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עמוד בית
Wed, 07.06.23

February 2023

Dana Yelin MD MPH, Ran Levi BPT, Chinanit Babu BPT, Roi Moshe MSc, Dorit Shitenberg MD, Alaa Atamna MD, Ori Tishler MD, Tanya Babich MSc, Irit Shapira-Lichter PhD, Donna Abecasis PhD, Nira Cohen Zubary MSc, Leonard Leibovici MD, Dafna Yahav MD, Ili Margalit MD, MPH

Background: Clinical investigations of long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are rarely translated to objective findings.

Objectives: To assess the functional capacity of individuals reported on deconditioning that hampered their return to their pre-COVID routine.

Methods: Assessment included the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and the 30-second sit-to-stand test (30-STST). We compared the expected and observed scores using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Predictors of test scores were identified using linear regression models.

Results: We included 49 individuals, of whom 38 (77.6%) were recovering from mild COVID-19. Twenty-seven (55.1%) individuals had a 6MWT score lower than 80% of expected. The average 6MWT scores were 129.5 ± 121.2 meters and 12.2 ± 5.0 repeats lower than expected scores, respectively (P < 0.001 for both). The 6MWT score was 107.3 meters lower for individuals with severe COVID-19 (P = 0.013) and rose by 2.7 meters per each 1% increase in the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (P = 0.007). The 30-STST score was 3.0 repeats lower for individuals who reported moderate to severe myalgia (P = 0.038).

Conclusions: Individuals with long COVID who report on deconditioning exhibit significantly decreased physical capacity, even following mild acute illness. Risk factors include severe COVID-19 and impaired diffusing capacity or myalgia during recovery.

Elchanan Parnasa MD, Ofer Perzon MD, Aviad Klinger, Tehila Ezkoria MA, Matan Fischer MD

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has severe consequences in terms of mortality and morbidity. Knowledge of factors that impact COVID-19 may be useful in the search for treatments.

Objectives: To determine the effect of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency on morbidly and mortality associated with COVID-19.

Methods: All patients admitted to Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center between 01 March 2020 and 03 May 2021 with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. We retrospectively retrieved demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from the hospital’s electronic medical records. The main outcomes were mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and severity of COVID-19.

Results: The presence of G6PD deficiency emerged as an independent protective predictor for ICU admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.258, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.077–0.619, P = 0.003) and the development of critical illness (OR 0.121, 95%CI 0.005–0.545, P = 0.006). Moreover, patients with G6PD deficiency had a trend toward lower mortality rates that did not reach statistical significance (OR 0.541, 95%CI 0.225–1.088, P = 0.10).

Conclusions: Patients with G6PD deficiency were less likely to have a severe disease, had lower rates of ICU admission, and trended toward lower mortality rates.

Gilad Rotem MD, Jordan Lachnish MD, Tomer Gazit MD, Gal Barkay MD, Dan Prat MD, Gil Fichman MD

BackgroundSeveral approaches are used to access the hip joint; most common are the direct lateral and posterior. Little consensus exists on which to use when treating hip fractures.

Objectives: To compare short-term complications, postoperative ambulation, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) of direct lateral vs. posterior approaches in hemiarthroplasty for acute hip fractures.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective clinical trial with 260 patients who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty in the direct lateral or posterior approach (166 and 94, respectively) between January 2017 and December 2018. The clinical data included short-term complications: prosthetic dislocation, periprosthetic fractures, and infection. Postoperative ambulation was collected 6 weeks postoperatively; PROMS were collected for 173 patients at 2 years follow-up.

Results: There were six dislocations overall, average time to dislocation was 22 days postoperative (range 4–34). Five dislocations were after the posterior approach (5.3%) and one after direct lateral (0.6%) (P = 0.01). At 6 weeks follow-up, inability to walk was found in 16.9% of the direct lateral group and 6.4% of the posterior approach group (P = 0.02). In the posterior approach group, 76% could walk more than 20 meters; only half of the direct lateral group could (P = 0.0002). At 2 years follow-up, PROMS did not show a statistically significant difference between the groups.

