Yehonatan Azulai BA, Shepard Schwartz MD, Eyal Heiman MD, Elihay Berliner MD, Giora Weiser MD
Background: Clinical dysentery causes hundreds of thousands of deaths annually worldwide. However, current recommendations reserve antibiotics for those either clinically sick or with highly suspected cases of shigellosis. This treatment stems from rising antibiotic resistance. Children diagnosed with clinical dysentery in the pediatric emergency department (PED) are regarded more cautiously.
Objectives: To explore the use of antibiotics in children diagnosed with clinical dysentery in the PED.
Methods: A retrospective case study of children with clinical dysentery at a single PED during the years 2015 and 2018. Demographics as well as clinical findings were compared to culture results and antibiotic treatment.
Results: The study included 281 children who were diagnosed with clinical dysentery during the study period; 234 (83%) were treated with antibiotics. However, cultures were positive in only 162 cases (58%). Only 32% were Shigella spp. Younger age, fever, and leukocytosis were related to antibiotic treatment.
Conclusions: The diagnosis of clinical dysentery is misgiven commonly in the PED leading to widespread use of antibiotics when not indicated. This treatment may impact antibiotic resistance patterns. Further studies and interventions are necessary to create clear guidelines in the PED setting.
Itai Kalisky MD, Yaakov Maor MD, Lilach Goldstein MD, Yael Inbar MD, Ziv Ben-Ari MD
Background: Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration (AHD) is a neurologic complication of severe chronic liver disease (CLD) with portosystemic shunts. The proposed etiology is manganese accumulation in the brain tissue, especially in the basal ganglia. Combination of clinical manifestation, mostly extrapyramidal movement disorders, and hyperintensities on T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is diagnostic. Although liver transplantation controversial, it is suggested for AHD.
Objectives: To depict clinical and neuroimaging characteristics and response to treatments in patients diagnosed with AHD at Sheba Medical Center.
Methods: Review of patients with AHD diagnosis at the Liver Diseases Center at Sheba Medical Center between 2012 and 2017, data of clinical and neuroimaging, follow-up, and response to treatments, including liver transplantation were recorded.
Results: Five patients with diagnosis of AHD were identified, median age at diagnosis 55 years (range 45–64 years). Four patients had cirrhosis at the time of AHD diagnosis. The main risk factor for AHD was the presence of portosystemic shunts. The most prevalent clinical manifestations were movement disorders, specifically a combination of extrapyramidal and cerebellar signs including instability, rigidity, tremor, bradykinesia, and cognitive impairment. Brain MRI revealed hyperintensities on T1-weighted images in the basal ganglia in all patients. Administration of antiparkinsonian drugs showed clinical improvement, whereas liver transplantation performed in two patients was not associated to neurological improvement.
Conclusions: AHD is related to portosystemic shunts. The combination of Parkinsonism and cerebellar signs and MRI pallidal lesions should alert physicians to the diagnosis. The role of liver transplantation in AHD is still controversial.
Mohamad Suki MD, Fadi Abu Baker MD, Shaul Pery MD, Moran Levin MD, Smadar Nephrin, Amani Beshara MD, Baruch Ovadia MD, Oren Gal MD, Yael Kopelman MD
Background: Polyp detection rate (PDR) is a convenient quality measure indicator. Many factors influence PDR, including the patient's background, age, referral (ambulatory or hospitalized), and bowel cleansing.
Objectives: To evaluate whether years of professional experience have any effect on PDR.
Methods: A multivariate analysis of a retrospective cohort was performed, where both patient- and examiner-related variables, including the experience of doctors and nurses, were evaluated. PDR, as the dependent variable was calculated separately for all (APDR), proximal (PPDR), and small (SPDR) polyps.
Results: Between 1998 and 2019, 20,996 patients underwent colonoscopy at a single center. After controlling for covariates, the experience of both doctors and nurses was not found to be associated with APDR (odds ratio [OR] 0.99, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.98–1.00, P = 0.15 and OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.02–1.04, P < 0.0001, respectively). However, after 2.4 years of colonoscopy experience for doctors, and 9.5 years of experience for nurses, a significant increase in APDR was observed. Furthermore, results revealed no association for PPDR and SPDR, as well.
Conclusions: Years of colonoscopy experience for both doctors and assisting nurses were not associated with APDR, PPDR, and SPDR. In doctors with 2.4 years of experience and nurses with 9.5 years of experience, a significant increase in APDR was observed.
