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עמוד בית Thu, 20.06.19

March 2006


Original Articles
G. Muhamed, E. Greenbaum and Z. Zakay-Rones

Background: The evaluation of influenza vaccine activity and potency are based on the immune response to hemagglutinin, and protection is indicated when a ≥ 1:40 titer of hemagglutination inhibition serum antibody is present. Neuraminidase, the second surface glycoprotein, may also have a role in protection, but little information on the immunologic response to this component is available.

Objectives: To determine whether any response to neuraminidase is evoked by intranasal immunization with a novel, whole, inactivated anti-influenza vaccine.

Methods: This study was part of a more comprehensive study of mucosal and serum immune response to this vaccine. Fifty-four young adults were immunized intranasally, 9 intramuscularly and 18 received a placebo. Twenty-three elderly people were immunized intramuscularly, and 21 elderly and 17 children were immunized intranasally. Serum and nasal antibodies to antigens N1 and N2 were determined by the lectin neuraminidase test.

Results: Serum response following intranasal vaccination was lower than after intramuscular vaccination, and ranged from 21.4 to 35.3% and 33.3 to 64.7% following intranasal vaccination and 52.2 to 77.8% and 47.8 to 88.9% after intramuscular vaccination, to N1 and N2 respectively. Nasal antibody response was low and was found only after intranasal vaccination, and response to N2 was better than to the N1 antigen.

Conclusions: It may be beneficial if future vaccines would include competent hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, which would afford a higher level of protection.
 

H. Schayek, M. Krupsky, P. Yaron, A. Yellin, D.A. Simansky and E. Friedman

Background: The contribution of the abnormal DNA mismatch repair system to non-small cell lung cancer tumorigenesis is controversial and has not been reported in Jewish Israeli patients. Similarly, the involvement of 3p deletions in NSCLC[1] in the same population has not been assessed.

Objectives: To assess the contribution of the DNA-MMR[2] system to NSCLC pathogenesis by analyzing microsatellite instability, and evaluate loss of heterozygosity at 3p rates in Israeli NSCLC patients.

Methods: Paired DNA from tumorous and non-tumorous tissue was extracted, and genotyping for MSI[3] determination was carried out using the five Bethesda markers and for determining LOH[4] two 3p markers were used. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction amplification and size separation on an ABI semiautomatic DNA sequencer, and the allelic patterns of tumorous and non-tumorous tissue were compared.

Results: Forty-four NSCLCs from 35 smokers and 9 non-smokers were analyzed, with 26 of the 44 (59%) at stage I disease. Using five microsatellite markers (D17S250, D5S346, D2S123, BAT-25, BAT-26) (known as Bethesda markers) for MSI determination, 6 of the 44 tumors (13.6%) exhibited MSI in at least one marker. Similarly, genotyping for LOH at chromosome 3p was performed using two markers (D3S4103, D3S1234) located at 3p14.2 l. With D3S4103, 33 of the 44 patients successfully analyzed were homozygous and therefore non-informative with respect to LOH. Using D3S1234, 33 of 36 patients (91.7%) were heterozygous, and 23 of these individuals' tumors (69.7%) displayed LOH. Unexpectedly, 4 of 33 tumors (12.1%) genotyped by D3S4103, and 16 of 36 tumors (44.5%) genotyped by D3S1234 showed a pattern of MSI, even though only one of these tumors showed a similar pattern when genotyped with the five consensus markers. Overall, 23 of 44 tumors (52.3%) demonstrated MSI on at least one marker, and 5 of these 23 tumors (21.7%) had MSI on two or more markers.

Conclusions: MSI using 3p markers and not the Bethesda markers occurs at a high rate and in early stages in Jewish NSCLC patients.






[1] NSCLC = non-small cell lung cancer

[2] DNA-MMR = DNA mismatch repair

[3] MSI = microsatellite instability

[4] LOH = loss of heterozygosity


M.I. Besser. A.J. Treves. O. Itzhaki, I. Hardan, A. Nagler, M.Z. Papa, R. Catane, E. Winkler, B. Shalmon-Sifroni and J. Schachter

Background: Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive and highly malignant cancer. The 5 year survival rate of patients with metastatic disease is less than 5% with a median survival of only 6–10 months. Drugs like dacarbazin (DTIC) as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapy agents have a response rate of 15–30%, but the duration of response is usually short with no impact on survival. Interleukin-2-based immunotherapy has shown more promising results. The National Institutes of Health recently reported that lymphodepleting chemotherapy, followed by an adoptive transfer of large numbers of anti-tumor specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, resulted in an objective regression in 51% of patients.

Objectives: To introduce the TIL[1] technology to advanced metastatic melanoma patients in Israel.

Methods: We generated TIL cultures from tumor tissue, choosing those with specific activity against melanoma and expanding them to large numbers.

Results: TIL cultures from nine patients were established and examined for their specific activity against the patients' autologous tumor cells. Twelve TIL cultures derived from 5 different patients showed the desired anti-tumor activity, making those 5 patients potential candidates for the therapy.