Conclusions: Posterior approach for hemiarthroplasty following femoral neck fractures allows superior ambulation to the direct lateral approach only for the short-term. However, no long-term clinical advantage was found. This short-term benefit does not justify the increased dislocation rate in the posterior approach.

Tal Tobias MD, Dani Kruchevsky MD, Yehuda Ullmann MD, Joseph Berger MD, Maher Arraf MD, Liron Eldor MD

Background: Implant-based breast reconstruction (IBR) is the most common method of reconstruction for breast cancer. Bacterial infection is a well-known risk with reported rates ranging from 1% to 43%. The most common pathogens of breast implant infection described in the literature are Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and coagulase-negative staphylococci. However, the prevalence of other pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity profile differs profoundly in different parts of the world.

Objectives: To review the current literature and protocols with respect to our region and to determine a more accurate antibiotic protocol aimed at our specific local pathogens.

Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of all cases of clinically infected implant-based breast reconstruction in our institution from June 2013 to June 2019, as well as review of microbiologic data from around the world based on current literature.

Results: A total of 28 patients representing 28 clinically infected implant-based breast reconstruction were identified during the studied period. Thirteen patients (46.4%) had a positive bacterial culture growth, with P. aeruginosa being the most common microorganism identified (46.1%). Review of international microbiological data demonstrated significant variation at different places and time periods.

Conclusions: Microbiological data in cases of infected breast reconstructions should be collected and analyzed in every medical center and updated every few years due to the variations observed. These data will help to adjust the optimal empirical antibiotic regimens given to patients presenting with infections after breast reconstruction.

Doron Carmi MD MHA, Ziona Haklai MA, Ethel-Sherry Gordon PHD, Ada Shteiman MSC, Uri Gabbay MD MPH

Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is a medical emergency. The standard of care for AA had been surgical appendectomy. Recently, non-operative management (NOM) has been considered, mainly for uncomplicated AA.

Objectives: To evaluate AA NOM trends over two decades.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on Israel’s National Hospital Discharges Database (NHDD). Inclusion criteria were AA admissions from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2019, with either primary discharged diagnosis of AA, or principal procedure of appendectomy. Predefined groups were children (5 ≤ 18 years) and adults (≥ 18 years). We compared the last decade (2010–2019) with the previous one (2000–2009).

Results: The overall AA incidence rate over two decades was 126/100,000/year; higher in children 164/100,000/year than 113/100,000/year in adults. Surgery was the predominant AA treatment in 91.9%; 93.7% in children and 91.1% in adults. There was an increase in AA NOM rates when comparing the previous decade (5.6%) to the past decade (10.2%); 3.2% vs. 9.1% in children and 6.8% vs. 10.7% in adults, respectively. Annual trends revealed a mild increase in AA NOM rates. Delayed appendectomy (within 90 days of AA NOM) was 19.7% overall; 17.3% in adults and 26.3% in children.

Conclusions: There was an increase in AA NOM rates during the last decade in the overall population. Since 2015, there has been a noticeable increase in AA NOM rates, probably associated with World Society of Emergency Surgery Jerusalem guidelines. Surgery is still the predominant treatment for AA despite the increasing trend in NOM.

Lee Yaari MD, Shay Zion Ribenzaft MD, Mohamed Kittani MD, Mustafa Yassin MD, Barak Haviv MD

Background: Previous epidemiological studies on shoulder instability evaluated specific and relatively small subgroups of patients.

Objectives: To determine the incidence rate of primary shoulder dislocations.

Methods: Cohort analysis of electronic health records from 2004 to 2019 was conducted in a urban district of a major health maintenance organization (HMO) in Israel. Patients presented with primary shoulder dislocation that was treated with closed reduction in any medical facility within the district. Overall incidence density rates (IDR) of primary shoulder dislocations and stabilization surgeries were determined.