Naama Hermann MD, Pnina Mor CNM PhD, Orit Kaidar-Person MD, Rinat Bernstein-Molho MD, Mali Brodsky RN MSc, Dana Madorsky Feldman MD, Anath A. Flugelman MD MPH MA, Hadar Aboody Nevo MD, Danna Meshoulam Avital MD, Miri Sklair-Levy MD, Eitan Friedman MD PhD, Tanir M. Allweis MD
Background: Population screening for the BRCA mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish women was recently implemented in Israel and is expected to lead to a 10-fold increase in the diagnosis of asymptomatic carriers. Performing the screening follow-up within multidisciplinary dedicated clinics for carriers is recommended for early detection and risk reduction.
Objectives: To determine the availability, capacity, and practices of dedicated screening clinic for BRCA carriers in Israel.
Methods: A telephone-based survey of all public hospitals in Israel was conducted October 2020 to August 2021 to determine whether they had a dedicated clinic. Dedicated clinics were defined as multidisciplinary screening clinics offering at least breast and gynecological screening and risk reducing services on site. The clinic director or nurse navigator answered a questionnaire about screening practices followed by a semi-structured interview.
Results: Of the ten dedicated BRCA clinics found in Israel, nine participated. Approximately 4500 BRCA carriers are currently being followed. No specialized clinics are available in the southern district or in the northernmost half of the northern district of Israel, leading to a disparity between periphery and center. Screening recommendations, although asserted as adhering to international guidelines, vary among clinics including age at initiating of clinical exam, use of adjunct imaging modalities, and follow-up during lactation and after risk reducing surgery.
Conclusions: There is a suboptimal distribution of dedicated clinics for BRCA carriers in Israel. Nationally centralized attempt to create guidelines that will unify screening practices is warranted, especially considering the expected increase in demand.
Alina Weissmann-Brenner MD, Vered Yulzari MD, Eran Kassif MD, Michal Zajicek MD
Background: Advances in examination techniques have improved routine assessment of non-gynecological structures in the pelvis.
Objectives: To describe the sonographic features of incidental urological abnormalities found during gynecological transvaginal ultrasound.
Methods: A retrospective descriptive analysis of patients who underwent gynecological ultrasound and were diagnosed with urologic findings was performed. The sonographic features of the findings including size, echogenicity, and vascularity were examined.
Results: Gynecological ultrasound diagnosed urological findings in nine women. Two had primary neoplasms of the urinary bladder, one had metastases to the urinary bladder, one had polyps in the distal ureters, four presented with calculus in the distal ureters (one of them was 19 weeks pregnant), and one showed diverticulum of the urethra. At presentation five women (56%) had urinary complaints. Two patients (22%) with abdominal pain with distal ureteral calculi had normal transabdominal ultrasound targeted to the urinary system prior to the gynecological sonography.
Conclusions: Transvaginal ultrasound is useful in the diagnosis of urological abnormalities, mainly in the urinary bladder and the distal ureters. We suggest adding transvaginal assessment for female patients with urinary complains in whom transabdominal ultrasound of urinary system was unremarkable.
Doron Carmi MD MHA, Ziona Haklai MA, Ethel-Sherry Gordon PhD, Ada Shteiman MSC, Uri Gabbay MD MPH
Background: Bacterial meningitis (BM) remains a considerable cause of morbidity.
Objectives: To evaluate BM incidence rate trends in diverse age groups.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on the Israeli national registry. Inclusion criteria were acute admissions 2000 to 2019 with primary diagnosis of BM. Predefined age groups were neonates (≤ 30 days), infants (31 days to 1 year), younger children (1 ≤ 5 years), older children (5 ≤ 18 years), and adults (≥ 18 years). Average annual incidence rates per 100,000/year were calculated for the entire period and by decade. Incidence rates for neonates and infants were calculated per 100,000 live births (LB).
Results: There were 3039 BM cases over 2 decades, 60% were adults. The overall BM incidence rate was 2.0/100,000/year, neonates, 5.4/100,000/year LB, infants 17.6/100,000/year LB. First year of life incidence rate (neonates and infants combined) was 23.0/100,000/year, younger children 1.5/100,000/year, older children 0.9/100,000/year, and adults 1.8/100,000/year. All age groups presented a decrease in incidence rate (last decade vs. previous) except neonates, which increased by 34%. Younger and older children presented the most considerable decrease: 48% and 37% (last decade vs. previous).