Conclusions: Pre-clinical studies of the TIL technology in a clinical laboratory set-up were performed successfully and this modality is ready for treating metastatic melanoma patients at the Sheba Medical Center's Ella Institute.






[1] TIL = tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes 


G. Tal, K. Cesar, A. Oron, S. Houri, A. Ballin and A. Mandelberg

Background: We recently published preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of hypertonic saline in infants with viral bronchiolitis.

Objective: To further establish the efficacy of nebulized hypertonic saline in these infants

Methods: In a continuing, second-year randomized, double-blind controlled trial, an additional 41 infants (age 2.6 ± 1 months) hospitalized with viral bronchiolitis were recruited during the winter of 2001–2002. The infants received inhalation of 1.5 mg epinephrine dissolved either in 4 ml normal (0.9%) saline (Group I, n=20) or 4 ml hypertonic (3%) saline (Group II, n=22). The therapy was repeated three times daily until discharge. Pooling our 2 years of experience (2000–2002), a total of 93 hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis were recruited; 45 were assigned to Group I and 48 to Group II.

Results: The clinical scores at baseline were 7.6 ± 0.7 for Group I vs. 7.4 ± 1.3 for Group II (P = NS). However, the clinical scores at days 1 and 2 after inhalation differed significantly between the two groups, invariably favoring Group II: 7 ± 1 vs. 6.25 ± 1.1 (P < 0.05), 6.45 ± 1 vs. 5.35 ± 1.35 (P < 0.05), respectively. Adding aerosolized 3% saline to 1.5 mg epinephrine reduced the hospitalization stay from 3.5 ± 1.7 days in Group I to 2.6 ± 1.4 in Group II (P < 0.05). The pooled data of both years revealed that adding 3% saline to the inhalation mixture decreased hospitalization stay from 3.6 ± 1.6 to 2.8 ± 1.3 days (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: This second-year experience and our 2 year pooled data analysis strengthen the evidence that the combination of 3% saline/1.5 mg epinephrine benefits hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis

D. Bar-Zohar, B. Sagie, N. Lubezky, M. Blum, J. Klausner and S. Abu-Abeid

Background: Peritoneal dialysis is a widely accepted route for renal replacement. With the advent of endoscopy, many surgical techniques for the prevention of catheter failure have been proposed.

Objectives: To evaluate the outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic Tenckhoff catheter implantation, using the pelvic fixation technique.

Methods: Data analysis was retrospective. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. A double-cuffed catheter was inserted using two 5 mm trocars and one 10 mm trocar, fixing its internal tip to the dome of the bladder and its inner cuff to the fascia. Catheter failure was defined as persistent peritonitis/exit-site/tunnel infection, severe dialysate leak, migration or outflow obstruction.

Results: LTCI[1] was performed in 34 patients. Mean patient age was 65 ± 17 years. In 12 of the 34 patients the indication for LTCI was end-stage renal failure combined with NYHA class IV congestive heart failure. Operative time was 35 ± 15 minutes. A previous laparotomy was performed in 9 patients. Hospital stay was 1.5 ± 0.6 days. The first continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was performed after 20 ± 12 days. Median follow-up time was 13 months. There were several complications, including 5 (14%) exit-site/tunnel infections, 27 episodes (0.05 per patient-month) of bacterial peritonitis, 3 (9%) incisional hernias, 1 case of fatal intraabdominal bleeding, 2 (5.8%) catheter migrations (functionally significant), and 10 (30%) cases of catheter plugging, 8 of which were treated successfully by instillation of urokinase and 2 surgically. A complication-mandated surgery was performed in 8 patients (23.5%). The 1 year failure-free rate of the catheter was 80.8%. One fatal intraabdominal bleeding was recorded.
Conclusions: LTCI is safe, obviating the need for laparotomy in high risk patients. Catheter fixation to the bladder may prevent common mechanical failures







[1] LTCI = laparoscopic Tenckhoff catheter implantation


S. Glasser and W. Chen

Background: The suspicion of child abuse and neglect may arise from manifestations such as physical or psychosomatic symptoms, eating disorders, suicidal behavior, impaired parental functioning, etc. Thus the arrival of an abused or neglected child at the hospital provides an opportunity for detecting the problem and beginning a process of change. Optimal utilization of this potential depends on the awareness, diagnostic ability and cooperation of the staff.

Objectives: To assess knowledge about hospital policy, attitudes and actual behavior of hospital staff in cases of SCAN[1].

Methods: The questionnaire was adapted and distributed to a convenience sample of personnel at a children’s hospital. The questionnaire included items on knowledge of hospital policy regarding SCAN, attitudes towards inquiring about cases that appear suspicious, and behaviors in cases in which the respondent was involved. The comparison of responses to specific questions and among members of different professions was analyzed by chi-square test.