Results: Over a period of 16 years 13,158 patients underwent closed reduction of primary shoulder dislocation. Of those, 712 shoulder stabilization surgeries were performed (5%). The IDR of primary shoulder dislocations were 124 per 100,000 person-years. The IDR of primary shoulder stabilizations were 7 per 100,000 person-years. The peak in the number of dislocations was observed in those 20–29 years old and ≥ 60 years of. In patients under 59 years old, dislocations were more common in men. In those ≥ 60 years of age, dislocations were more common in women. Most shoulder stabilization surgeries were performed on young patients. The annual mean time from the first dislocation to stabilization surgery linearly declined to 6 months in 2019.

Conclusions: The IDR of primary shoulder dislocations calculated from the largest HMO in Israel were 124 per 100,000 person-years. Shoulder dislocations had bimodal age distribution. Overall, 5% of the patients (mainly young) with shoulder dislocations underwent shoulder stabilization surgery during the study period.

Daniel Solomon MD, Itzhak Greemland MD, Nikolai Menasherov MD, Vyacheslav Bard MD

Background: Surgical resection is the only curative option for gastric carcinoma (GC). Minimally invasive techniques are gaining popularity.

Objectives: To present a single-surgeon's experience in transitioning from an open to a minimally invasive approach, focusing on surgical and oncological outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis including distal gastrectomy patients 2012–2020 operated by a single surgeon. Two cohorts were compared: open (ODG) and laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG).

Results: Overall, 173 patients were referred for gastrectomy during the study years. We excluded 80 patients because they presented with non-GC tumors, underwent proximal or total gastrectomy, or underwent palliative surgery. Neoadjuvant treatment was administered to 62 patients (33.3%). Billroth 1 was the preferred method of reconstruction (n=77, 82.8%), followed by Roux-en-Y (n=12, 13%). Fifty-one patients (54.8%) underwent LDG, 42 (45.2%) underwent ODG. The LDG group had significantly shorter lengths of stay (6 days, interquartile range [IQR] 1–3 5–8 vs. 5 days, IQR 1–3 4–6, P = 0.001, respectively), earlier return to oral feeding (1 day, IQR 1–3 1–3 vs. 2 days, IQR 1–3 1–3.2, P < 0.001), and earlier removal of drains (4 days, IQR 1–3 3–5.2 vs. 5 days, IQR 1–3 3.5–6.7, P < 0.001). Overall lymph node yield was 30 (IQR 1–3 24–39) and was similar among groups (P = 0.647).

Conclusions: Laparoscopic techniques for resection of distal GC are feasible and safe, leading to good perioperative outcomes and adequate lymph node yield.

Aviv Barzilai MD MSc, Hila Greenbaum MD MPH, Monica Huszar MD, Sergei Ikher MD, Avner Shemer MD, Sharon Baum MD

Background: Diagnosis of onychomycosis is based on potassium hydroxide (KOH), direct smear, culture, and polymerase chain reaction. Nail clippings are rarely used as a diagnostic tool.

Objectives: To evaluate nail clippings for the diagnosis of onychomycosis and to compare it to KOH smears.

Methods: Nail clipping specimens of 39 patients were collected: 34 with onychomycosis proved by positive culture and 5 from normal nails. The specimens were submitted to histological processing and then stained with periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) and Grocott-Gomori's methenamine silver (GMS) stains. For each nail, KOH smear was also performed. Two pathologists who had no information on the KOH smear and the culture results evaluated the nail clipping histology for the presence of fungal element. Their assessment was compared to the KOH smear and culture results.

Results: Of the 34 specimens that had positive culture, 25 were dermatophytes, 5 were molds, and 4 were candida. Clipping specimens were positive in 30 cases (88%): 23/25 dermatophyte, 4/5 molds, and 3/4 candida. Pathologists were able to classify the pathogens into dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes based on the morphology. PAS stain results were the same as GMS in evaluation of the nail specimen. KOH smear was positive in 29 nails (85%): 20/25 dermatophytes, all 5 molds, and 4 candida. In all five nails where the culture was negative, both clipping and KOH smear did not show fungal elements.

Conclusion: Nail clippings can serve as a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method for evaluation of onychomycosis, comparable to KOH smear, with the advantage of pathogen group identification.