Conclusions: Adults showed the highest number of BM cases. The incidence rate was highest during the first year of life (neonates and infants combined). All age groups, except neonates, showed a decreasing trend. Younger and older children presented the most considerable decrease, most likely attributable to vaccination. The observed increase in BM incidence rate in neonates may influence whether preventive strategy is considered.
Matan Elkan MD, Yarden Zohar MD, Shani Zilberman-Itskovich MD, Ronit Zaidenstein MD, Ronit Koren MD
Background: Higher body mass index (BMI) has been shown to be a protective factor from mortality in sepsis patients. Yet, whether this effect is different in the very elderly is currently unknown.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between BMI and sepsis outcomes in patients older and younger than 80 years of age.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted with sepsis to Shamir Medical Center, Israel, was conducted. We compared patients older than and younger than 80 years of age with a BMI higher and lower than 25 kg/m² for hospitalization outcomes.
Results: Patients older than 80 years presented with multiple co-morbidities compared to younger patients, but with no difference between BMI groups. Similarly, hospitalization outcomes of functional deterioration, discharge to long-term care facilities, and readmission were not significantly different between BMI groups in the same age category. Mortality was significantly different between BMI groups in patients older than 80 years of age, with higher mortality in BMI < 25 kg/m²: in-hospital mortality (23.4% vs. 14.9%, P < 0.001), 30-day mortality (27.6% vs. 17.9%, P < 0.001), and 90-day mortality (43.4% vs. 28.9%, P < 0.001). This difference was not significant between the groups younger than 80 years old. On logistic regression, BMI over 25 kg/m² was protective in all mortality categories. Nevertheless, there was no significant interaction between age over 80 years to BMI over 25 kg/m² in all mortality outcomes.
Conclusions: Among patients hospitalized with sepsis, higher BMI is a protective factor against mortality in both elderly and younger patients.
Matityahou Ormianer MD, Benjamin Z. Koplewitz MD, Ron Eliashar MD, Menachem Gross MD, Jeffrey M. Weinberger MD, Nir Hirshoren MD
Background: Unilateral intratonsillar abscess (ITA) is an underreported, well-known complication of acute tonsillitis. The prevalence of unilateral ITA compared to peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is 1:14. However, bilateral ITA is an extremely rare entity, with only four cases reported thus far.
Objectives: To describe past cases and our experience, elaborating the diagnostic challenge and the surgical treatment for bilateral ITA.
Methods: We conducted a literature search in the PubMed database using the key words intra-tonsillar abscess, tonsillar abscess, bilateral tonsillar abscess, bilateral intra-tonsillar abscess and bilateral peritonsillar abscess. Our search was limited to the years 1980 to 2020.
Results: We found that only four cases of bilateral ITA were previously published. All were characterized by a delay in diagnosis with a median of 10 days (4–14 days), symmetrical oral cavity appearance, enlarged bilateral kissing tonsils, and subsequent treatment by surgical drainage/paracentesis. Respiratory compromise was a concern in most cases. Our patient was treated with bilateral quinsy tonsillectomy and had a prompt recovery.
Conclusions: Bilateral ITA is a rare, deceiving entity, with a diagnosis delay attributed to the symmetrical oral bulging. We present the fifth case reported and the first ever reported in a pediatric patient. We describe the assumed pathogenesis and the main characteristics among all five patients, emphasizing the important role of a high index of suspicion and appropriate imaging, guiding to proper diagnosis and treatment.
Muhamed Masalha MD, Lev Shlizerman MD, Salim Mazzawi MD, Ophir Handzel MD, Firas Kassem MD, Daniel Briscoe MD, Kfir Siag MD
Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media is a long-standing middle ear infection with a perforated tympanic membrane. Tympanoplasty is the mainstay of treatment. Most surgeons prefer to operate on dry ears; however, this may be difficult to achieve.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of otorrhea and positive cultures on the outcome of tympanoplasty.
Methods: This retrospective analysis reviewed patients with chronic suppurative otitis media who underwent tympanoplasty 2008–2015. Patients were divided into three groups: active discharge and bacterial growth, active discharge without bacterial growth, and no ear discharge. Surgical outcomes were compared among the groups.
