings underscore the importance of assessing SRH and treating it like other markers of poor health.

November 2014
Alon Nevet MD PhD, Havatzelet Yarden-Bilavsky MD, Shai Ashkenazi MD MSc and Gilat Livni MD

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is often used to distinguish bacterial from viral infections. However, the CRP level does have implications, which depend on the clinical scenario and are still under research.

Objectives: To evaluate the distribution of CRP levels in children with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis.

Methods: The electronic database of a tertiary pediatric medical center was searched for all inpatients with a diagnosis of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis without bacterial co-infection. Background and clinical information was collected and CRP levels were analyzed.

Results: The study group consisted of 66 patients aged 8 months to 7.1 years who met the study criteria. The average CRP was 7.4 mg/dl (normal < 0.5 mg/dl). More than a third of the patients had a level higher than 7 mg/dl.

Conclusions: High values of CRP are prevalent in patients with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, similar to adenoviral infections and some bacterial infections. 

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