Nizar Horrany MD, Wadie Abu Dahoud MD, Yara Moallem MD, Taleb Hajouj MD, Merna Zreik MD, Arnon Blum MD

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Metformin is an old, relatively safe, first line therapy for T2DM; however, it has been associated with stroke.

Objectives: To study the effects of metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency on stroke rate among patients with T2DM.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study of patients admitted with ischemic stroke within 12 months (starting March 2020). We studied the clinical impact of metformin on vitamin B12 deficiency and stroke evolution. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare the groups of patients and to determine whether there was any direct or indirect effect of metformin use on vitamin B12 deficiency and stroke.

Results: In total, 80 patients were admitted with ischemic stroke. Clinical status and biochemical data were collected and compared with healthy volunteers. There were 39 diabetic patients, 16 took metformin for at least 1 year. Among those who took metformin for at least 1 year, 9 had vitamin B12 level < 240 pg/ml (56.2%); 23 diabetic patients did not get metformin and only 4 had vitamin B12 level < 240 pg/ml (17.4%) (P = 0.014).

Conclusions: T2DM is a significant risk factor to the development of ischemic stroke. We found an association between metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency and an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and stroke risk in patients with T2DM. Diabetic patients who are taking metformin should monitor their vitamin B12 level.

Shir Schlosser BMedSc, Svetlana Zalmanov MD, Raphael M. Pfeffer MD, Yoav Lipski MD, Vladislav Grinberg MD, Yael Kalmus RN, Daphne Levin PhD, Keren Hod RD PhD, Merav A. Ben David MD

Background: Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASqCC) is a rare malignancy, traditionally treated with combined chemoradiation, with a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC). Replacing intravenous (IV) 5-FU with oral capecitabine (oral fluoropyrimidine) has been reported as a non-inferior treatment option. However, these data are scarce, with variable results.

Objectives: To examine the outcome of patients with ASqCC treated with either IV 5-FU or capecitabine concomitantly with radiation therapy. To compare treatment side effects, local recurrence, and general outcome.

Methods: We reviewed charts of patients who were diagnosed with stage I–III ASqCC. All participating patients received chemoradiation at the Assuta Medical Center between 2011 and 2019.

Results: In this study, 43 patients with ASqCC were eligible; 14 received 5-FU and 29 were treated with capecitabine. Basic characteristics were similar between the two groups, with longer follow-up for the 5-FU group. Six months following treatment, 100% (13/13 with adequate follow-up) of the 5-FU group had complete clinical response, compared to 84% in the capecitabine group (21/24), P = 0.143. The local recurrence incidence was higher in the 5-FU group at 23% (7, 10, 26 months following therapy, and none in the capecitabine group (P = 0.088). Although local and hematological toxicities were similar between groups, one patient receiving capecitabine died during chemoradiotherapy.

Conclusions: Oral capecitabine demonstrated non-inferior disease control in ASqCC treated with chemoradiotherapy. We recommend oral capecitabine over continuous IV 5-FU in locally and locally advanced ASqCC. Close monitoring of side effects is required to reduce major toxicity.

Shivtia Trop-Steinberg PhD, Eliyahu M. Heifetz PhD, Yehudit Azar PhD, Irit Kafka MD, Amir Weintraub MD, Michael Gal MD PhD

Background: Omega-3 fatty acids promote fertility in males and females and constitute an important factor in the normal development of the fetus.

Objectives: We investigated the effect of omega-3 supplements during ovulation induction treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-related infertility.

Methods: A randomized, double-blind study was conducted for 60 treatment cycles in 34 women with PCOS-related oligo/anovulation referred to the fertility clinic at the Bikur Cholim/Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, who underwent ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (50 mg). Seventeen women (mean age 33.9 ± 0.9 years) received omega-3 supplements (3 × 600 mg/day) and 17 received placebo capsules (mean age 32.7 ± 0.9 years) for a maximum of two cycles. We recorded their characteristics and data from their serial hormonal blood tests and ultrasound examinations. We also conducted both univariate and multivariate analyses. The primary endpoint was conception.