Results: Among 101 patients included, 43 ears (42.6%) had discharge preoperatively, 58 (57.4%) were dry. Overall closure rate was 81.2% (82/101). Preoperative active discharge closure rate was 88.3% (38/43) and without discharge 75.9% (44/58). There were 38 positive cultures preoperatively and five negative cultures. Cultures were not obtained in 58 cases. Success rates were 89.5%, 80%, and 75.9%, respectively. No significant difference was found between patients who had positive or negative cultures before the procedure (P > 0.48) or among the three groups (P = 0.25). The most common bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=17), followed by Staphylococcus species (n=10). None was significantly associated with operative failure (P = 0.557). The postoperative air threshold difference was not affected by culture results (P = 0.3).
Conclusions: Tympanoplasty success rates and postoperative air threshold differences were not affected by the presence of preoperative otorrhea or positive ear cultures. Surgery can be performed even when the ear is not dry.
Maya Yakir MD, Adi Brom MD, Amitai Segev MD, Gad Segal MD
Background: The prognosis of long-term clinical outcomes for each patient is of utmost importance.
Objectives: To evaluate the association between rates of family attendance during rounds and long-term outcomes.
Methods: We conducted a historic cohort study.
Results: We followed 200 consecutive patients for a median of 19 months. Within the group of patients that had family members present in > 75% of rounds, the 30-day re-hospitalization rate was tenfold higher (P = 0.017). The overall prognosis (including median survival length) of patients who had the highest rates of family attendance (> 75%) was significantly worse compared to patients who had lower rates (P = 0.028). High rates of family attendance were found to correlate with other established risk factors for long-term mortality, including advanced age (r = 0.231, P = 0.001) and in-hospital delirium.
Conclusions: High family attendance during physician rounds in an internal medicine department is associated with worse patient prognosis.
Elad Leron MD, Anthony Riches MD, Menahem Neuman MD, Offer Erez MD, Jacob Bornstein MD
Background: Serasis® (Serag-Wiessner KG, Naila, Germany) is a light-weight mid-urethral sling for treating stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Its insertion is considered less traumatic than other mid-urethral slings.
Objectives: To define postoperative outcomes following Serasis implantation. To compare the efficacy and complication rates of the implant to those of other common techniques.
Methods: Our retrospective study evaluated patients who underwent Serasis mid-urethral sling surgery for SUI. Data were collected from medical records prior to and at the time of surgery and by telephonic interview for postoperative pain and complications. Follow-up of patients was performed for up to one year postoperatively. Patients rated pain or discomfort according to the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The primary outcome was the development of early postoperative pain during the first month after surgery. Secondary outcomes were relief of SUI symptoms, groin pain or discomfort, and other postoperative complications up to 12 months after surgery.
Results: The study cohort included 50 consecutive patients aged 31 to 68 years. All patients underwent Serasis implantation procedures by a single surgeon and completed interviews. In total, 35 patients underwent concomitant anterior colporrhaphy. In the immediate postoperative period and at one month after the procedure, complaints were mild. No complaints were recorded during the 12-month follow-up period. Overall, 90% and 92% of the patients were free of SUI symptoms at one month and 12 months after surgery, respectively.
Conclusions: Serasis mid-urethral sling is safe, effective, and associated with mild postoperative pain and a low incidence of complications.
Anis Kaldawy MD, Nadav Cohen MD, Wisam Assaf, Meirav Schmidt MD, Ofer Lavie MD, Yoram Abramov MD
Background: Diagnosing occult stress urinary incontinence (OSUI) prior to surgical intervention for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair may allow for adding an anti-incontinence procedure and thus prevent postoperative SUI.
Objectives: To compare preoperative detection rates for OSUI by either a multichannel urodynamic investigation or by a plain pelvic examination.
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical charts of all women who underwent urodynamic investigation prior to surgical repair of advanced POP at our institution between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2012.
Results: In total, 720 women underwent surgical POP repair during the study period, of whom 54 (7.5%) were diagnosed with OSUI preoperatively. Of these patients, 54 (100%) were detected by multichannel urodynamic investigation while only 27 (50%) were detected by a plain pelvic examination (P = 0.001). Bladder fullness during the pelvic examination was associated with higher detection rates for OSUI (P = 0.001). Women with OSUI who underwent concomitant tension-free vaginal tape and POP repair procedures did not develop de novo SUI or obstructive voiding symptoms (OVS) postoperatively.
Conclusions: Preoperative multichannel urodynamic investigation has significantly higher detection rates for OSUI than a plain pelvic examination. Utilizing this modality resulted in no cases of de novo SUI or OVS postoperatively.