Results: Eighty-two staff members completed the questionnaires. Most of the respondents were aware of hospital policy regarding suspected abuse (86.6%), with fewer regarding suspected neglect (77.2%). Physicians were the least aware of these policies, as compared to medical students, nurses and social workers. Although most considered the issue of SCAN a responsibility of members of their own profession, 35.4% considered it primarily the responsibility of the welfare or judicial systems. Over 40% felt uncomfortable discussing suspicions with the child and nearly half felt uncomfortable discussing them with parents. The most often reported reason for this was the sense that they lacked skills or training for dealing with the issue. Despite this, when asked about actual behavior, 94.7% responded that they do try to clarify the circumstances related to the suspicious symptoms. Respondents were more likely to contact the hospital social worker than community resources (91.5% vs. 47.2%).

Conclusions: The findings highlight the need to encourage awareness, discourse and training of medical personnel about issues related to SCAN in order to maximize their potential contribution to identifying children at risk.






[1] SCAN = suspicion of child abuse and neglect


E. Bar-Meir, D. Mendes and E. Winkler

Background: The suspicion of child abuse and neglect may arise from manifestations such as physical or psychosomatic symptoms, eating disorders, suicidal behavior, impaired parental functioning, etc. Thus the arrival of an abused or neglected child at the hospital provides an opportunity for detecting the problem and beginning a process of change. Optimal utilization of this potential depends on the awareness, diagnostic ability and cooperation of the staff.

Objectives: To assess knowledge about hospital policy, attitudes and actual behavior of hospital staff in cases of SCAN[1].

Methods: The questionnaire was adapted and distributed to a convenience sample of personnel at a children’s hospital. The questionnaire included items on knowledge of hospital policy regarding SCAN, attitudes towards inquiring about cases that appear suspicious, and behaviors in cases in which the respondent was involved. The comparison of responses to specific questions and among members of different professions was analyzed by chi-square test.

Results: Eighty-two staff members completed the questionnaires. Most of the respondents were aware of hospital policy regarding suspected abuse (86.6%), with fewer regarding suspected neglect (77.2%). Physicians were the least aware of these policies, as compared to medical students, nurses and social workers. Although most considered the issue of SCAN a responsibility of members of their own profession, 35.4% considered it primarily the responsibility of the welfare or judicial systems. Over 40% felt uncomfortable discussing suspicions with the child and nearly half felt uncomfortable discussing them with parents. The most often reported reason for this was the sense that they lacked skills or training for dealing with the issue. Despite this, when asked about actual behavior, 94.7% responded that they do try to clarify the circumstances related to the suspicious symptoms. Respondents were more likely to contact the hospital social worker than community resources (91.5% vs. 47.2%).

Conclusions: The findings highlight the need to encourage awareness, discourse and training of medical personnel about issues related to SCAN in order to maximize their potential contribution to identifying children at risk.






[1] SCAN = suspicion of child abuse and neglect


Reviews
E. Bar-Meir, D. Mendes and E. Winkler

The role of skin substitutes in burn surgery and in the treatment of chronic wounds is constantly evolving. New products are regularly being developed and approved for clinical use. Studies on existing products demonstrate their effectiveness in different clinical scenarios. However, cost-related concerns, inadequate physician education, and the drawbacks that still accompany every skin substitute have resulted in limited application of these modalities. Today, burn surgeons still rely mostly on old-fashioned skin grafts. Only a few burn centers in the world actually use some of these products in their routine treatment of wounds. This review provides an up-to-date overview of the latest developments in the field of skin substitutes. We examine the major commercially available skin substitute products and their performance, and briefly review the technologies and products that are under development but have not yet become widely available.

T. Silberstein, O. Saphier, B.J. van Voorhis and S.M. Plosker

Endometrial polyps are a frequent finding in infertile patients. Little is known about the true prevalence of polyps in infertile patients. It is unproved whether polyps are causative of infertility, or whether surgical polypectomy by hysteroscopy improves the likelihood of successful conception. This article reviews endometrial polyps in reproductive-age fertile and infertile women.

Stem Cell Research
O. Caspi and L. Gepstein

The adult human heart has limited regenerative capacity and, therefore, functional restoration of the damaged heart presents a great challenge. Despite the progress achieved in the pharmacological and surgical treatment of degenerative myocardial diseases, they are still considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Repopulation of the damaged heart with cardiomyocytes represents a novel conceptual therapeutic paradigm but is hampered by the lack of sources for human cardiomyocytes. The recent derivation of pluripotent human embryonic stem cell lines may provide a solution for this cell sourcing problem. This review will focus on the derivation of the hESC[1] lines, their mechanism of self-renewal, and their differentiation to cardiomyocytes. The possible signals and cues involved in the commitment and early differentiation of cardiomyocytes in this model will be discussed as well as the molecular, structural and electrophysiologic characteristics of the generated hESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Finally, the hurdles and challenges toward fully harnessing the potential clinical applications of these unique cells will be described.

 






[1] hESC = human embryonic stem cells


הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303