Results: There were clinical pregnancies in 8/30 (26.7%) treatment cycles for women receiving omega-3 supplements versus 4/30 (13.3%) cycles with placebo. Among overweight/obese women (body mass index [BMI] 25–35), there were clinical pregnancies in 8/27 cycles (29.6%) versus 1/19 (5.3%) with placebo (P < 0.04). For overweight/obese PCOS women, omega-3, lower BMI rates, and higher values of the endometrium’s thickness increased the odds of becoming pregnant. No harmful side effects from the omega-3 treatment were reported.

Conclusions: Omega-3 supplements demonstrated beneficial effects for fertility in women diagnosed with PCOS. Among the overweight/obese participants, the increased clinical pregnancy rate was significant.

Yarden Tenenbaum Weiss MD, Michael Friger PhD, Alon Haim MD, Eli Hershkovitz MD

Background: Pediatric patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are commonly treated with daily multiple insulin injections or an insulin pump. They tend to have higher body mass index-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) than non-diabetic children.

Objectives: To identify patterns in the changes in BMI in the 3 years after T1DM diagnosis, and to discover factors that relate to excessive weight gain.

Methods: This retrospective study included clinical and laboratory data for 194 boys and girls aged 2–18 years at the time of diagnosis and at 1, 2, and 3 years after. Their BMI values were compared to non-diabetic children using BMI percentile and z-score (standard deviation) based on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts.

Results: Both males and females had low mean BMI-SDS at diagnosis (-0.4499 ± 1.38743 male, 0.3050 ± 1.29887 female) that increased after 1 year (-0.0449 ± 1.14772 male, 0.1451 ± 0.98893 female). Lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 1 year correlated with higher BMI-SDS (r = -0.215, P = 0.011). No such correlation was found in the following 2 years. The daily dose of basal insulin correlated with higher BMI-SDS at 1 year (r = 0.183, P = 0.026) and 3 years (r = 0.297, P < 0.01). No association was found between the use of an insulin pump or continuous glucose monitoring and higher BMI-SDS.

Conclusions: BMI-SDS of children with T1DM was lower than average at the time of diagnosis and rose higher than average in the 3 years following. Higher BMI-SDS was not significantly associated with sex or ethnicity. The most prominent increase happened in the first year.

Dante Antonelli MD, Youri Rabkin MD, Yoav Turgeman MD, Mohamed Jabaren MD

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA) are new antidiabetic drugs that are recommended by current guidelines as a class I novel glucose-lowering treatment that improves cardiovascular outcome in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), particularly in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Objectives: To evaluate adherence to the current guidelines for treatment with SGLT2i and GLP1-RA drugs in patients referred to ambulatory consultant cardiology clinics with pre-existing T2DM.

Methods: We studied consecutive new patients with a pre-existing diagnosis of T2DM who were referred to the Clalit Health Services ambulatory consultant cardiology clinic over a 6-month period. The recorded information included demographics, co-morbidities, and prescribed drugs at patient admission.

Results: During the study period, 1782 patients visited our outpatient cardiology clinic. At screening, T2DM was present in 428 patients (24%); 77 (18%) were being treated with SGLT2i, and 39 (9.1%) with GLP1-RA. Patients receiving SGLT2i and GLP1-RA were younger and had more coronary artery disease, lower mean left ventricular ejection fraction, and higher mean estimated glomerular filtration rates than those who were not receiving these drugs. HbA1C was > 7 in 205 (47.9%) patients and > 7.5 in 136 patients (31.8%). Body mass index was > 30 kg/m2 in 231 (54%) patients.

Conclusions: GLP1-RA and SGLT2i drugs were found to be administered more frequently than previously reported, but they are not yet satisfactorily prescribed.

Lior Baraf MD, Yuval Avidor MD, Anat Bahat Dinur MD, Uri Yoel MD, Benzion Samueli MD, Ben-Zion Joshua MD, Merav Fraenkel MD

Background: Due to the high variability in malignancy rate among cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules (Bethesda categories III–V), the American Thyroid Association recommends that each center define its own categorical cancer risk.

Objectives: To assess cancer risk in patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules who were operated at our center.

Methods: In a retrospective study, we analyzed the pathology results of all the patients whose fine needle aspiration results showed Bethesda III–V cytology and who subsequently underwent total thyroidectomy or lobectomy from December 2013 to September 2017.

Results: We analyzed 56 patients with indeterminate cytology on fine needle aspiration. Twenty-nine (52%) were defined as Bethesda III, 19 (34%) Bethesda IV, and 8 (14%) Bethesda V category. Malignancy rates were 38%, 58%, and 100% for Bethesda categories III, IV, and V, respectively. Most malignancies in Bethesda categories III and IV were follicular in origin (follicular thyroid carcinoma and follicular type papillary thyroid carcinoma), while 100% of the patients with Bethesda category V were diagnosed with classical papillary thyroid carcinoma. No correlation was found between sonographic and cytological criteria of nodules with Bethesda categories III and IV and rates of malignancy.

Conclusions: We found higher than expected rates of malignancy in indeterminate cytology. This finding reinforces the guidelines of the American Thyroid Association to establish local malignancy rates for thyroid nodules with indetermined cytology.

Milton Saute MD, Ehud Raanani MD, Amir On MD, Ran Kramer MD, Liran Levy MD

Twenty years after being closed due to unfavorable results, a new lung transplant program was started at the Sheba Medical Center. The new team included an experienced lung transplant surgeon, an anesthesiologist, an intensive care specialist, and a pulmonologist with extensive experience in the field.

Gassan Moady MD MPH, Alexander Shturman MD, Elias Daud MD, Gal Rubinstein MD, Dror Levinar MD, Shaul Atar MD

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) often develops following stressors such as cardiac surgery. It may be fatal in rare cases. Our 70-year-old female patient presented with a rare case of tricuspid valve papillary fibroelastoma, which was complicated by fatal TTS after successful resection. The patient had a right atrial mass that was investigated with computed tomography and transesophageal echocardiography (TTE). She was scheduled for surgery. Pathology findings were consistent with papillary fibroelastoma of the tricuspid valve. Three weeks after successful surgery, the patient was admitted due to cardiogenic shock with echocardiographic findings of apical ballooning and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction consistent with TTS. The patient died one hour after her admission despite optimal medical therapy.

Baruch Wolach MD, Ziv Lenzner MD

Leonardo da Vinci was a man of art and science. He became the archetype of the Renaissance era. Leonardo exhaustively studied the proportions of the body, drawing Vitruvian Man in 1490. It is regarded as a universal cultural icon. Leonardo's anatomical illustrations were of notable precision, and he is still considered as the pioneer of modern anatomy. We focus on Leonardo's masterpiece Virgin of the Rocks, which displays the intersection between his prodigious artistic talent and his commitment to science. This master painting discloses discordance between the artist's vast anatomical knowledge and its actualization in the painting. Consequently, many enigmas arise: How could the expert of anatomy, considered as the canon man of proportions, paint anatomical errors and why did he not actualize his knowledge in the painting? Was this an error or intentional? Could the painting techniques he used explain optical illusions that distorted the images? Was he so far ahead of his time that he did not feel compelled to paint realistically, but rather preferred to let his imagination and creativity run free? Some 500 years after Leonardo da Vinci's death, there is no one answer, but there is room for much speculation.

Shai Ashkenazi MD

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), impacted global health, human behavior, economics, and even politics. Two years after the start of the pandemic, the scientific community was still learning about COVID-19 infections. One of the major lessons was the association between SARS-CoV-2 and diverse autoimmune manifestations, including multiple autoantibodies and various autoimmune diseases that developed in COVID-19 patients.

Amir Dagan MD, Ester Rabin MD

A 65-year-old male with a medical history of diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney failure, and ulcerative colitis arrived at our facility with knee monoarthritis. The knee was tapped with 40 cc pus-like discharge [Figure 1A]. He was referred for a knee lavage with a working diagnosis of septic arthritis. The patient was afebrile, denied trauma, without neutrophilia on blood count.

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To the reviewers of 2022, who gave of their time to constructively assess the articles sent to them

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